|República Bolivariana de Venezuela|
Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
|Motto: Dios y Federación (Spanish)|
God and Federation
|Anthem: Gloria al Bravo Pueblo (Spanish)|
Glory to the Brave People
(and largest city)
|National language||Spanish (de facto)|
|-||President||Hugo Chávez Frías|
|-||from Spain||July 5, 1811|
|-||from Gran Colombia||January 13, 1830|
|-||Recognized||March 30, 1845|
|-||Total||916,445 km² (33rd)|
353,841 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||0. The flag of Venezuela dates from 1811, the beginning of that nation's struggle for independence The current Coat of arms of Venezuela was primarily approved by the Congress on April 18, 1836, undergoing small modifications through history A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Gloria al Bravo Pueblo ( Glory to the Brave People) was adopted as Venezuela 's National anthem by President Antonio Guzmán Blanco on The Demographics of Venezuela are the condition and overview of Venezuela 's peoples Caracas (kaˈɾakas is the Capital and largest city of Venezuela. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory A national language is a Language (or language variant, ie Dialect) which has some connection - de facto or de jure - with A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature ||-||} Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->The President of Venezuela (Presidente Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (ˈuɰo rafaˈel ˈtʃaβ̞es ˈfɾias (born July 28 1954 is the current President of Venezuela. __FORCETOC__ For the Vice President of the United States, their roles and other information see Vice President of the United States. Ramón Alonso Carrizales Rengifo is a Venezuelan politician and the current Vice-President of Venezuela. Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Events 1295 - Scotland and France form an alliance the beginnings of the Auld Alliance, against England. Year 1811 ( MDCCCXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Gran Colombia ( Spanish for Great Colombia) is a name used today for the Republic of Colombia of the period 1819-1831 Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks For the game see 1830 (board game. Year 1830 ( MDCCCXXX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display Events 240 BC - 1st recorded Perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. Year 1845 ( MDCCCXLV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here Surface areas between 100000 km² and 1000000 km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 32|
|-||February 2008 estimate||28,199,822 (40th)|
|-||Density||30. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 2/km² (173rd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2007 estimate|
|-||Total||$335 billion (30th)|
|-||Per capita||$12,800 (63th)|
|Gini (2000)||44. List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth 1 (medium)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 792 (medium) (74th)|
|Currency||Bolívar fuerte (|
|^ The "Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela" has been the full official title since the adoption of the new Constitution of 1999, when the state was renamed in honor of Simón Bolívar|
. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The bolívar fuerte (plural bolívares fuertes ISO 4217 code VEF locally abbreviated as Bs ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established UTC-430 is a time offset used only for Venezuela. Venezuela (VST— Venezuelan Standard Time) A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E |||}The Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is the current Constitution of Venezuela. Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios y Blanco,Venezuelan or commonly known as Simón Bolívar ( July 24, 1783 &ndash
^ The Constitution also recognizes all indigenous languages spoken in the country. Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and
^ Area totals include only Venezuelan-administered territory.
^ On 1 January 2008 a new bolivar, the bolívar fuerte (ISO 4217 code VEF), worth 1,000 VEB, was introduced. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
Venezuela (pronounced /ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə/, Spanish pronunciation: [beneˈswela]), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America. Bolivarianism is a set of political doctrines that enjoys currency in parts of South America, especially Venezuela. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a
The country comprises a continental mainland and numerous islands located off the Venezuelan coastline in the Caribbean Sea. For the region see Caribbean. The Caribbean Sea (kəˈrɪbiən or /ˌkærɨˈbiːən/ is a tropical Sea in the Western Hemisphere The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela possesses borders with Guyana to the east, Brazil to the south, and Colombia to the west. Guyana (ɡaɪˈænə or /ɡiːˈɑːnə/ officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana and previously known as British Guiana, is the only Nation state |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, St. Lucia, Barbados, Curaçao, Bonaire, Aruba, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and the Leeward Antilles lie just north, off the Venezuelan coast. The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (ˈtrɪnɪdæd ən təˈbeɪgoʊ is an archipelagic state in the southern Caribbean, lying northeast of the South American Grenada (grɪˈneɪdə is an Island nation that includes the southern Grenadines in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. Saint Lucia (ˌseɪnt ˈluːʃɪə is an Island nation in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. Barbados ( Portuguese word for bearded-ones, bɑrˈbeɪdoʊz -dɒs situated just east of the Caribbean Sea, is an independent Island nation Curaçao (ˈkjuːrəsaʊ in English Dutch: Curaçao, Papiamento: Kòrsou) is an Island in the southern Caribbean Sea, The Island Territory of Bonaire ( Dutch: Eilandgebied Bonaire, Papiamento: Teritorio Insular di Boneiru) is one of five island areas Aruba is a -long island of the Lesser Antilles in the southern Caribbean Sea, north of the Paraguaná Peninsula, Falcón State, Venezuela Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is an island nation in the Lesser Antilles chain of the Caribbean Sea. Leeward Antilles are a chain of Islands in the Caribbean – specifically the southerly islands of the Lesser Antilles (and in turn the Antilles Falling within the tropics, Venezuela sits close to the equator, in the Northern Hemisphere. The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 The equator (sometimes referred to colloquially as "the Line") is the intersection of the Earth 's surface with the plane perpendicular to the Northern Hemisphere is the half of a Planet that is North of the Equator —the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball'
A former Spanish colony, which has been an independent republic since 1821, Venezuela holds territorial disputes with Guyana, largely concerning the Essequibo area, and with Colombia concerning the Gulf of Venezuela. The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries Guyana (ɡaɪˈænə or /ɡiːˈɑːnə/ officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana and previously known as British Guiana, is the only Nation state Guayana Esequiba is the territory of Guyana claimed by Venezuela. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. The Gulf of Venezuela or gulf of Coquivacoa is a gulf of the Caribbean Sea bounded by the Venezuelan states of Zulia and Falcón In 1895, after the dispute over the Guyana border flared up, it was submitted to a neutral commission, which in 1899 decided it mostly in Guyana's favour.  Today, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is known widely for its petroleum industry, the environmental diversity of its territory, and its natural features. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. Venezuela is considered to be among the world's 17 most biodiverse countries. The megadiverse countries are a group of countries that harbor the majority of the earth's species and are therefore considered extremely Biodiverse. 
Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America; the vast majority of Venezuelans live in the cities of the north, especially in the capital Caracas which is also the largest city. Caracas (kaˈɾakas is the Capital and largest city of Venezuela. Other major cities include Maracaibo, Valencia, Maracay, Barquisimeto, Ciudad Guayana and the popular tourist city of Mérida. Maracaibo is the second-largest city in Venezuela after the national capital Caracas and is the capital of Zulia state Valencia is the capital city of Carabobo State, and the third largest city of Venezuela. Maracay is a city in central Venezuela and is the capital and most important city of the Aragua State. Barquisimeto is the capital city of the State of Lara located in west central Venezuela, halfway between Caracas and Maracaibo on the Turbio Ciudad Guayana (Guayana City is a City in Bolívar State, Venezuela. Santiago de los Caballeros de Mérida es la capital del municipio Libertador y del estado Mérida y una de las principales localidades de los Venezuela is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The fauna of Venezuela consists of a huge variety of unique Animals some 23% of reptilian and 50% of Amphibian species that inhabit the country are The following is a list of National Parks in Venezuela: Canaima National Park Cerro Saroche National Park Chorro
The name "Venezuela" is believed to have originated from the cartographer Amerigo Vespucci who, along with Alonso de Ojeda, led a 1499 naval expedition along the northwestern coast's Gulf of Venezuela. The Explorer and Cartographer Amerigo Vespucci ( March 9, 1454 - February 22, 1512) was the first person to demonstrate Alonso de Ojeda (c 1465 &ndash 1515 was a Spanish explorer born of noble parentage in Cuenca. The Gulf of Venezuela or gulf of Coquivacoa is a gulf of the Caribbean Sea bounded by the Venezuelan states of Zulia and Falcón On reaching the Guajira Peninsula, the crew observed villages (palafitos) that the people had built over the water. Guajira Peninsula (Peninsula de La Guajira is a Peninsula in northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela in the Caribbean sea. A palafito is an Amerindian stilt village or dwelling erected on bodies of water This reminded Vespucci of the city of Venice (Italian: Venezia), so he named the region "Venezuola", meaning "little Venice" in Italian. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. In Spanish, the suffix -zuela is used as a diminutive term (e. In Grammar, a suffix (also postfix, ending) is an Affix which is placed at the end of a word A diminutive is a formation of a Word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning smallness of the object or quality named encapsulation intimacy or endearment g. , plaza / plazuela, cazo / cazuela); thus, the term's original sense would have been that of a "little Venice". The German colonization of the Americas consisted of failed attempts to settle Venezuela ( Klein-Venedig in German) St 
Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda's crew, states in his work Summa de Geografía that the indigenous population they found were called "Veneciuela", suggesting that the name "Venezuela" may have evolved from a native word. Martín Fernández de Enciso (c 1470 - 1528 was a navigator and geographer who was instrumental in colonising the Isthmus of Darien.  The Vespucci story, however, remains the most popular and accepted version of the origin of the country's name. In English, the word Venezuela is pronounced as IPA: /ˌvɛnɨzˈweɪlə/. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The Venezuelan Spanish is IPA: [beneˈswela]. Venezuelan Spanish is a Dialect of the Spanish language spoken in Venezuela.
Human habitation of Venezuela is estimated to have commenced at least 15,000 years ago from which period leaf-shaped flake tools, together with chopping and plano-convex scraping implements, have been found exposed on the high riverine terraces of the Rio Pedregal in western Venezuela. This is the History of Venezuela. See also the History of South America and the History of present-day nations and states. In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis. A broader definition of a tool is an entity used to interface between two or more domains that facilitates more effective action of one domain upon the other CHOP is the acronym for a Chemotherapy regimen used in the treatment of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  Late Pleistocene hunting artifacts, including spear tips, have been found at a similar series of sites in northwestern Venezuela known as "El Jobo"; according to radiocarbon dating, these date from 13,000 to 7,000 BC. The Late Pleistocene (also known as Upper Pleistocene or the Tarantian) is a stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. This is an article about a particle accelerator For uses of spear, see Spear or Spear (disambiguation. Radiocarbon dating is a Radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring Radioisotope Carbon-14 (14C to determine the age of  In the 16th century, when the Spanish colonization of Venezuela began, indigenous peoples such as the Mariches, themselves descendants of the Caribs, were systematically killed. The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spain 's conquest settlement and rule over much of the Western hemisphere. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. Mariche is the name of a former native Venezuelan Tribe. Not much information from them as a tribe has survived to the present day Cariban languages Carib, Island Carib or Kalinago people after whom the Caribbean Sea was named live in the Lesser Antilles islands Indian caciques (leaders) such as Guaicaipuro and Tamanaco attempted to resist Spanish incursions, but were ultimately subdued; Tamanaco himself, by order of Caracas' founder Diego de Losada, was also put to death. Cacique or Cazique (female form Cacica) from the Taíno word for the Pre-Columbian tribal chiefs or leaders, of the Taino Guaicaipuro, (circa 1530 &ndash 1568 was a native (indigenous Venezuelan chief of both the Teques and Caracas tribes Tamanaco, was a native Venezuelan chief who as leader of the Mariches and Quiriquires tribes led during part of the XVI century the resistance against Diego de Losada (b in Rionegro del Puente, Zamora, Spain in 1511--1569 was the founder of Santiago de León de Caracas, the capital of 
Venezuela was first colonized by Spain in 1522, when it hosted the Spanish Empire's first permanent South American settlement in what is now Cumaná. Martín Tovar y Tovar ( February 10 1827 &mdash December 17 1902) was one of the most important and high-profile Venezuelan painters See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries Cumaná (305000 inhabitants is the capital of Venezuela 's Sucre State. Originally part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, most of Venezuela eventually became part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada; portions of eastern Venezuela were incorporated into New Andalusia. Created in 1542 the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish colonial administrative district that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled The Viceroyalty of New Granada (Virreinato de la Nueva Granada was the name given on May 27, 1717 to a Spanish colonial jurisdiction in northern South America The name New Andalusia ( Spanish: Nueva Andalucía) refers to two separate regions of the Spanish Empire in the Americas. After a series of unsuccessful uprisings, Venezuela—under the leadership of Francisco de Miranda, a Venezuelan marshal involved in the French Revolution—declared independence on 5 July 1811. Sebastián Francisco de Miranda y Rodríguez ( Caracas, March 28, 1750 – in prison El Arsenal de la Carraca, Cadiz, The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an By means of the signing of the Venezuelan Declaration of Independence on July 5, 1811, Venezuelans of the time took the decision supported by several politicians Events 1295 - Scotland and France form an alliance the beginnings of the Auld Alliance, against England. Year 1811 ( MDCCCXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year This began the Venezuelan War of Independence. The Venezuelan War of Independence was the war fought for the emancipation of what is today Venezuela, between 1811 and 1823 However, a devastating earthquake that struck Caracas in 1812, together with the rebellion of the Venezuelan llaneros, helped bring down the first Venezuelan republic. A Llanero or the Llaneros is the name given to Venezuelan and Colombian Cowboys and means "plainsmen The First Republic of Venezuela ( Primera República de Venezuela in Spanish) is the term used by historians to refer to the first period of the Venezuelan War  A second Venezuelan republic, proclaimed on 7 August 1813, lasted several months before being crushed as well. The Second Republic of Venezuela ( Segunda República de Venezuela in Spanish) is the term used by historians for the reestablished Venezuelan Republic declared Events 322 BC - Battle of Crannon between Athens and Macedon following the death of Alexander the Great. Year 1813 ( MDCCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Sovereignty was only attained after Simón Bolívar, known as El Libertador ("The Liberator") and aided by Alexandre Petion of Haiti,José Antonio Páez and Antonio José de Sucre, won the Battle of Carabobo on 24 June 1821. Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios y Blanco,Venezuelan or commonly known as Simón Bolívar ( July 24, 1783 &ndash Alexandre Sabès Pétion ( April 2, 1770 &ndash March 29, 1818) was President of the southern Republic of Haiti from 1806 until José Antonio Páez ( June 13, 1790 - May 6, 1873) was General in Chief of the army fighting Spain during the Venezuelan Antonio José de Sucre y Alcalá ( February 3 1795 &ndash June 4 1830) was a South American independence leader The Battle of Carabobo, 24 June 1821 was fought between independence fighters led by Simón Bolívar, and the Royalist forces led by Spanish Field Marshal Miguel Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place Year 1821 ( MDCCCXXI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year José Prudencio Padilla and Rafael Urdaneta's victory in the Battle of Lake Maracaibo on 24 July 1823 helped seal Venezuelan independence. Admiral José Prudencio Padilla (Born 19 March, 1784 in Riohacha, Colombia[http //www Rafael José Urdaneta y Faría ( Maracaibo, Venezuela, October 24, 1788 &ndash Paris, France, August 23 The Battle of Lake Maracaibo was fought on July 24 1823 in Venezuela 's Lake Maracaibo between Almirante ( Admiral) José Events 1132 - Battle of Nocera between Ranulf II of Alife and Roger II of Sicily. Year 1823 ( MDCCCXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common New Granada's congress gave Bolívar control of the Granadian army; leading it, he liberated several countries and founded Gran Colombia. Gran Colombia ( Spanish for Great Colombia) is a name used today for the Republic of Colombia of the period 1819-1831 Sucre, who won many battles for Bolívar, went on to liberate Ecuador, and later become the second president of Bolivia. The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America. Venezuela remained part of Gran Colombia until 1830, when a rebellion led by Páez allowed the proclamation of a new Republic of Venezuela; Páez became its first president.
Much of Venezuela's nineteenth century history was characterized by political turmoil and dictatorial rule. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar A dictator is an Authoritarian ruler (eg Absolutist or autocratic) who assumes sole and absolute power without hereditary ascension such as an Absolute  During first half of the 20th century, caudillos (military strongmen) continued to dominate, though they generally allowed for mild social reforms and promoted economic growth. Caudillo is a Spanish ( caudilho in Portuguese word usually used to designate "a political-military leader at the head of an authoritarian power Following the death of Juan Vicente Gómez in 1935 and the demise of caudillismo (authoritarian rule), pro-democracy movements eventually forced the military to withdraw from direct involvement in national politics in 1958. Juan Vicente Gómez ( July 24, 1857 - December 17, 1935) was a military general and the ruler of Venezuela from 1908 until his Since that year, Venezuela has had a series of democratically elected governments.  The discovery of massive oil deposits, totaling some 400 million barrels, during World War I prompted an economic boom that lasted into the 1980s; by 1935, Venezuela's per capita GDP was Latin America's highest,. An oil field is a region with an abundance of Oil wells extracting Petroleum (crude oil from below ground World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
After WWII the globalization and heavy immigration from Southern Europe (mainly from Spain, Italy, Portugal) and poorer Latin American countries markedly diversified Venezuelan society. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Italo-Venezuelans are the Venezuelan citizens of Italian descent. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula.
The huge public spending and accumulation of internal and external debts by the government and private sector during the Petrodollar years of the 1970s and early 80s, followed by the collapse of oil prices during the 1980s, crippled the Venezuelan economy. The 1980s oil glut was a surplus of crude oil caused by falling demand following the 1973 and 1979 energy crises. As the government devalued the currency in order to face its mounting local and non-local financial obligations, Venezuelans' real standard of living fell dramatically. A number of failed economic policies and increasing corruption in government and society at large, has led to rising poverty and crime and worsening social indicators and increasing political instability, resulting in two major coup attempts in 1992. The Venezuelan coup attempts of 1992 were an abortive Coup d'état led by Hugo Chávez in February 1992 and a second attempted coup in November 1992 directed by
In the February 1992 coup, Hugo Chávez, a former paratrooper, attempted to overthrow the government of President Carlos Andrés Pérez as anger grew against the President's economic austerity measures. Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (ˈuɰo rafaˈel ˈtʃaβ̞es ˈfɾias (born July 28 1954 is the current President of Venezuela. Carlos Andrés Pérez Rodríguez (born October 27, 1922) best known as CAP, was President of Venezuela from 1974 to 1979 and again Chávez was unsuccessful and landed in jail. In November of that year, another unsuccessful coup attempt occurred, organized by other revolutionary groups in the Venezuelan Armed Forces and those that remained from Chávez’s previous attempt. 
In 1998, Hugo Chávez (who led the first unsuccessful coup in 1992) was elected president as a reaction against the established political parties and the corruption and inequalities their policies created. He remains president today. Since coming to power, Chávez has attracted some controversy through his reforms of the Constitution, the implementation of his "Bolivarian Revolution", and in 2002 (though now a democratically elected president) Chávez was temporarily ousted from power by right-wing elements in the army and the business sector. The “Bolivarian Revolution” refers to a mass social movement and political process in Venezuela.
The Venezuelan president is elected by a vote,"But chavez won because he cheated in the elections adding votes for him", with direct and universal suffrage, and functions as both head of state and head of government. ||} Politics of Venezuela takes place in a framework of a federal Republic, whereby the President of Venezuela is both Head of state and ||-||} Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->The President of Venezuela (Presidente Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State The term of office is six years, and a president may be re-elected to a single consecutive term. The president appoints the vice-president and decides the size and composition of the cabinet and makes appointments to it with the involvement of the legislature. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch. The president can ask the legislature to reconsider portions of laws he finds objectionable, but a simple parliamentary majority can diminish these objections.
The unicameral Venezuelan parliament is the National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or Parliamentary chamber TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those |||}The National Assembly ( Asamblea Nacional) is the current legislative branch of the Venezuelan government Its 167 deputies, of which three are reserved for indigenous people, serve five-year terms and may be re-elected for a maximum of two additional terms. They are elected by popular vote through a combination of party lists and single member constituencies. The highest judicial body is the Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Tribunal Supremo de Justicia, whose magistrates are elected by parliament for a single twelve-year term. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State The Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Tribunal Supremo de Justicia is the highest Court of law in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and is the head of the judicial The National Electoral Council (Consejo Nacional Electoral, or CNE) is in charge of electoral processes; it is formed by five main directors elected by the National Assembly. The National Electoral Council (Consejo Nacional Electoral or CNE, is the institution in charge of all electoral processes that take place in Venezuela.
There are currently two major blocs of political parties in Venezuela: the leftist United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV) and its major allies Fatherland for All (PPT), and the Communist Party of Venezuela (PCV); and A New Era (UNT) together with its allied parties Project Venezuela, Justice First, Movement for Socialism (Venezuela) and others. ||} Politics of Venezuela takes place in a framework of a federal Republic, whereby the President of Venezuela is both Head of state and ||-||} Political parties in Venezuela lists political parties in Venezuela. The United Socialist Party of Venezuela (Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela PSUV) is a left wing political party in Venezuela that is in the process Fatherland for All ( Patria Para Todos, PPT) is a Left-wing Political party in Venezuela. The Communist Party of Venezuela (in Spanish: Partido Comunista de Venezuela, PCV is a Marxist-Leninist political party and the oldest continuously A New Era (UNT Un Nuevo Tiempo) is a Political party of Social democracy in Venezuela. Project Venezuela (in Spanish Proyecto Venezuela) is a Political party in Venezuela. Justice First Movement ( Movimiento Primero Justicia) is a Political party in Venezuela. The Movement for Socialism ( Spanish: Movimiento al Socialismo or MAS) is a social-democratic Political party in Venezuela Following the fall of Marcos Pérez Jiménez in 1958, Venezuelan politics was dominated by the center-right Christian democratic COPEI and the center-left social democratic Democratic Action (AD) parties; this two-party system was formalized by the puntofijismo arrangement. Marcos Pérez Jiménez ( April 25, 1914 &ndash September 20, 2001) was a soldier and President of Venezuela from 1952 Christian democracy is a political ideology that seeks to apply Christian (and often specifically Catholic) principles to public policy Copei &ndash Social Christian Party of Venezuela ( Copei Partido Social Cristiano de Venezuela) is a Political party in Venezuela. Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left Democratic Action ( Spanish: Acción Democrática abbreviated as AD is a Venezuelan Social democratic Political party. A two-party system is a form of Party system where two major Political parties dominate voting in nearly all Elections at every Puntofijismo was a formal arrangement arrived at between representatives of Venezuela 's three main political parties in 1958 Acción Democrática, COPEI However, this system has been sidelined following the initial 1998 election of current president Hugo Chávez, which started the Bolivarian Revolution. In the December 6, 1998 Venezuelan presidential election, Hugo Chávez was elected to his first term as President of Venezuela with Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (ˈuɰo rafaˈel ˈtʃaβ̞es ˈfɾias (born July 28 1954 is the current President of Venezuela.
The voting age in Venezuela is 18 and older. Voting is not compulsory. Compulsory voting requires electors to Vote in Elections or attend a polling place on voting day  Most of the political opposition boycotted the 2005 parliamentary election. Venezuela held a parliamentary election on 4 December 2005. The following elected posts were filled 167 deputies to the National Assembly Consequently, the MVR-led bloc secured all 167 seats in the National Assembly. Then, the MVR voted to dissolve itself in favor of joining the proposed United Socialist Party of Venezuela, while Chávez requested that MVR-allied parties merge themselves into it as well. The United Socialist Party of Venezuela (Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela PSUV) is a left wing political party in Venezuela that is in the process The National Assembly has twice voted to grant Chávez the ability rule by decree in several broadly defined areas, once in 2000 and again in 2007. Rule by decree is a style of governance allowing quick unchallenged creation of law by a single person or group and is used primarily by Dictators and Absolute monarchs This power has been granted to previous administrations as well. 
Infant mortality in Venezuela stood at 16 deaths per 1,000 births in 2004, much lower than the South American average (by comparison, the U. Access Access to improved water supply and sanitation remains low by regional standards despite substantial oil revenues Infant mortality is defined as the number of deaths of Infants (one year of age or younger per 1000 live births S. stands at 5 deaths per 1,000 births in 2006).  Child malnutrition (defined as stunting or wasting in children under age five) stands at 17%; Delta Amacuro and Amazonas have the nation's highest rates. Malnutrition is a general term for a medical condition caused by an improper or insufficient diet.  According to the United Nations, 32% of Venezuelans lack adequate sanitation, primarily those living in rural areas. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security  Diseases ranging from typhoid, yellow fever, cholera, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis D are present in the country. Typhoid fever, also known as enteric fever, bilious fever, Yellow Jack or commonly just typhoid, is an illness caused by the Bacterium Yellow fever (also called yellow jack, black vomit or sometimes American Plague) is an acute viral disease Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious Gastroenteritis caused by the Bacterium Hepatitis A, (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute Infectious disease of the Liver caused by Hepatitis A virus which is Hepatitis D is a Disease caused by a small circular RNA virus ( Hepatitis delta virus or hepatitis D virus, HDV)  Only 3% of sewage is treated; most major cities lack treatment facilities.  17% of Venezuelans lack access to potable water. 
Travelers to Venezuela are advised to obtain vaccinations for a variety of diseases including typhoid, yellow fever, cholera, hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis D. Typhoid fever, also known as enteric fever, bilious fever, Yellow Jack or commonly just typhoid, is an illness caused by the Bacterium Yellow fever (also called yellow jack, black vomit or sometimes American Plague) is an acute viral disease Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious Gastroenteritis caused by the Bacterium Hepatitis A, (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute Infectious disease of the Liver caused by Hepatitis A virus which is Hepatitis D is a Disease caused by a small circular RNA virus ( Hepatitis delta virus or hepatitis D virus, HDV)  In a cholera epidemic of contemporary times in the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela's political leaders were accused of racial profiling of their own indigenous people to deflect blame from the country's institutions, thereby aggravating the epidemic. ORiNOCO is the brand name that was used for a family of wireless networking solutions by Proxim (previously Lucent) Racial profiling is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime or 
As had previous administrations, the government is attempting to create a national universal health care system that is free of charge. The current vehicle for this idea is Misión Barrio Adentro. Mission Barrio Adentro ( English: " Mission Into the Neighborhood " is a Bolivarian national Social welfare program established 
Throughout most of the 20th century, Venezuela maintained friendly relations with most Latin American and Western nations. Relations between Venezuela and the United States worsened in 2002, when the U. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the S. government helped to instigate the 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt and recognized the short-lived unconstitutional regime of Pedro Carmona. The Venezuelan coup attempt of 2002 was a failed Coup d'état on April 11, 2002 that lasted only 47 hours whereby the head of state President Pedro Francisco Carmona Estanga (born 1941 in Barquisimeto, Lara, Venezuela) is a former Venezuelan trade organization leader who was briefly declared Correspondingly, ties to various leftist-led Latin American and Middle Eastern countries not allied to the U. S. have strengthened. Venezuela seeks alternative hemispheric integration via such proposals as the Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas trade proposal and the newly launched pan-Latin American television network teleSUR. The Western Hemisphere, also Western hemisphere or western hemisphere, is a geographical term for the half of the Earth that lies West The Bolivarian Alternative for the People of Our America ( Spanish: Alternativa Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América or ALBA - which also means 'dawn' in A television network is a distribution network for Television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many Television stations La Nueva Televisora del Sur ( Spanish for "The New Television Station of the South" named teleSUR, is a pan- Latin American terrestrial Venezuela was a proponent of OAS's decision to adopt its Anti-Corruption Convention, and is actively working in the Mercosur trade bloc to push increased trade and energy integration. The Organization of American States ( OAS, or as it is known in the three other official languages OEA) is an International organization, headquartered Role and potential Some South Americans see Mercosur as giving the capability to combine resources to balance the activities of other global economic powers especially the North Globally, it seeks a "multi-polar" world based on strengthened ties among Third World countries. Polarity in international relations is a description of the distribution of power within the international system Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically
Venezuela's national armed forces include roughly 100,000 personnel spread through four service branches: the Ground Forces, the Navy (including the Marine Corps), the Air Force, and the Armed Forces of Cooperation (FAC), commonly known as the National Guard. As of 2008, the National Armed Forces of Venezuela (FAN Fuerza Armada Nacional is roughly 100000 individuals in four service branches--the Army Navy (including The Army of Venezuela is a professional armed body of Venezuela. The Navy of Venezuela, officially Bolivarian Armada of Venezuela (Armada Bolivariana de Venezuela is categorized as a "modern Marines (from the English adjective marine, meaning of the sea, from Latin language mare, meaning sea via French adjective The Air Force of Venezuela, since 2006 Aviación Militar Venezolana (previously Fuerza Aérea Venezolana, FAV) is a professional armed body designed to The Venezuelan National Guard, Officially the Armed Forces of Cooperation (espFuerzas Armadas de Cooperación is one of the four components of the National Armed Forces As of 2008, a further 600,000 soldiers were incorporated into a new branch, known as the Armed Reserve; these troops bear more semblance to a militia than the older branches. The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary Citizens to provide defense emergency law enforcement or Paramilitary service The President of Venezuela is the commander-in-chief of the national armed forces. ||-||} Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->The President of Venezuela (Presidente A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces
Venezuela is divided into twenty-three states (Estados), a capital district (distrito capital) corresponding to the city of Caracas, the Federal Dependencies (Dependencias Federales, a special territory), and Guayana Esequiba (claimed in a border dispute with Guyana). Venezuela is divided into 23 states (estados, 1 Capital District (Distrito Capital and the Federal Dependencies (Dependencias Federales Venezuela 's states capital district and federal dependencies have been grouped into administrative regions since a 1969 decree on regionalization The Capital District (Distrito Capital of Venezuela is a Federal district corresponding to the Capital Caracas. Guayana Esequiba is the territory of Guyana claimed by Venezuela. Venezuela is further subdivided into 335 municipalities (municipios); these are subdivided into over one thousand parishes (parroquias). A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or A parish is a Local church; it is an administrative unit typically found in episcopal or presbyterian churches The states are grouped into nine administrative regions. (regiones administrativas), which were established by presidential decree. Historically, Venezuela has also claimed all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River; this 159,500 square kilometres (61,583 sq mi) tract was dubbed Guayana Esequiba or the Zona en Reclamación (the "zone to be reclaimed"). Guyana (ɡaɪˈænə or /ɡiːˈɑːnə/ officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana and previously known as British Guiana, is the only Nation state The Essequibo River is the longest River in Guyana, and the largest river between the Orinoco and Amazon. 
|Andean||Barinas, Mérida, Táchira, Trujillo, Páez Municipality of Apure|
|Capital||Miranda, Vargas, Capital District|
|Central||Aragua, Carabobo, Cojedes|
|Central-Western||Falcón, Lara, Portuguesa, Yaracuy|
|Guayana||Bolívar, Amazonas, Delta Amacuro|
|Insular||Nueva Esparta, Federal Dependencies|
|Llanos||Apure (excluding Paez Municipality), Guárico|
|North-Eastern||Anzoátegui, Monagas, Sucre|
Venezuela's mainland rests on the South American Plate; With 2,800 kilometres (1,740 mi) of coastline, Venezuela is home to a wide variety of landscapes. The South American Plate is a Tectonic plate covering the Continent of South America and extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The extreme northeastern extensions of the Andes reach into Venezuela's northwest and continue along the northern Caribbean coast. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. For the region see Caribbean. The Caribbean Sea (kəˈrɪbiən or /ˌkærɨˈbiːən/ is a tropical Sea in the Western Hemisphere Pico Bolívar, the nation's highest point at 4,979 metres (16,335 ft), lies in this region. The Pico Bolívar is the highest mountain in Venezuela, at 4981 meters The country's center is characterized by the llanos, extensive plains that stretch from the Colombian border in the far west to the Orinoco River delta in the east. Los Llanos redirect here for the Chilean region see Los Llanos Chile Los Llanos (meaning the flat plains is a vast Tropical grassland ORiNOCO is the brand name that was used for a family of wireless networking solutions by Proxim (previously Lucent) A delta is a Landform where the mouth of a River flows into an Ocean, Sea, Estuary, Lake or another river To the south, the dissected Guiana Highlands is home to the northern fringes of the Amazon Basin and Angel Falls, the world's highest waterfall. Not to be confused with Angel Falls (Maine. Angel Falls (indigenous name Churun Merú or Kerepakupai merú) is the world's highest A waterfall is usually a geological formation resulting from water often in the form of a Stream, flowing over an Erosion -resistant rock The Orinoco, with its rich alluvial soils, binds the largest and most important river system of the country; it originates in one of the largest watersheds in Latin America. Alluvium (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against" is Soil or Sediments deposited by a river or other running A drainage basin is an extent of Land where Water from Rain or Snow melt drains downhill into a body of water such as a River, The Caroní and the Apure are other major rivers. The Caroní River is a major river of the Orinoco basin in South America, having its source in South Eastern Venezuela, in the Guiana Highlands The Apure River is a river of western Venezuela, formed by the confluence of the Sarare and Uribante near Guasdualito in Venezuela at.
The country can be further divided into ten geographical areas, some corresponding to climatic and biogeographical regions. In the north are the Venezuelan Andes and the Coro region, a mountainous tract in the northwest, is home to several sierras and valleys. The Coro region is the hilly and semi-mountainous area in northwest Venezuela, north of the Mérida Andes and east of the Maracaibo Basin, extending north East of it are lowlands abutting Lake Maracaibo and the Gulf of Venezuela. Lake Maracaibo is a large Brackish Lake in Venezuela at. It is connected to the Gulf of Venezuela by Tablazo Strait (55km on the northern edge The Gulf of Venezuela or gulf of Coquivacoa is a gulf of the Caribbean Sea bounded by the Venezuelan states of Zulia and Falcón The Central Range runs parallel to the coast and includes the hills surrounding Caracas; the Eastern Range, separated from the Central Range by the Gulf of Cariaco, covers all of Sucre and northern Monagas. Caracas (kaˈɾakas is the Capital and largest city of Venezuela. The Cariaco Basin lies off the north central coast of Venezuela and forms the Gulf of Cariaco. Estado Sucre is one of the 23 states ''(estados'' into which Venezuela is divided The Llanos region comprises a third of the country's area north of the Orinoco River. Los Llanos redirect here for the Chilean region see Los Llanos Chile Los Llanos (meaning the flat plains is a vast Tropical grassland South of it lies the Guiana Shield, a massive two billion year old Precambrian geological formation featuring tepuis, mysterious table-like mountains. The Guiana Shield (Guayana is one of the three Cratons of the South American Plate. The Precambrian ( Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the Geologic timescale that came before the current A Tepui (or Tepuy) (ˈtɛpˌwi is a table-top mountain ( Mesa) found only in the Guayana highlands of South America, especially in Venezuela The Insular Region includes all of Venezuela's island possessions: Nueva Esparta and the various Federal Dependencies. The Insular Region is one of the ten traditional geographical regions of Venezuela; it comprises all of the nation's islands and is formed by Nueva Esparta and An island (ˈaɪlənd or isle (/ˈaɪl/ is any piece of land that is completely surrounded by water in two dimensions above high tide and isolated from other significant Nueva Esparta (New Sparta is one of the 23 states ''(estados'' of Venezuela. The Federal Dependencies of Venezuela ( Spanish Dependencias Federales) encompass all of Venezuela 's off shore islands in the Caribbean Sea and The Deltaic System, which forms a triangle covering Delta Amacuro, projects northeast into the Atlantic Ocean. The Orinoco Delta, also known as the Deltaic System ( Sistema Deltaico) is a vast River delta of the Orinoco River, located in eastern Venezuela Estado Delta Amacuro is one of the 23 states ''(estados'' into which Venezuela is divided
Though Venezuela is entirely situated in the tropics, its climate varies substantially; it varies from that of humid low-elevation plains, where average annual temperatures range as high as 28 °C (82 °F), to glaciers and highlands (the páramos) with an average yearly temperature of 8 °C (46 °F). Annual rainfall varies between 430 millimetres (17 in) in the semiarid portions of the northwest to 1,000 millimetres (39 in) in the Orinoco Delta of the far east. Most precipitation falls between May and November (the rainy season or "winter"); the drier and hotter remainder of the year is known as "summer", though temperature variation throughout the year is not as pronounced as at temperate latitudes. 
Venezuela lies within the Neotropic ecozone; large portions of the country were originally covered by moist broadleaf forests. In Biogeography, Neotropic or Neotropical refers to one of the world's eight terrestrial Ecozones This ecozone includes South and Central America the Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF also known as tropical moist forests, are a Tropical and Subtropical Forest One of seventeen megadiverse countries and among the top twenty countries in terms of endemism, some 38% of the over 21,000 plant species are unique to the country; 23% of reptilian and 50% of amphibian species are also endemic. The megadiverse countries are a group of countries that harbor the majority of the earth's species and are therefore considered extremely Biodiverse. Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere Reptiles, or members of the class Reptilia are air-breathing Cold-blooded Vertebrates that have skin covered in scales as opposed to hair or feathers Prehistoric amphibian Amphibians (class Amphibia such as Frogs Toads Salamanders Newts Gymnophiona, Sirens and  Venezuela hosts significant biodiversity across habitats ranging from xeric scrublands in the extreme northwest to coastal mangrove forests in the northeast. Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. Mangroves (generally are Trees and Shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats in the Tropics and Subtropics.  Its cloud forests and lowland rainforests are particularly rich, for example hosting over 25,000 species of orchids. A cloud forest, also called a fog forest, is a generally Tropical or Subtropical evergreen Montane moist forest characterized by a Rainforests are Forests characterized by high Rainfall with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 1750–2000 mm (68-78 inches These include the flor de mayo orchid (Cattleya mossiae), the national flower.
Venezuela's national tree is the araguaney, whose characteristic lushness after the rainy season led novelist Rómulo Gallegos to name it «[l]a primavera de oro de los araguaneyes» ("the golden spring of the araguaneyes"). Tabebuia chrysantha ( Araguaney or Yellow Ipê) known as cañaguate in northern Colombia as tajibo in Rómulo Gallegos Freire ( August 2 1884 &ndash April 7 1969) was a Venezuelan Novelist and Politician. Notable mammals include the giant anteater, jaguar, and the capybara, the world's largest rodent. Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands The Giant Anteater, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, is the largest Species of Anteater. The jaguar (Panthera onca,, or—especially in British English — is a New World Mammal of the Felidae family and one of Capybara ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) also known as capibara, chigüire in Venezuela chigüiro, carpincho Rodentia is an order of Mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must More than half of Venezuelan avian and mammalian species are found in the Amazonian forests south of the Orinoco. Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands The Amazon Rainforest (Brazilian Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Spanish: Selva Amazónica or Amazonía  Manatees, Boto river dolphins, and Orinoco crocodiles, which reach up to 7 metres (23 ft) in length, are notable aquatic species. Manatees ( family Trichechidae, Genus Trichechus) are large fully aquatic Marine mammals sometimes known as sea River dolphins are four living species of Dolphin which reside in freshwater rivers and Estuaries. The Orinoco Crocodile, Crocodylus intermedius, is a Critically endangered Crocodile found in freshwater in northern South America, in particular Venezuela also hosts a huge number of bird species, a total of 1,417, 48 of which are endemic. Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere  Important birds include ibises, ospreys, kingfishers, and the yellow-orange turpial, the national bird. The ibises (pronounced /ˈaɪbɪsɪz/ are a group of long-legged wading Birds in the family Threskiornithidae. The Osprey (Pandion haliaetus, also called Sea Hawk, is a diurnal, fish-eating Bird of prey. Kingfishers are small bright colored Birds of the three families Alcedinidae ( River kingfishers, Halcyonidae ( Tree kingfishers, and Cerylidae ( Water The Troupial or Trupial, also known as Icterus icterus is the national bird of Venezuela and one of about 25 or so species of "New World Orioles"
In recent decades, logging, mining, shifting cultivation, development, and other human activities have posed a major threat to Venezuela's wildlife; between 1990 and 2000, 0. For methods see Slash and burn Shifting cultivation is an Agricultural system in which plots of land are cultivated temporarily then abandoned 40% of forest cover was cleared annually.  In response, federal protections for critical habitat were implemented; for example, 20% to 33% of forested land is protected.  Venezuela is currently home to a biosphere reserve that is part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; five wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention. A biosphere reserve is an international Conservation designation given by UNESCO under its Programme on The World Network of Biosphere Reserves was established at the International Conference on Biosphere Reserves in Seville in 1995. The Ramsar Convention is an international Treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of Wetlands i  In 2003, 70% of the nation's land was under conservation management in over 200 protected areas, including 43 national parks. 
The petroleum sector dominates Venezuela's mixed economy, accounting for roughly a third of GDP, around 80% of exports, and more than half of government revenues. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit A mixed economy is an Economic system that incorporates aspects of more than one economic system The country's main petroleum deposits are located around and beneath Lake Maracaibo, the Gulf of Venezuela, and in the Orinoco River basin, where the country's largest reserve is located. Lake Maracaibo is a large Brackish Lake in Venezuela at. It is connected to the Gulf of Venezuela by Tablazo Strait (55km on the northern edge The Gulf of Venezuela or gulf of Coquivacoa is a gulf of the Caribbean Sea bounded by the Venezuelan states of Zulia and Falcón
Since 1926, Venezuelan Census does not contain information about ethnicity so only rough estimates are available. The Demographics of Venezuela are the condition and overview of Venezuela 's peoples There are at least 40 languages around Venezuela, but Spanish is the language spoken by the majority of Venezuelans Some 70% of the population are Mestizo, defined as a mixture of any other races; another 20% are unmixed caucasians, mostly of Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and German descent. Mestizo is a Spanish term that was coined during the Spanish Empire to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry in Latin Italo-Venezuelans are the Venezuelan citizens of Italian descent. The Portuguese people (os Portugueses literally the Portuguese) are the Ethnic group or Nation native to the country of Portugal, in the west The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as Other important groups include Afro-Venezuelans, though their numbers are unclear due to poor census data.  Asians, predominantly Lebanese, Arab , Chinese and Turkish descent, make up a small percentage of the population. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following A person who resides in and holds citizenship of the People's Republic of China (including Hong The Turkish people (Türk Halkı also known as " Turks " ( Türkler) are defined mainly as being speakers of Turkish as a First language Only about 5% of Venezuelans are Indigenous.  These groups were joined by sponsored migrants from throughout Europe and neighboring parts of South America by the mid-20th century economic boom.
About 85% of the population live in urban areas in northern Venezuela; 73% live less than 100 kilometres (62 mi) from the coastline.  Though almost half of Venezuela's land area lies south of the Orinoco, only 5% of Venezuelans live there.
The national and official language is Spanish; 31 indigenous languages are also spoken, including Guajibo, Pemon, Warao, Wayuu, and the various Yanomaman languages. Guahibo, the native language of the Guahibo people, is a Guahiban language that is spoken by about 23006 people in Colombia and additional 8428 in "Pemon" redirects here For the Wasp Genus, see Pemon (wasp The Warao are an indigenous people inhabiting northeastern Venezuela and western Guyana. Wayuu language Wayuu (also Wayu, Wayúu, Guajiro, Wahiro) is an Amerindian ethnic group of the La Guajira Peninsula Yanomaman (also Yanomam, Yanomáman, Yamomámi, Yanomamana, Shamatari, Shirianan) is a small Language family 83% of the population belongs to the Roman Catholic Church.
Venezuela's heritage, art, and culture have been heavily influenced by its Latin American context. The Culture of Venezuela is product of a very rich and diverse set of cultural traditions Racial and Cultural Identity There are two classes in Venezuela as it pertains to race and cultural identity One of the many popular representations of the Virgin Mary in Venezuela. Maracaibo is the second-largest city in Venezuela after the national capital Caracas and is the capital of Zulia state Racial and Cultural Identity There are two classes in Venezuela as it pertains to race and cultural identity Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual These elements extend to its historic buildings, architecture, art, landscape, boundaries, and monuments. Venezuelan culture has been shaped by indigenous, Spanish and African influences. The Culture of Venezuela is product of a very rich and diverse set of cultural traditions The term Indigenous Peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any Ethnic group who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest historical Before this period, indigenous culture was expressed in art (petroglyphs), crafts, architecture (shabonos), and social organization. Petroglyphs are Images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising pecking carving and abrading A craft is a Skill, especially involving practical arts. It may refer to a Trade or particular art A shabono (also xapono or yano) is a hut used by the Yanomami Amerindians of extreme southern Venezuela and extreme northern Aboriginal culture was subsequently assimilated by Spaniards; over the years, the hybrid culture had diversified by region.
Venezuelan art was initially dominated by religious motifs, but began emphasizing historical and heroic representations in the late 19th century, a move led by Martín Tovar y Tovar. Venezuela 's Museums and galleries are well on the way to forming a new discourse in which the public can experience and interact Martín Tovar y Tovar ( February 10 1827 &mdash December 17 1902) was one of the most important and high-profile Venezuelan painters Modernism took over in the 20th century. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Notable Venezuelan artists include Arturo Michelena, Cristóbal Rojas, Armando Reverón, Manuel Cabré, the kinetic artists Jesús-Rafael Soto and Carlos Cruz-Diez. Artists Martín Tovar y Tovar (1827–1902 Cristóbal Rojas (1857–1890 Arturo Michelena (1863–1898 Arturo Michelena ( June 16, 1863 - July 29, 1898) was a Venezuelan painter born in Valencia, Carabobo State Cristóbal Rojas ( Cúa, Miranda, 15 December 1857 &mdash Caracas, 8 November 1890) was one of the most important Armando Julio Reverón ( Caracas May 10, 1889 &ndash Caracas, September 18, 1954) was the most important Modernist Manuel Cabré ( 25 January 1890 &ndash 26 February 1984) was a noted Venezuelan painter. Kinetic art is art that contains moving parts or depends on motion for its effect Jesús Rafael Soto ( June 5, 1923 - January 14, 2005) was a Venezuelan artist Carlos Cruz-Díez (born August 17, 1923 in Caracas) is a Venezuelan kinetic and Op artist He is a well-known international
Venezuelan literature originated soon after the Spanish conquest of the mostly pre-literate indigenous societies; it was dominated by Spanish influences. Venezuelan literature can be traced to pre-Hispanic times with the myths and Oral literature that formed the cosmogonic view of the world that indigenous people had The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spain 's conquest settlement and rule over much of the Western hemisphere. The culture of Spain is an Iberian culture marked by the period of Roman influences Following the rise of political literature during the War of Independence, Venezuelan Romanticism, notably expounded by Juan Vicente González, emerged as the first important genre in the region. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Although mainly focused on narrative writing, Venezuelan literature was advanced by poets such as Andrés Eloy Blanco and Fermín Toro. A narrative or story is a construct created in a suitable format (written spoken poetry prose images song Theater, or Dance) that describes a sequence of Andrés Eloy Blanco Meaño ( Cumaná, Sucre state, Venezuela, August 6, 1897 - Mexico City, Mexico, Major writers and novelists include Rómulo Gallegos, Teresa de la Parra, Arturo Uslar Pietri, Adriano González León, Miguel Otero Silva, and Mariano Picón Salas. Rómulo Gallegos Freire ( August 2 1884 &ndash April 7 1969) was a Venezuelan Novelist and Politician. Teresa de la Parra ( October 5, 1889 – April 23, 1936) was a Venezuelan novelist Arturo Uslar Pietri ( May 16, 1906 – February 26, 2001) was one of the most prominent Venezuelan figures of the twentieth century Adriano González León ( Valera, Trujillo State, 1931 - Caracas, January 12, 2008) was a Venezuelan writer who is known in his Miguel Otero Silva ( October 26, 1908 - August 28, 1985) was a Venezuelan writer journalist Humorist and Politician Mariano Picón Salas, an influential Venezuelan diplomatic cultural critic and writer of the 20th century was born in Mérida ( Mérida State) on The great poet and humanist Andrés Bello was also an educator and intellectual. Andrés de Jesús María y José Bello López (b Caracas, Venezuela, d Others, such as Laureano Vallenilla Lanz and José Gil Fortoul, contributed to Venezuelan Positivism. Laureano Vallenilla Lanz (born November 10, 1870; died November 16, 1936) was a Venezuelan intellectual and Sociologist. Positivism is the Philosophy that the only authentic knowledge is knowledge that is based on actual sense experience
Carlos Raúl Villanueva was the most important Venezuelan architect of the modern era; he designed the Central University of Venezuela, (a World Heritage Site) and its Aula Magna. Carlos Raúl Villanueva ( London May 30, 1900 - Caracas August 16, 1975) was the most prominent Venezuelan The Central University of Venezuela (or Universidad Central de Venezuela in Spanish) is a premier public University of Venezuela located A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Other notable architectural works include the Capitol, the Baralt Theatre, the Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex, and the General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge. The Baralt Theater * ( Teatro Baralt) is an important cultural complex located in Maracaibo, Venezuela. The Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex ( Complejo Cultural Teresa Carreño) or more commonly the Teresa Carreño Theater ( Teatro Teresa Carreño) is one The General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge is located at the outlet Lake Maracaibo, in western Venezuela.
Indigenous musical styles of Venezuela are exemplified by the groups Un Solo Pueblo and Serenata Guayanesa. Several styles of traditional Venezuelan music, such as salsa and merengue are common to its Caribbean Serenata Guayanesa is a vocal and instrumental quartet playing typical Venezuelan Folk music. The national musical instrument is the cuatro. Typical musical styles and pieces mainly emerged in and around the llanos region, including Alma Llanera (by Pedro Elías Gutiérrez and Rafael Bolivar Coronado), Florentino y el Diablo (by Alberto Arvelo Torrealba), Concierto en la Llanura by Juan Vicente Torrealba, and Caballo Viejo (by Simón Díaz). Alma Llanera is a popular Joropo song composed by Pedro Elías Gutiérrez and lyrics of Rafael Bolívar Coronado. Pedro Elías Gutiérrez ( La Guaira, March 14 1870 &ndash Macuto, May 31 1954) was a Venezuelan Musician Rafael Bolívar Coronado was born in Villa de Cura ( Aragua) Venezuela, on June 6, 1884. Alberto Arvelo Torrealba ( Barinas, Venezuela, September 4 1905 - Caracas, March 28 1971) was a Venezuelan Juan Vicente Torrealba Pérez (born February 20, 1917) in Caracas, Venezuela, is a Venezuelan Harpist and Composer Caballo Viejo is a Venezuelan Folk song written and performed by Simón Díaz, which appears on the 1980 album Caballo Viejo Simón Díaz (born August 8, 1928) is a celebrated Singer and Composer of Venezuelan music whose work is regarded as one of the most important The Zulian gaita is also a popular style, generally performed during Christmas. The Gaita is the name of a Venezuelan folk Music from Maracaibo, Zulia state The national dance is the joropo. The Joropo is a Musical style resembling the waltz, and an accompanying Dance, having African and European influences Teresa Carreño was a world-famous 19th century piano virtuosa. María Teresa Carreño García de Sena ( December 22 1853 - June 12 1917) was a Venezuelan pianist singer composer and conductor In the last years, Classical Music has had great performances. The Simon Bolivar Youth Orchestra has realized excellent presentations in many European theaters and has received honors of the public.
Baseball is Venezuela's most popular sport, although football (soccer), spearheaded by the Venezuela national football team, is gaining influence. Baseball is a Bat-and-ball Sport played between two teams of nine players each Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered The Venezuela national football team is the national football team of Venezuela and is controlled by the Federación Venezolana de Fútbol. Famous Venezuelan baseball players include Luis Aparicio (inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame), David (Dave) Concepción, Oswaldo (Ozzie) Guillén (current White Sox manager, World Series champion in 2005), Cubs Ace Carlos Zambrano, Freddy Garcia, Andrés Galarraga, Omar Vizquel (an eleven-time Gold Glove winner), Luis Sojo, Miguel Cabrera, Bobby Abreu, Félix Hernández, Magglio Ordóñez, Ugueth Urbina, Víctor Martínez, Rafael Betancourt, and Johan Santana (a two-time unanimously selected Cy Young Award winner). Luis Ernesto Aparicio Montiel (born April 29, 1934) is a former Shortstop in Professional baseball and a member of the Baseball Hall of David Ismael Concepción Benitez (born June 17, 1948) better known as Dave Concepción, is a former Shortstop in Major League Baseball Oswaldo José Guillén Barrios (born January 20, 1964 in Ocumare del Tuy, Miranda State, Venezuela) well known as Ozzie Guillén Carlos Alberto Zambrano (born June 1 1981 in Puerto Cabello, Venezuela) popularly known as "Big Z" or "El Toro", is a right-handed Freddy Antonio García (born October 6, 1976 in Caracas, Venezuela) is a Starting pitcher in Major League Baseball Andrés José Padovani Galarraga (ˌɡæləˌɹɑɡə in English and /ɡalaˈraɡa/ in Spanish) (born June 18, 1961 in Caracas Venezuela Omar Enrique Vizquel Gonzalez (born April 24, 1967 in Caracas, Venezuela) is a Major League Baseball Shortstop playing Luis Beltrán Sojo (ˈsoʊhoʊ SOE-ho) (born January 3, 1966 in Petare Miranda State, Venezuela) is a former Major League Baseball José Miguel Torres Cabrera (born April 18 1983 in Maracay, Aragua State, Venezuela) is a Major League Baseball First baseman Bob Kelly "Bobby" Abreu /aˈbreʲu/ (nicknamed El Comedulce) (born March 11 1974 in Turmero Aragua State, Venezuela) is a Major League Félix Abraham Hernández (born April 8, 1986 in Valencia Venezuela) is a Major League Baseball Starting pitcher for the Magglio Jose Ordóñez (ɔrˈdoʊnjɛz "or-DOH-nyez" in English is a Major League Baseball Right fielder and right-handed batter born on January 28 Ugueth Urtaín Urbina Villarreal (uˈgɛt urˈbinə (born ( February 15, 1974 in Caracas Venezuela) is a former Relief pitcher in Major Víctor Jesús Martínez (born December 23, 1978 in Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar, Venezuela) is a switch-hitting Rafael José Betancourt (born April 29, 1975 in Cumaná, Sucre State, Venezuela) is a Major League Baseball For the Dominican -born Major League Baseball player born Johan Santana see Ervin Santana. In Baseball, the Cy Young Award is an honor given annually to the best Pitcher in Major League Baseball (one each for American and National
The World Values Survey has consistently shown Venezuelans to be among the happiest people in the world, with 55% of those questioned saying they were "very happy". The World Values Survey is an ongoing academic project by Social scientists to assess the state of sociocultural moral religious and political values of different Cultures 
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