|Comune di Venezia|
Municipal coat of arms
|Mayor||Massimo Cacciari (since April 18, 2005)|
|Elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|Area||412 km² (159 sq mi)|
|Population (as of January 1, 2004)|
|- Density||658/km² (1,704/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET, UTC+1|
|Frazioni||Chirignago, Favaro Veneto, Mestre, Marghera, Murano, Burano, Giudecca, Lido, Zelarino|
|Patron||St. Mark the Evangelist|
|- Day||April 25|
|Venice and its Lagoon*|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Criteria||i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi|
|Region†||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||1987 (11th Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.|
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,251 (census estimate January 1, 2004). Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Veneto or Venetia ( Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy. In Italy, a Province (in Italian provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between Municipality ( Comune The Province of Venice ( Provincia di Venezia) is a province in the Veneto region of northern Italy. Massimo Cacciari ( June 5, 1944) is an Italian philosopher and politician currently mayor of Venice, Italy Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Central European Time ( CET) is one of the names of the Time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. UTC+1 is used in the following locations Central European Time West Africa Time Western European Summer Time A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place Here are a list of area codes in Italy. All numbers here begin with the country code (0039 A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a Comune; for other Administrative Mestre' is a town in Veneto, northern Italy, a Frazione of the Comune of Venice. Marghera (also known as Venezia Marghera) is a Frazione of the Comune of Venice, Italy. Murano is usually described as an Island in the Venetian Lagoon, although like Venice itself it is actually an Archipelago of islands linked Burano is an Island in the Venetian Lagoon, although like Venice itself it could more correctly be called an Archipelago of islands linked by Giudecca is an Island in the Venetian Lagoon. It is part of the sestiere of Dorsoduro. Venice 's Lido is an 11-mile (18 km long sandbar, home to about 20000 residents greatly augmented by the (mainly Italian tourists who move in every summer "Saint Mark" redirects here For other uses see Saint Mark (disambiguation. Events 1607 - Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex As of 2008 there are a total of 878 World Heritage Sites located in 145 "State Parties" Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. Asia Minor, Cyprus, all of the Aegean Islands, the Canaries A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over two million people mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. Related categories Central Italy Southern Italy Insular Italy Northeast Italy Veneto or Venetia ( Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Together with Padua, the city is included in the Padua-Venice Metropolitan Area (population 1,600,000). Padua ( Padova 'padova Latin: Patavium, Padoa) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy. Venice has been known as the "La Dominante", "Serenissima", "Queen of the Adriatic", "City of Water", "City of Bridges", and "The City of Light". It is considered by many to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world.
The city stretches across 118 small islands in the marshy Venetian Lagoon along the Adriatic Sea in northeast Italy. The Venetian Lagoon is the enclosed bay of the Adriatic Sea in which the city of Venice is situated Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The saltwater lagoon stretches along the shoreline between the mouths of the Po (south) and the Piave (north) Rivers. The Po ( Latin: Padus, Po Ligurian: Bo, Greek: Eridanus) is a river that flows 652 km(405 miles (682 km by considering Piave (from Latin Plavis) is a River in north Italy. It begins in the Alps and flows southeast for 220 km (135 miles into the Adriatic The population estimate of 272,000 inhabitants includes the population of the whole Comune of Venezia; around 62,000 in the historic city of Venice (Centro storico); 176,000 in Terraferma (the Mainland), mostly in the large frazione of Mestre and Marghera; and 31,000 live on other islands in the lagoon. In Italy, the comune, (plural comuni) is the basic Administrative division of both provinces and regions and may be properly approximated in A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a Comune; for other Administrative Mestre' is a town in Veneto, northern Italy, a Frazione of the Comune of Venice. Marghera (also known as Venezia Marghera) is a Frazione of the Comune of Venice, Italy.
The Venetian Republic was a major maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as a very important center of commerce (especially silk, grain and spice trade) and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century. The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere A staging area is a location where organisms people vehicles equipment or material are assembled prior to their use The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons Spice trade is a commercial activity of ancient origin which involves the merchandising of Spices and Herbs. Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual
While there are no historical records that deal directly with the origins of Venice, the available evidence has led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice comprised refugees from Roman cities such as Padua, Aquileia, Altino and Concordia (modern Portogruaro) who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic invasions. The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica Padua ( Padova 'padova Latin: Patavium, Padoa) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy. Aquileia (also called Aquilegia, Friulian Acuilee/Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman city in what is Portogruaro is a town in the Province of Venice, Veneto, Italy. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic 
Starting in 166-168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the main center in the area, the current Oderzo. Quadi were a smaller Germanic tribe, about which little definitive information is known Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Buri, Suebi or Suevi Oderzo (Opitergium is a town in the Province of Treviso, Veneto, Italy. The Roman defenses were again overthrown in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years later, by the Huns led by Attila. The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy The last and most enduring inruption was that of the Lombards in 568. The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from This left the Eastern Roman Empire a small strip of coast in current Veneto, and the main administrative and religious entities, were therefore transferred to this remaining dominion. New ports were built, including those at Malamocco and Torcello in the Venetian lagoon.
The Byzantine domination of central and northern Italy was subsequently largely eliminated by the conquest of the Exarchate of Ravenna in 751 by Aistulf. The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy was a centre of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751, when the During this period, the seat of the local Byzantine governor (the "duke/doux", later "doge") was situated in Malamocco. The Doge ( Venetian language, also Doxe, derived from Latin Dux military leader duke cf Settlement across the islands in the lagoon probably increased in correspondence with the Lombard conquest of the Byzantine territories.
In 775-776, the bishopric seat of Olivolo (Helipolis) was created. During the reign of duke Agnello Particiaco (811-827) the ducal seat was moved from Malamocco to the highly protected Rialto (Rivoalto, "High Shore") island, the current location of Venice. Agnello Participazio ( Angelo Particiaco, Latin Agnellus Particiacus was the tenth (traditional or eighth (historical Doge of Venice from 811 to 827 The monastery of St. Zachary and the first ducal palace and basilica of St. Mark, as well as a walled defense (civitatis murus) between Olivolo and Rialto were subsequently built here.
In 828, the new city's prestige was raised by the liberation of the relics of St. Mark the Evangelist from Alexandria, which were placed in the new basilica. "Saint Mark" redirects here For other uses see Saint Mark (disambiguation. The patriarchal seat was also moved to Rialto. As the community continued to develop and as Byzantine power waned, it led to the growth of autonomy and eventual independence.
From the ninth to the twelfth century Venice developed into a city state (an Italian thalassocracy or Repubblica Marinara, the other three being Genoa, Pisa, and Amalfi). The Triumphal Quadriga or Horses of Saint Mark is a set of Roman or Greek Bronze statues of four Horses originally A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. The term thalassocracy (from the θάλασσα meaning sea and κρατείν meaning "to rule" giving θαλασσοκρατία "rule of the sea" The it '''Repubbliche Marinare''' ( Italian for " Maritime Republics " is the collective name of a number of important City-states which flourished in Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English Pisa is a city in Tuscany, central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the Arno River on the Ligurian Sea. Amalfi is also a town in the Antioquia Departament in Colombia. Its strategic position at the head of the Adriatic made Venetian naval and commercial power almost invulnerable. The city became a flourishing trade center between Western Europe and the rest of the world (especially the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic world). The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings
In the 12th century the foundations of Venice's power were laid: the Venetian Arsenal was under construction in 1104; Venice wrested control of the Brenner Pass from Verona in 1178, opening a lifeline to silver from Germany; the last autocratic doge, Vitale Michiele, died in 1172. The Venetian Arsenal (Arsenale di Venezia is a Shipyard and naval depot that played a leading role in Venetian empire-building Brenner Pass ( Italian: Passo del Brennero; German: Brennerpass; Latin: Brennus Mons) is a Mountain pass through Verona is a city and provincial capital in Veneto, Northern Italy. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
The Republic of Venice seized a number of locations on the eastern shores of the Adriatic before 1200, mostly for commercial reasons, because pirates based there were a menace to trade. The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering The Doge already carried the titles of Duke of Dalmatia and Duke of Istria. Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern This article is about a geographical region bordering the Adriatic Sea Later mainland possessions, which extended across Lake Garda as far west as the Adda River, were known as the "Terraferma", and were acquired partly as a buffer against belligerent neighbours, partly to guarantee Alpine trade routes, and partly to ensure the supply of mainland wheat, on which the city depended. Lake Garda ( Italian Lago di Garda or Benaco) is the largest Lake in Italy. The Adda (Latin Abdua, or Addua) is a river in North Italy, a tributary of the Po. Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. In building its maritime commercial empire, the Republic acquired control of most of the islands in the Aegean, including Cyprus and Crete, and became a major power-broker in the Near East. Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Crete ( Greek: Κρήτη transliteration: Krētē, modern transliteration Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the B Syria - Belka Woman from Damascus Arab from Baghdadjpg|thumb|Inhabitants of the Near East late nineteenth century By the standards of the time, Venice's stewardship of its mainland territories was relatively enlightened and the citizens of such towns as Bergamo, Brescia and Verona rallied to the defence of Venetian sovereignty when it was threatened by invaders. Bergamo ( Bèrghem in Lombard, antiquated Wälsch-Bergen in German) is a town in Lombardy, Italy, about Brescia ( Lombard: Brèsa) is a city in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy. Verona is a city and provincial capital in Veneto, Northern Italy.
Venice became an imperial power following the Fourth Crusade, which seized Constantinople in 1204 and established the Latin Empire; Venice herself carved out a sphere of influence known as the Duchy of the Archipelago. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS The Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople (original Latin name Imperium Romaniae, " Empire of Romania " is the The Duchy of the Archipelago (Ducato dell'arcipelago Δουκάτον Αρχιπελάγους) or also Duchy of Naxos (Ducato di Nasso Δουκάτον Νάξου This seizure of Constantinople would ultimately prove as decisive a factor in ending the Byzantine Empire as the loss of the Anatolian themes after Manzikert. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt, was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuq forces led by Alp Arslan on August 26 1071 near Manzikert Though the Byzantines recovered control of the ravaged city a half century later, the Byzantine Empire was greatly weakened, and existed as a ghost of its old self, struggling on with the help, among other things, of loans from Venice (never repaid) until Sultan Mehmet The Conqueror took the city in 1453. Considerable Byzantine plunder was brought back to Venice, including the [[Mark the gilt bronze horses which were placed above the entrance to St Mark's cathedral.
Situated on the Adriatic Sea, Venice traded with the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim world extensively. San Giorgio Maggiore is one of the islands of Venice, lying east of the Giudecca and south of the main island group St Mark's Campanile is the Bell tower of St Mark's Basilica in Venice, Italy, located in the square (piazza of the same name By the late thirteenth century, Venice was the most prosperous city in all of Europe. At the peak of its power and wealth, it had 36,000 sailors operating 3,300 ships, dominating Mediterranean commerce. During this time, Venice's leading families vied with each other to build the grandest palaces and support the work of the greatest and most talented artists. The city was governed by the Great Council, which was made up of members of the most influential families in Venice. The Great Council appointed all public officials and elected a Senate of 200 to 300 individuals. The Senate then chose the Council of Ten, a secretive group which held the utmost power in the administration of the city. One member of the great council was elected "doge", or duke, the ceremonial head of the city, who held the title until his death.
The Venetian governmental structure was similar in some ways to the republican system of ancient Rome, with an elected executive power (the Doge), a senate-like assembly of nobles, and a mass of citizens with limited political power, who originally had the power to grant or withhold their approval of each newly elected Doge. Church and various private properties were tied to military service, though there was no knight tenure within the city itself. The Cavalieri di San Marco was the only order of chivalry ever instituted in Venice, and no citizen could accept or join a foreign order without the government's consent. Chivalric order Chivalry is a term related to the Medieval institution of Knighthood. Venice remained a republic throughout its independent period and politics and the military were kept completely separate, except when on occasion the Doge personally led the military. War was regarded as a continuation of commerce by other means (hence, the city's early production of large numbers of mercenaries for service elsewhere, and later its reliance on foreign mercenaries when the ruling class was preoccupied with commerce).
The chief executive was the Doge (duke), who, theoretically, held his elective office for life. The Doge ( Venetian language, also Doxe, derived from Latin Dux military leader duke cf In practice, a number of Doges were forced by pressure from their oligarchical peers to resign the office and retire into monastic seclusion when they were felt to have been discredited by perceived political failure. Oligarchy' ( Greek, Oligarkhía) is a Form of government where Political power effectively rests with a small elite segment This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism.
Though the people of Venice generally remained orthodox Roman Catholics, the state of Venice was notable for its freedom from religious fanaticism and it enacted not a single execution for religious heresy during the Counter-Reformation. The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the This apparent lack of zeal contributed to Venice's frequent conflicts with the Papacy. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Venice was threatened with the interdict on a number of occasions and twice suffered its imposition. In the Roman Catholic Church, the word interdict (in’tér-dikt usually refers to an Ecclesiastical penalty The second, most famous, occasion was on April 27, 1509, by order of Pope Julius II (see League of Cambrai). Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated Pope Julius II (5 December 1443 &ndash 21 February 1513 born Giuliano Della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513 The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League and by several other names was a major conflict in the Italian Wars.
Venetian ambassadors sent home still-extant secret reports of the politics and rumours of European courts, providing fascinating information to modern historians.
Venice’s long decline started in the fifteenth century, when she first made an unsuccessful attempt to maintain Thessalonica against the Ottomans (1423-1430). She also sent ships to help defend Byzantine Constantinople against the besieging Turks (1453). After the city fell to Sultan Mehmet II he declared war on Venice. It lasted thirty years and cost Venice much of her eastern Mediterranean possessions. Next, Spain discovered the New World. Then Portugal found a sea route to India, destroying Venice’s land route monopoly. France, England and Holland followed them. Venice’s oared galleys could not traverse the great oceans. She was left behind in the race for colonies.
In 1630, the plague killed a third of Venice's 150,000 citizens. The Black Death, or the Black Plague, was one of the deadliest Pandemics in human history widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia  Venice began to lose its position as a center of international trade during the later part of the Renaissance as Portugal became Europe's principal intermediary in the trade with the East, striking at the very foundation of Venice's great wealth, while France and Spain fought for hegemony over Italy in the Italian Wars, marginalising her political influence. The history of international trade chronicles notable events that have affected the Trade between various countries The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Hegemony (hɨˈdʒɛməni (Amer /hɨˈɡɛməni/ (Brit (ἡγεμονία hēgemonía) is a concept that has been used to describe and explain the dominance of one social However, the Venetian empire was a major exporter of agricultural products and, until the mid-18th century, a significant manufacturing center. Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, "making by hand" is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale
By 1303, crossbow practice had become compulsory in the city, with citizens training in groups. As weapons became more expensive and complex to operate, professional soldiers were assigned to help work merchant sailing ships and as rowers in galleys. The company of "Noble Bowmen" was recruited in the later 14th century from among the younger aristocracy and served aboard both war-galleys and as armed merchantmen, with the privilege of sharing the captain's cabin. Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations
Though Venice was famous for its navy, its army was equally effective. An army (from Latin Armata "act of arming" via Old French armée) in the broadest sense is the land-based Armed forces In the 13th century, most Italian city states already were hiring mercenaries, but Venetian troops were still recruited from the lagoon, plus feudal levies from Dalmatia and Istria. A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national or a party to the conflict and is "motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by In times of emergency, all males between seventeen and sixty years were registered and their weapons were surveyed, with those called to actually fight being organized into companies of twelve. The register of 1338 estimated that 30,000 Venetian men were capable of bearing arms; many of these were skilled crossbowmen. As in other Italian cities, aristocrats and other wealthy men were cavalrymen while the city's conscripts fought as infantry. The Cavalry (from French cavalerie) is the second oldest of the Combat Arms, and as Soldiers or Warriors who fought mounted on The Infantry is the oldest and most numerous of the Combat Arms in the Armed forces, and consists
By 1450, more than 3,000 Venetian merchant ships were in operation, and most of these could be converted when necessary into either warships or transports. The government required each merchant ship to carry a specified number of weapons (mostly crossbows and javelins) and armour; merchant passengers were also expected to be armed and to fight when necessary. A crossbow is a Weapon consisting of a bow mounted on a stock that shoots projectiles often called bolts The pilum (plural pila) was a heavy javelin commonly used by the Roman army in ancient times Armour (or armor) is protective covering most commonly manufactured from metals to prevent damage from being inflicted to an individual or a vehicle through use of direct contact A reserve of some 25 (later 100) war-galleys was maintained in the Arsenal. A galley (from Greek γαλέα - galea is an ancient Ship which can be propelled entirely by human oarsmen, used for Warfare The Venetian Arsenal (Arsenale di Venezia is a Shipyard and naval depot that played a leading role in Venetian empire-building Galley slaves did not exist in medieval Venice, the oarsmen coming from the city itself or from its possessions, especially Dalmatia. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another Those from the city were chosen by lot from each parish, their families being supported by the remainder of the parish while the rowers were away. Debtors generally worked off their obligations rowing the galleys. Debt is that which is owed usually referencing Assets owed but the term can cover other obligations Rowing skills were encouraged through races and regattas. A regatta is a term used to describe either a Boat race or series of boat races
Early in the 15th century, as new mainland territories were expanded, the first standing army was organized, consisting of condottieri on contract. Condottieri (singular condottiero, rarely condottiero) were Mercenary leaders employed by the Italian City-states from the Late Middle In its alliance with Florence in 1426, Venice agreed to supply 8,000 cavalry and 3,000 infantry in time of war, and 3,000 and 1,000 in peacetime. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Later in that century, uniforms were adopted that featured red-and-white stripes, and a system of honors and pensions developed. Throughout the 15th century, Venetian land forces were almost always on the offensive and were regarded as the most effective in Italy, largely because of the tradition of all classes carrying arms in defense of the city and official encouragement of general military training.
The command structure in the army was different from that in the fleet. By ancient law, no nobleman could command more than twenty-five men (to prevent against sedition by private armies), and while the position of Captain General was introduced in the mid-14th century, he still had to answer to a civilian panel of twenty Savi or "wise men". This is about the law term For other uses see Sedition (disambiguation Sedition is a term of Law which refers to covert conduct Not only was efficiency not degraded, this policy saved Venice from the military takeovers that other Italian city states so often experienced. A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. A civilian commissioner (not unlike a commissar) accompanied each army to keep an eye on things, especially the mercenaries. Commissar is the English transliteration of an official title (комисса́р used in Russia after the Bolshevik revolution and in the Soviet Union The Venetian military tradition also was notably cautious; they were more interested in achieving success with a minimum expense of lives and money than in the pursuit of glory.
After 1070 years, the Republic lost its independence when Napoleon Bonaparte on May 12, 1797, conquered Venice during the First Coalition. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Events 1191 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. Year 1797 ( MDCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The First Coalition ( 1792 – 1797) was the first major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. The French conqueror brought to an end the most fascinating century of its history: It was during the Settecento (1700s) that Venice became perhaps the most elegant and refined city in Europe, greatly influencing art, architecture, and literature. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Settecento is the Italian word for seven hundred, and is the standard Italian term for the 18th century (not the 17th century but the years beginning with 17 Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Napoleon was seen as something of a liberator by the city's Jewish population, although it can be argued they had lived with fewer restrictions in Venice. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ He removed the gates of the Ghetto and ended the restrictions on when and where Jews could live and travel in the city. The Venetian Ghetto was the area of Venice in which Jewish people were compelled to live under the Venetian
Venice became Austrian territory when Napoleon signed the Treaty of Campo Formio on October 12, 1797. The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on October 17, 1797 (26 Vendémiaire Year VI of the French Republic by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Ludwig Events 539 BC - The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon. Year 1797 ( MDCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Austrians took control of the city on January 18, 1798. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor Year 1798 ( MDCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a It was taken from Austria by the Treaty of Pressburg in 1805 and became part of Napoleon's Kingdom of Italy, but was returned to Austria following Napoleon's defeat in 1814, when it became part of the Austrian-held Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia. The Peace of Pressburg refers to four peace treaties concluded in Pressburg (today Bratislava, Slovakia) The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia, but also Regno Italico; 17 March 1805 – 11 April The Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia (Regno Lombardo-Veneto Lombardo-Venezianisches Königreich was a kingdom in northern Italy, and part of the Austrian Empire. In 1848-1849 a revolt briefly reestablished the Venetian Republic under Daniele Manin. Daniele Manin ( May 13, 1804 - September 22, 1857) was an Venetian patriot and Statesman. In 1866, following the Seven Weeks War, Venice, along with the rest of Venetia, became part of Italy. The Austro-Prussian
After 1797, the city fell into a serious decline, with many of the old palaces and other buildings abandoned and falling into disrepair, although the Lido became a popular beach resort in the late 19th century. Venice 's Lido is an 11-mile (18 km long sandbar, home to about 20000 residents greatly augmented by the (mainly Italian tourists who move in every summer
|Weather averages for Venice|
|Average high °C (°F)||6 (43)||8 (46)||12 (54)||16 (61)||21 (70)||24 (75)||27 (81)||27 (81)||23 (73)||18 (64)||11 (52)||7 (45)|
|Average low °C (°F)||-1 (30)||1 (34)||3 (37)||8 (46)||12 (54)||16 (61)||18 (64)||17 (63)||14 (57)||9 (48)||4 (39)||0 (32)|
|Precipitation mm (inches)||58 (2. In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric 3)||53 (2. 1)||58 (2. 3)||63 (2. 5)||68 (2. 7)||76 (3)||63 (2. 5)||83 (3. 3)||66 (2. 6)||68 (2. 7)||86 (3. 4)||53 (2. 1)|
|Source: Weather. com 2008|
Venice is world-famous for its canals. The Bridge of Sighs (Italian Ponte dei Sospiri) is one of many Bridges in Venice. The Bridge of Sighs (Italian Ponte dei Sospiri) is one of many Bridges in Venice. Canals are artificial channels for water There are two types of canals water conveyance canals which are used for the conveyance and delivery of water and Waterways It is built on an archipelago of 118 islands formed by about 150 canals in a shallow lagoon. An archipelago (ɑrkəˈpɛləgoʊ is a chain or cluster of Islands The word archipelago literally means "chief Sea " from Italian A lagoon is a body of comparatively shallow salt or Brackish water separated from the deeper Sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral The islands on which the city is built are connected by about 400 bridges. In the old center, the canals serve the function of roads, and every form of transport is on water or on foot. Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another In the 19th century a causeway to the mainland brought a railway station to Venice, and an automobile causeway and parking lot was added in the 20th century. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. Beyond these land entrances at the northern edge of the city, transportation within the city remains, as it was in centuries past, entirely on water or on foot. Venice is Europe's largest urban car free area, unique in Europe in remaining a sizable functioning city in the 21st century entirely without motorcars or trucks. Car-free zones (also known as auto-free zones and pedestrian zones) are areas of a city or town in which automobile traffic is prohibited
The classical Venetian boat is the gondola, although it is now mostly used for tourists, or for weddings, funerals, or other ceremonies. A Gondola is a traditional Venetian rowing Boat. Gondolas were for centuries the chief means of transportation within Venice and still have Most Venetians now travel by motorised waterbuses (vaporetti) which ply regular routes along the major canals and between the city's islands. The city also has many private boats. The only gondolas still in common use by Venetians are the traghetti, foot passenger ferries crossing the Grand Canal at certain points without bridges. See also Merchant ship A ferry is a form of transport usually a Boat or Ship, used to carry (or ferry) passengers and The Grand Canal ( Italian: Canal Grande, Venetian: Canałasso) is the most important Canal in Venice Italy.
Azienda Consorzio Trasporti Veneziano (ACTV) is the name of the public transport system in Venice. It combines both land transportation, with buses, and canal travel, with water buses (vaporetti). In total, there are 25 routes which connect the city.
Venice is served by the newly rebuilt Marco Polo International Airport, or Aeroporto di Venezia Marco Polo, named in honor of its famous citizen. Venice Marco Polo Airport is an Airport located on the Italian mainland near Venice, Italy, in Tessera a Frazione of the The airport is on the mainland and was rebuilt away from the coast, however the water taxis or Alilaguna waterbus' to Venice are only a seven minute walk from the terminals.
Some airlines market Treviso Airport in Treviso, 20km from Venice, as a Venice gateway. Sant'Angelo Treviso airport is located in Treviso in the Province of Treviso, Italy. Treviso (Venetian Trevizo, French Trévise, Latin Tarvisium) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy. Some simply advertise flights to "Venice" without naming the actual airport except in the small print. 
The sestieri are the primary traditional divisions of Venice. St Mark's Campanile is the Bell tower of St Mark's Basilica in Venice, Italy, located in the square (piazza of the same name A sestiere (plural sestieri) is a subdivision of a number of Italian towns for the origin and application of the word and examples of these towns see Sestiere. The city is divided into the six districts of Cannaregio, San Polo, Dorsoduro (including the Giudecca), Santa Croce, San Marco (including San Giorgio Maggiore), and Castello (including San Pietro di Castello and Sant'Elena). Cannaregio is one of the six historic sestieri (districts of Venice, and the northernmost of the city San Polo is the smallest of the six sestieri of Venice, covering just 86 acres (35 hectares along the Grand Canal. Dorsoduro is one of the six sestieri of Venice. It includes the highest land areas of the city and also includes Giudecca island and Isola Sacca Giudecca is an Island in the Venetian Lagoon. It is part of the sestiere of Dorsoduro. For the basilica in Florence, see Basilica of Santa Croce Florence, for the basilica in Rome see Santa Croce in Gerusalemme. San Marco is one of the six sestieri of Venice, lying in the heart of the city San Giorgio Maggiore is one of the islands of Venice, lying east of the Giudecca and south of the main island group Castello is the largest of the six sestieri of Venice. The district grew up from the Thirteenth century around a naval Dockyard San Pietro di Castello is an island in the Venetian Lagoon, forming part of the Castello sestiere. Sant'Elena is an island of Venice. It lies at the eastern tip of the main island group and forms part of sestiere of Castello. At the front of the Gondolas that work in the city there is a large piece of metal intended as a likeness of the Doge's hat. A Gondola is a traditional Venetian rowing Boat. Gondolas were for centuries the chief means of transportation within Venice and still have On this sit six notches pointing forwards and one pointing backwards. Each of these represent one of the Sestieri (the one which points backwards represents the Giudecca). Giudecca is an Island in the Venetian Lagoon. It is part of the sestiere of Dorsoduro.
The villas of the Veneto, rural residences for nobles during the Republic, are one of the most interesting aspects of Venetian countryside. Piazza San Marco, often known in English as St Mark's Square, is the principal square of Venice, Italy. The Campo San Polo is the largest Campo in Venice, Italy, the second largest Venetian public square after the Piazza San Marco. The Doge's Palace is a gothic Palace in Venice. In Italian it is called the Palazzo Ducale di Venezia. Palazzo Grassi (also known as the Palazzo Grassi-Stucky) is a fine example of Venetian Classical architecture and located on the Grand Canal of Venice Ca' d'Oro (correctly Palazzo Santa Sofia) is regarded as one of the most beautiful palazzos on the Grand Canal in Venice. Ca' Rezzonico is a Palazzo on the Grand Canal in Venice. Today it is a public Museum dedicated to 18th century Venice The Peggy Guggenheim Collection is a small Museum on the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy. The Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo (also called Palazzo Contarini Minelli dal Bovolo is a small palace in Venice, best known for the external spiral Staircase The Fondaco dei Turchi ( Venetian: Fontega dei Turchi "The Turks' Inn" is a Byzantine Palazzo on the Grand Canal Palazzo Labia is a Baroque palace in Venice, Italy. Built in the 17th-18th century it is one of the last great palazzi of Venice The Scuola Grande di San Marco is a building in Venice, Italy. Palazzo Malipiero is a Palace in Venice, Italy. It is located on the Grand Canal in the central San Samuele square. The Palazzo Foscari (known in Venice as Ca' Foscari) is a Palace in Venice, Italy. Saint Mark's Basilica ( Italian: Basilica di San Marco a Venezia) the Cathedral of Venice, is the most famous of History Starting in the Summer of 1629 a wave of the plague assaulted Venice and over the next two years killed nearly a third of the population San Marco Basilica di San Marco San Bartolomeo San Basso San Beneto Santa Croce The Accademia is best known now as a museum gallery of pre-1800s art in Venice, Italy. The Venetian Arsenal (Arsenale di Venezia is a Shipyard and naval depot that played a leading role in Venetian empire-building Teatro La Fenice ("The Phoenix " is an Opera house in Venice, Italy. An opera house is a theater building used for Opera performances that consists of a stage an orchestra pit audience seating and backstage facilities for costumes St Mark's Clock is the Clock housed in the St Mark's Clocktower, on St Mark's Square in Venice, adjoining the Procuratie Vecchie. The Rialto Bridge ( Ponte di Rialto) is one of the four bridges spanning the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy. The Bridge of Sighs (Italian Ponte dei Sospiri) is one of many Bridges in Venice. The Ponte dell'Accademia is one of only four bridges in Venice to span the Grand Canal. The Ponte degli Scalzi (or Ponte dei Scalzi) literally "bridge of the barefoot" is one of only four bridges in Venice to span the Grand Canal The Venetian Lagoon is the enclosed bay of the Adriatic Sea in which the city of Venice is situated Burano is an Island in the Venetian Lagoon, although like Venice itself it could more correctly be called an Archipelago of islands linked by Venice 's Lido is an 11-mile (18 km long sandbar, home to about 20000 residents greatly augmented by the (mainly Italian tourists who move in every summer Murano is usually described as an Island in the Venetian Lagoon, although like Venice itself it is actually an Archipelago of islands linked San Michele, nicknamed The Island of the Dead, is the Cemetery island of Venice. Sant'Erasmo is an Island in the Venetian Lagoon lying north of the Lido and north east of Venice. San Lazzaro degli Armeni ( Armenian: "Սուրբ Ղազարոս Կղզի" English: Saint Lazarus Island) is a small island in the Venetian San Servolo is an Italian island in the Venetian Lagoon, to the southeast of San Giorgio Maggiore. Torcello is a quiet and sparsely populated Island at the northern end of the Venetian Lagoon. Giudecca is an Island in the Venetian Lagoon. It is part of the sestiere of Dorsoduro. The City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto is a World Heritage Site protecting a cluster of works by the architect Andrea Palladio. They are surrounded by elegant gardens, suitable for fashionable parties of high society. Most of these villas were designed by Palladio, and are now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Andrea Palladio ( November 30, 1508 – August 19, 1580) was an Italian Architect, widely considered the most influential United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex According to the architects, water around the villas was a very important architectural element because it added more brilliance to the façade.
The buildings of Venice are constructed on closely spaced wood piles, which were imported from Russia, (under water, in the absence of oxygen, wood does not decay) which penetrate alternating layers of clay and sand. Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs A deep foundation is a type of foundation distinguished from Shallow foundations by the depth they are embedded into the ground Decomposition (or spoilage) refers to the break down of tissue of a formerly living Organism into simpler forms of matter Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained Minerals which show plasticity through a variable range of Water content, and Sand is a naturally occurring Granular material composed of finely divided rock and Mineral particles Wood for piles was cut in the most western part of today's Slovenia, resulting in the barren land in a region today called Kras, and in two regions of Croatia, Lika and Gorski kotar (resulting in the barren slopes of Velebit). Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west KRAS is a gene encoding the KRas Proto-oncogene. Like other members of the Ras gene family the KRAS protein is a GTPase and is an early player in many Lika is a mountainous region in central Croatia, roughly bound by the Velebit mountain from the southwest and the Plješevica mountain from the northeast Gorski kotar (English Mountain District) is the mountainous Region in Croatia between Karlovac and Rijeka. For other meanings see Velebit (disambiguation Velebit is the largest though not the highest Mountain range in Croatia. Most of these piles are still intact after centuries of submersion. The foundations rest on the piles, and buildings of brick or stone sit above these footings. In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere The buildings are often threatened by flood tides pushing in from the Adriatic between autumn and early spring. Characteristics A tide is a repeated cycle of sea level changes in the following stages Over several hours the water rises or advances up a beach in the flood
Six hundred years ago, Venetians protected themselves from land-based attacks by diverting all the major rivers flowing into the lagoon and thus preventing sediment from filling the area around the city. This created an ever-deeper lagoon environment.
During the 20th century, when many artesian wells were sunk into the periphery of the lagoon to draw water for local industry, Venice began to subside. See Great Artesian Basin for the water source in Australia An artesian aquifer is a confined aquifer containing Groundwater In Geology, Engineering, and Surveying, subsidence is the motion of a surface (usually the Earth's surface as it shifts downward relative to It was realized that extraction of the aquifer was the cause. An aquifer is an underground layer of Water -bearing Permeable rock or unconsolidated materials ( Gravel, Sand, Silt, or Clay This sinking process has slowed markedly since artesian wells were banned in the 1960s. However, the city is still threatened by more frequent low-level floods (so-called Acqua alta, "high water") that creep to a height of several centimeters over its quays, regularly following certain tides. In many old houses the former staircases used by people to unload goods are now flooded, rendering the former ground floor uninhabitable. Many Venetians have resorted to moving up to the upper floors and continuing with their lives.
Some recent studies have suggested that the city is no longer sinking, but this is not yet certain; therefore, a state of alert has not been revoked. In May 2003 the Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi inaugurated the MOSE project (Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico), an experimental model for evaluating the performance of inflatable gates; the idea is to lay a series of 79 inflatable pontoons across the sea bed at the three entrances to the lagoon. (born 29 September 1936 is an Italian politician, Entrepreneur, Real estate and Insurance Tycoon, Bank and Media proprietor The MOSE Project ( Acronym for Mo dulo S perimentale E lettromeccanico — in English, Experimental Electromechanical Module is a project A pontoon is a flat-bottomed Boat or the floats used to support a structure on water When tides are predicted to rise above 110 centimetres, the pontoons will be filled with air and block the incoming water from the Adriatic sea. A centimetre ( American spelling: centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one hundredth This engineering work is due to be completed by 2011.
Some experts say that the best way to protect Venice is to physically lift the City to a greater height above sea level, by pumping water into the soil underneath the city.  This way, some hope, it could rise above sea levels, protecting it for hundreds of years, and eventually the MOSE project may not be necessary (it will, controversially, alter the tidal patterns in the lagoon, damaging some wildlife). A further point about the "lifting" system would be that it would be permanent; the MOSE Project is, by its very nature, a temporary system: it is expected to protect Venice for only 100 years.
In 1604, to defray the cost of flood relief Venice introduced what could be considered the first example of what became elsewhere a 'stamp tax'. Stamp duty is a form of Tax that is levied on documents Historically a physical stamp (a Tax stamp) had to be attached to or impressed upon the document to denote When the revenue fell short of expectations in 1608 Venice introduced paper with the superscription 'AQ' and imprinted instructions which was to be used for 'letters to officials'. Initially this was to be a temporary tax but in fact remained in effect to the fall of the Republic in 1797. Shortly after the introduction of the tax Spain produced similar paper for more general taxation purposes and the practice spread to other countries.
In the 14th century, many young Venetian men began wearing tight-fitting multicoloured hose, the designs on which indicated the Compagnie della Calza ("Trouser Club") to which they belonged. This list explores the instances of which the city of Venice, Italy, has been mentioned or alluded to in various media The Carnival of Venice (in Italian: Carnevale Di Venezia) was first recorded in 1268. The Senate passed sumptuary laws, but these merely resulted in changes in fashion in order to circumvent the law. Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuariae leges) are Laws which attempt to regulate habits of consumption Dull garments were worn over colourful ones, which then were cut to show the hidden colours — which resulted in the wide spread of men's "slashed" fashions in the 15th century.
During the 16th century, Venice became one of the most important musical centers of Europe, marked by a characteristic style of composition (the Venetian school) and the development of the Venetian polychoral style under composers such as Adrian Willaert, who worked at San Marco. In music history the Venetian School is a term used to describe the Composers working in Venice from about 1550 to around 1610; it also describes The Venetian polychoral style was a type of music of the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras which involved spatially separate Choirs singing in alternation Adrian Willaert (c 1490 &ndash 7 December 1562 was a Flemish Composer of the Renaissance and founder of the Venetian School. Saint Mark's Basilica ( Italian: Basilica di San Marco a Venezia) the Cathedral of Venice, is the most famous of Venice was the early center of music printing; Ottaviano Petrucci began publishing music almost as soon as this technology was available, and his publishing enterprise helped to attract composers from all over Europe, especially from France and Flanders. Ottaviano Petrucci ( June 18, 1466 – May 7 1539) was an Italian printer This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. By the end of the century, Venice was famous for the splendor of its music, as exemplified in the "colossal style" of Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli, which used multiple choruses and instrumental groups. Andrea Gabrieli (1532/1533? – August 30, 1585) was an Italian Composer and Organist of the late Renaissance. Giovanni Gabrieli (c 1554/1557 &ndash August 12 1612 was an Italian Composer and organist.
By the end of the 15th century, Venice had become the European capital of printing, being one of the first cities in Italy (after Subiaco and Rome) to have a printing press after those established in Germany, by 1500 having 417 printers. The most important printing office was the Aldine Press of Aldus Manutius, which in the 1499 printed the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, considered the most beautiful book of Renaissance, and established the modern punctuation, page format and italic type, and he first printed the work of Aristotle. Aldine Press was the Printing office started by Aldus Manutius in 1494 in Venice, from which were issued the celebrated Aldine editions of the Aldus Manutius (1449/1450 – February 6, 1515) the Latinized name of Teobaldo Mannucci, sometimes called Aldus Manutius the Elder to distinguish Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (in English Poliphilo's Strife of Love in a Dream, from Greek hypnos, ‘sleep’ eros, The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere In Typography, italic type /ɪˈtælɪk/ or /aɪˈtælɪk/ refers to cursive Typefaces based on a stylized form of calligraphic Handwriting. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.
Canvases (the common painting surface) originated in Venice during the early renaissance. Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty plain-woven fabric used for making Sails Tents Marquees Backpacks and other functions These early canvases were generally rough.
The Venice Art Biennale is one of the most important events in the arts calendar. During 1893 headed by the mayor of Venice, Riccardo Selvatico, the Venetian City Council passed a resolution on 19 April to set up an Esposizione biennale artistica nazionale (biennial exhibition of Italian art), to be inaugurated on 22 April 1894. Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Events 1500 - Portuguese Navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil. Year 1894 ( MDCCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common  Following the outbreak of hostilities during the Second World War, the activities of the Biennale were interrupted in September 1942, but resumed in 1948. 
For persons from Venice, see People from Venice. Others closely associated with the city include:
Venice has cooperation agreements with the Greek city of Thessaloniki, the German city of Nuremberg, signed on September 25, 1999, and a the Turkish city of Istanbul, signed on March 4, 1993, within the framework of the 1991 Istanbul Declaration. Suzhou ( ancient name 吳) is a City on the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and on the shores of Lake Taihu in the province of Jiangsu China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Tallinn (historically known by the German, Swedish and Danish name Reval or the Polish name Rewal, among other names Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches TemplateInfobox City for more fields--> Sarajevo is the Capital city and largest urban center of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη), Thessalonica, or Salonica is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of Macedonia Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Fort Lauderdale, known as the "Venice of America" due to its expansive and intricate Canal system is a city in Broward County, Florida, The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη), Thessalonica, or Salonica is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of Macedonia Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Events 303 - On a voyage preaching the Gospel, Saint Fermin of Pamplona is beheaded in Amiens, France Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) It is also a Science and Technology Partnership City with Qingdao, China. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES
The City of Venice and the Central Association of Cities and Communities of Greece (KEDKE) established, in January 2000, in pursuance of the EC Regulations n. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία 2137/85, the European Economic Interest Grouping (E. E. I. G. ) Marco Polo System to promote and realise European projects within transnational cultural and tourist field, particularly referred to the artistic and architectural heritage preservation and safeguard. Marco Polo ( September 15 1254 – January 9 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325 was a Venetian trader and explorer
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