Vercingetorix (pronounced [werkiŋˈɡetoriks] in Latin), died 46 BC, was chieftain of the Arverni, originating from the Arvernian city of Gergovia and known as the man who led the Gauls in their ultimately unsuccessful war against Roman rule under Julius Caesar. Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi ( August 2, 1834 – October 4, 1904) was a French sculptor. Clermont-Ferrand ( Auvergnat dialect of Occitan: Clarmont-Ferrand / Clarmont d'Auvèrnhe) is a city and commune of France Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Year 46 BC was the last year of the pre-Julian calendar. This year had 445 days due to the errors that had accumulated in the pre-Julian calendar A traditional tribal chief is the leader of a Tribe, or the head of a tribal form of self-government The Arverni were a Gallic tribe that inhabited the present-day region of Clermont-Ferrand, France. The Battle of Gergovia took place in 52 BC in Gaul at Gergovia the chief town of the Arverni. Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Known primarily through Caesar's accounts, Vercingetorix's revolt is frequently used as a heroic example of Gallic virtue and resolve. Commentarii de Bello Gallico is Julius Caesar 's third-person account of his nine years of war in Gaul.
Having been appointed governor of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis (modern Provence) in 58 BC, Julius Caesar proceeded to conquer the Gallic tribes beyond over the next few years, maintaining control through a careful divide and rule strategy. A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the Gallia Narbonensis ( Narbonese Gaul) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm is a region of southeastern France A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally consists of a Social group existing before the development of or outside of States Many anthropologists use In Politics and Sociology, divide and rule (derived from Latin divide et impera) (also known as divide and conquer) is a combination He made use of the factionalism among the Gallic elites, favouring certain noblemen over others with political support and Roman luxuries such as wine. WikipediaManual of Style#National varieties of English.-->A political faction Elite (also spelled Élite) is taken originally from the Latin, eligere, "to elect" Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice Attempts at revolt, such as that of Ambiorix in 54 BC, had secured only local support, but Vercingetorix, whose father, Celtillus, had been put to death by his own countrymen for seeking to rule all of Gaul, managed to unify the Gallic tribes against the Romans and adopted more modern styles of warfare. Ambiorix was together with Catuvolcus, prince of the Eburones, leader of a Belgic tribe of north-eastern Gaul ( Gallia Belgica) where
The revolt that Vercingetorix came to lead began in early 52 BC while Caesar was raising troops in Cisalpine Gaul. Cisalpine Gaul ( Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, meaning " Gaul on this side of the Alps " was the Roman name for a geographical area (later Believing that Caesar would be distracted by the turmoil in Rome following the death of Clodius, the Carnutes, under Cotuatus and Conetodunus, made the first move, slaughtering the Romans who had settled in their territory. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Publius Clodius Pulcher (born around 92 BC died January 18, 52 BC was a Roman Politician of the Populares cause chiefly remembered for his The Carnutes ( Latin Carnuti) a powerful Celtic people in the heart of independent Gaul, dwelled in a particularly extensive territory between
Vercingetorix, a young nobleman of the Arvernian city of Gergovia, roused his dependents to join the revolt, but he and his followers were expelled by the nobles of the city, including Vercingetorix's uncle Gobanitio, because they thought opposing Caesar too great a risk. The Battle of Gergovia took place in 52 BC in Gaul at Gergovia the chief town of the Arverni. Undeterred, Vercingetorix raised an army of the poor, took Gergovia and was hailed as king.  He made alliances with other tribes, and having been unanimously given supreme command of their armies, imposed his authority through harsh discipline and the taking of hostages. He adopted the policy of retreating to natural fortifications, and undertook an early example of a scorched earth strategy by burning towns to prevent the Roman legions from living off the land. Fortifications are Military Constructions and Buildings designed for defense in Warfare Humans have constructed defensive works for A scorched earth policy is a military strategy or operational method (possibly more often referred to as a tactic but this is not entirely correct as there is a difference between For other uses see Legion The Roman Legion (from Latin legio "military levy Conscription,"
Vercingetorix and his army won some initial minor engagements with the Romans units led by Caesar and his chief lieutenant Titus Labienus. Titus Labienus (ca 100 BC– March 17, 45 BC was a professional Roman soldier in the late Roman Republic. However, the Romans captured the tribal capital at Avaricum (Bourges), killing the entire population of 120,000. Bourges is a commune in central France on the Yèvre river It is the capital of the department of Cher and also was the capital The next major battle was at Gergovia, where Vercingetorix defeated Caesar, inflicting heavy losses. However, the victory cost Vercingetorix many men, including many noblemen. Due to these losses he retreated and moved to another stronghold, Alesia. Alesia was the capital of the Mandubii, one of the Gaulish tribes allied with the mighty Aedui, and after Julius Caesar 's conquest a Roman town
In the Battle of Alesia Caesar built a fortification around the city to besiege it. The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia took place in September 52 BC around the Gallic Oppidum of Alesia, a major town centre and Fortifications are Military Constructions and Buildings designed for defense in Warfare Humans have constructed defensive works for However, Caesar's army was surrounded by the rest of Gaul, and Vercingetorix had summoned his Gallic allies to attack the besieging Romans, so Caesar built another outer fortification against the expected relief armies (resulting in a doughnut-shaped fortification). The relief came in insufficient numbers: estimates range from 80,000 to 250,000 soldiers. Vercingetorix, the tactical leader, was cut off from them on the inside, and without his guidance the attacks were initially unsuccessful. However, the attacks did reveal a weak point in the fortifications and the combined forces on the inside and the outside almost made a breakthrough. Only when Caesar personally led the last reserves into battle did he finally manage to prevail. This was a decisive battle in the creation of the Roman empire. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
According to legend Vercingetorix surrendered in magnificent fashion, allegedly riding his horse out of Alesia and around Caesar's camp before throwing his arms at Caesar's feet, stripping himself of his armor and kneeling to Caesar with a flourish.  Caesar provides a first-hand contradiction of this account, describing Vercingetorix's surrender much more modestly.  He was imprisoned in the Tullianum in Rome for five years, before being publicly displayed in Caesar's triumph in 46 BC. The Mamertine Prison (also referred to as the Tullianum) was a prison ( carcer) located in the Forum Romanum in Ancient Rome. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 A Roman triumph ( la [[wikttriumphus triumphus]], Old Latin la triumpus, attested as the exclamation la TRIVMPE in the Carmen Arvale; via Year 46 BC was the last year of the pre-Julian calendar. This year had 445 days due to the errors that had accumulated in the pre-Julian calendar He was executed after the triumph, probably by strangulation in his prison, as ancient custom would have it. 
The etymology of the name Vercingetorix is conjectural. In Mathematics, a conjecture is a Mathematical statement which appears resourceful but has not been formally proven to be true under the rules of
It can be analysed as Gaulish ver- ("over, superior" - an etymological cognate of Latin super or Greek hyper), cingeto- ("warrior", related to roots meaning "tread, step, walk", so possibly "infantry"), rix ("king"). Gaulish or Gallic is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became 
Alternately, the name can be translated as "leader of the high council", with Gaulish ver and rix as above, but combined with "cyngat" (compare to Welsh "harmony", and here meaning an entity that makes decisions by consensus or harmony, rather than by fiat).
Both translations are consistent with modern understanding of Gaulish custom and language, and with the Gaulish reaction to overwhelming Roman military power. A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking However, absent additional information, neither translation should be considered authoritative.
Napoleon III erected a seven metre statue of Vercingetorix in 1865 , created by the sculptor Aimé Millet, on the supposed site of Alesia. Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Aimé Millet (September 28 1819 - January 14 1891 was a noted French sculptor who was born and died in Paris. The architect for the memorial was Viollet-le-Duc. Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc ( January 27 1814 &ndash September 17, 1879) was a French Architect and theorist famous for his "restorations"  The impressive statue still stands. The inscription on the base, written by Viollet-le-Duc, reads (in French):
Which translates to:
There is a statue of Vercingetorix by Bartholdi on Place de Jaude in Clermont-Ferrand (see first image). Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi ( August 2, 1834 – October 4, 1904) was a French sculptor. Clermont-Ferrand ( Auvergnat dialect of Occitan: Clarmont-Ferrand / Clarmont d'Auvèrnhe) is a city and commune of France
In France, Vercingetorix is often considered a folk hero.