Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products . Poultry is the category of Domesticated Birds which some humans keep for the purpose of collecting their eggs, or kill for their Meat and/or Game is any Animal hunted for Food or not normally domesticated (such as Venison) Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two Structure of crustaceans As Arthropods crustaceans have a stiff Exoskeleton, which must be shed to allow the animal to grow ( Ecdysis or molting The reasons for choosing vegetarianism may be related to morality, religion, culture, ethics, aesthetics, environment, society, economy, politics, taste, or health.
There are several variants of the diet, some of which also exclude eggs and/or some products produced from animal labor such as dairy products and honey. An egg is a round or oval body laid by the female of many animals consisting of an Ovum surrounded by layers of Membranes and an outer casing which acts to nourish Dairy products are generally defined as Foodstuffs produced from Milk. Honey is a sweet and Viscous fluid produced by Honey bees (and some other species and derived from the nectar of Flowers According to the Veganism, for example, excludes all animal products from diet. Animal products are either produced by an Animal or taken from the body of an animal By some strict definitions, animal products are not used for attire either, whether or not the production of clothing or items has directly involved the actual death of an animal (dairy, eggs, honey, wool, silk, down feathers, etc. A dairy is a facility for the extraction and processing of animal Milk &mdashmostly from goats or cows, but also from buffalo, Sheep An egg is a round or oval body laid by the female of many animals consisting of an Ovum surrounded by layers of Membranes and an outer casing which acts to nourish Honey is a sweet and Viscous fluid produced by Honey bees (and some other species and derived from the nectar of Flowers According to the Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons For the record label see Duck Down Records The down of Birds is a layer of fine Feathers found under the tougher exterior feathers ).  A generic term for both vegetarianism and veganism, as well as for similar diets, is "plant-based diets". 
Properly planned vegetarian diets have been found to satisfy the nutritional needs for all stages of life, and large-scale studies have shown vegetarianism to significantly lower risks of cancer, ischemic heart disease, and other diseases. Ischaemic or ischemic heart disease (IHD or myocardial ischaemia, is a Disease characterized by reduced blood supply to the heart muscle 
|Diet Name||Meat, Poultry, Fish||Eggs||Dairy||Honey|
It should be noted that most vegetarians also are aware of avoiding products that may use animal ingredients not included in their labels or which use animal products in their manufacturing i. e. cheeses that use animal rennet, gelatin (from animal skin, bones, and connective tissue), some sugars that are whitened with bone char (e. Rennet (ˈrɛnɪt is a natural complex of enzymes produced in any Mammalian Stomach to digest the mother's milk and often used in the production of Cheese Gelatin (also gelatine, from French gélatine) is a translucent colourless brittle nearly tasteless solid substance, extracted from the Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, Muscle, and Nervous tissue) Bone char, also known as bone black or animal Charcoal, is a granular Material produced by charring animal Bones the bones are heated g. cane sugar, but not beet sugar) and alcohol clarified with gelatin or crushed shellfish and sturgeon. Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae Sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L a member of the Chenopodiaceae family is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of Sucrose. Gelatin (also gelatine, from French gélatine) is a translucent colourless brittle nearly tasteless solid substance, extracted from the Shellfish is a Culinary and Fisheries term for those aquatic Invertebrate animals that are used as Food: various species of molluscs Sturgeon is the Common name used for some 26 species of fish in the family Acipenseridae, including the genera Acipenser, Vegetarians often eat free-range as opposed to battery eggs on moral grounds.
Semi-vegetarian diets are diets that primarily consist of vegetarian foods, but make exceptions for some non-vegetarian foods. These diets may be followed by those who choose to reduce the amount of animal flesh consumed, or sometimes as a way of transitioning to a vegetarian diet. These terms are neologisms based on the word "vegetarian". A neologism (from Greek neo = "new" + logos = "word" is a word that although devised relatively recently in a specific time period has been They may be regarded with contention by some strict vegetarians, as they combine terms for vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets.
Additionally, many individuals describe themselves as simply "vegetarian" while actually practicing a semi-vegetarian diet. 
The first Vegetarian Society founded in 1847 claims to have "created the word vegetarian from the Latin 'vegetus' meaning 'lively' (which is how these early vegetarians claimed their diet made them feel) . The Vegetarian Society is a British registered charity established on 30 September 1847 with the aim of promoting understanding and respect for . . " However, the Oxford English Dictionary and other standard dictionaries state that the word was formed from the term "vegetable" and the suffix "-arian". The Oxford English Dictionary ( OED) published by the Oxford University Press (OUP is a comprehensive Dictionary of the English 
The Oxford English Dictionary also gives evidence that the word was already in use before the foundation of the Vegetarian Society:
But it also notes that "The general use of the word appears to have been largely due to the formation of the Vegetarian Society at Ramsgate in 1847. "
The earliest records of vegetarianism as a concept and practice amongst a significant number of people concern ancient India and the ancient Greek civilization in Southern Italy and in Greece in the 6th century BCE. Vegetarianism is the theory and practice of the voluntarily nonconsumption of the flesh of any Animal (including sea animals with or without also eschewing  In both instances the diet was closely connected with the idea of nonviolence towards animals (called ahimsa in India) and was promoted by religious groups and philosophers. Nonviolence is a philosophy and strategy for social change that rejects the use of physical Violence. Ahimsa ( Devanagari: sa अहिंसा IAST ahiṃsā is a Sanskrit term meaning Non-violence (literally the avoidance of violence -  Following the Christianization of the Roman Empire in late antiquity, vegetarianism practically disappeared from Europe.  Several orders of monks in medieval Europe restricted or banned the consumption of meat for ascetic reasons, but none of them eschewed fish. MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective Ascetic redirects here You might also be looking for Acetic acid.  Vegetarianism was to reemerge somewhat in Europe during the Renaissance. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere  It became a more widespread practice in the 19th and 20th centuries.
In 1847 the first Vegetarian Society was founded in England; Germany, the Netherlands and other countries followed. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The International Vegetarian Union, a union of the national societies, was founded in 1908. The International Vegetarian Union (IVU was founded in 1908 when the first World Vegetarian Congress was held in Dresden, Germany In the Western world, the popularity of vegetarianism grew during the 20th century as a result of nutritional, ethical, and more recently, environmental and economic concerns. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings The environmental movement, a term that includes the conservation and green movements is a diverse scientific social and Political movement for An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area Today, Indian vegetarians, primarily lacto vegetarians, are estimated to make up more than 70% of the world's vegetarians. A lactovegetarian diet is a vegetarian diet which includes Dairy products such as Milk, Cheese, Yogurt, Butter, Cream They make up 20–42% of the population in India, while less than 30% are regular meat-eaters.  Surveys in the U. S. have found that roughly 1–2. 8% of adults eat no meat (including poultry or fish). 
Vegetarianism is considered a healthy, viable diet. The American Dietetic Association and the Dietitians of Canada have found a properly-planned vegetarian diet to satisfy the nutritional needs for all stages of life, and large-scale studies have shown vegetarianism to significantly lower risks of cancer, ischemic heart disease, and other fatal diseases.  Necessary nutrients, proteins, and amino acids for the body's sustenance can be found in green leafy vegetables, grains, nuts, and fortified juices or soymilk. 
Vegetarian diets can aid in keeping body weight under control and substantially reduce risks of heart disease and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a Disease of Bone that leads to an increased risk of fracture.  Non-lean red meat, in particular, has been found to be directly associated with dramatically increased risk of cancers of the lung, esophagus, liver, and colon. Lung cancer is a Disease of uncontrolled Cell growth in tissues of the Lung. Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or large bowel cancer, includes Cancerous growths in the colon, Rectum and  Other studies have shown that there were no significant differences between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in mortality from cerebrovascular disease, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, or prostate cancer. 
The American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada have stated: "Vegetarian diets offer a number of nutritional benefits, including lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein as well as higher levels of carbohydrates, fiber, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and phytochemicals. The American Dietetic Association ( ADA) is the United States ' largest organization of Food and Nutrition professionals with nearly 67000 members Saturated fat is Fat that consists of Triglycerides containing only saturated Fatty acids Explanation Fat that occurs Cholesterol is a Lipid found in the Cell membranes and transported in the Blood plasma of all Animals It is an essential component of mammalian Fiber or fibre is a class of Materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces similar to lengths of thread. Magnesium (mægˈniːziəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Mg, Atomic number 12 Atomic weight 24 Potassium (pəˈtæsiəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol K (kalium from qalīy Atomic number 19 and Atomic mass 39 Folic acid (also known as Vitamin M and Folacin) and Folate (the Anionic form are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9 An antioxidant is a Molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules A vitamin is an Organic compound required as a Nutrient in tiny amounts by an Organism. Phytochemicals are plant-derived chemical compounds under scientific research for their potential health-promoting properties but with unproved benefits " American vegetarians tend to have lower body mass index, lower levels of cholesterol, lower blood pressure, and less incidence of heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, renal disease, osteoporosis, dementias such as Alzheimer’s Disease and other disorders. The body mass index ( BMI) or Quetelet index, is a statistical measurement which compares a person's weight and height Cholesterol is a Lipid found in the Cell membranes and transported in the Blood plasma of all Animals It is an essential component of mammalian Blood pressure is also the title of a short story by Damon Runyan in Guys and Dolls and Other Stories Heart disease is an Umbrella term for a variety for different diseases affecting the Heart. Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, HTN or HPN, is a medical condition in which the Blood pressure is chronically elevated Diabetes mellitus (ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz or /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtəs/ /məˈlaɪtəs/ or /ˈmɛlətəs/ often referred to simply as diabetes ( Ancient Greek: grc The kidneys are complicated organs that have numerous biological roles Osteoporosis is a Disease of Bone that leads to an increased risk of fracture. Dementia (from Latin de- "apart away" + Mens ( genitive mentis) "mind" is the progressive decline Alzheimer's disease ( AD) also called Alzheimer disease or simply Alzheimer's, is the most common form of Dementia. 
Western vegetarian diets are typically high in carotenoids, but relatively low in long-chain n-3 fatty acids, and vitamin B12. Vegetarian Nutrition is the set of health-related challenges and advantages of vegetarian diets Barcelona ( Catalan bəɾsəˈlonə Spanish baɾθeˈlona is the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia n −3 fatty acids (popularly referred to as ω−3 fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids) are a family of unsaturated Fatty acids that Vegans can have particularly low intake of vitamin B and calcium if they do not eat enough items such as collard greens, leafy greens, tempeh and tofu. Calcium (ˈkælsiəm is the Chemical element with the symbol Ca and Atomic number 20 High levels of dietary fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, and magnesium, and low consumption of saturated fat could all be beneficial aspects of a vegetarian diet. 
Protein intake in vegetarian and vegan diets is only slightly lower than in meat diets and can meet daily requirements for any person, including athletes and bodybuilders.  Studies by Harvard University as well as other studies conducted in the United States, Great Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and various European countries, have confirmed that vegetarian diets provide more than sufficient protein intake as long as a variety of plant sources are available and consumed.  Proteins are composed of amino acids, and a common concern with protein acquired from vegetable sources is an adequate intake of the "essential amino acids", which cannot be synthesized by the human body. In Chemistry, an amino acid is a Molecule containing both Amine and Carboxyl Functional groups In Biochemistry, this An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an Amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to While dairy and egg products provide complete sources for lacto-ovo vegetarians, the only vegetable sources with significant amounts of all eight types of essential amino acids are soy, hempseed, chia seed, amaranth, buckwheat and quinoa. A lacto-ovo-vegetarian is a vegetarian who does not eat beef pork poultry fish shellfish or animal flesh of any kind but is willing to consume dairy and This article is about the cultivation and uses of industrial hemp not its psychoactive cousin Cannabis (drug. Chia ( Salvia hispanica) is a plant of the genus Salvia in the Mint family Amaranth has been cultivated as a grain for 8000 years. The yield of grain amaranth is comparable to Rice or Maize. Buckwheat refers to plants in two genera of the Dicot family Polygonaceae: the Eurasian genus Fagopyrum, and the North American genus For the town with a similar name see Quinua Peru. "Quinoa" is also a title of a 1992 music album by Tangerine Dream. It is not necessary, however, to obtain protein from these sources — the essential amino acids can also be obtained by eating a variety of complementary plant sources that, in combination, provide all eight essential amino acids (eg. rice and beans, or hummus, pita, and vegetables, though protein combining in the same meal is not necessary). Protein combining (also protein complementing) is a controversial theory that Vegetarians particlarly Vegans must eat certain complementary foods like A varied intake of such sources can be adequate. 
Vegetarian diets typically contain similar levels of iron to non-vegetarian diets but this has lower bioavailability than iron from meat sources, and its absorption can be inhibited by other dietary constituents. Vegetarian foods rich in iron include black beans, cashews, kidney beans, lentils, oatmeal, raisins, black-eyed peas, soybeans, many breakfast cereals, sunflower seeds, chickpeas, veggie burgers, tomato juice, tempeh, molasses, and whole-wheat bread. The cashew ( Anacardium occidentale; Syn Anacardium curatellifolium A The lentil or daal or pulse ( Lens culinaris) is a bushy Annual plant of the legume family grown for its lens-shaped Seeds Breakfast cereal health benefits There has been increasing interest in oatmeal in recent years due to its beneficial health effects Raisins are dried Grapes They are produced in many regions of the world such as the United States, Australia, Chile, The black-eyed pea, also called black-eyed bean, blackeye, 眉豆 (Cant A breakfast cereal (often simply called cereal is a packaged food product made from Cereal intended to be consumed as part of a Breakfast. The sunflower seed is the Fruit of the Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus) The chickpea ( Cicer arietinum) (also garbanzo bean, Indian pea, ceci bean, bengal gram, chana, kadale kaalu, A veggie burger is a Vegetarian Hamburger. The patty of a veggie burger can be made from Vegetables Legumes nuts, Dairy Tomato juice is a Juice made from squeezed Tomatoes It is usually used as a Beverage, either plain or in Cocktails such as a Bloody Mary Tempeh, or tempe in Javanese, is made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process that binds Soybeans into a cake form Molasses or Treacle is a thick Syrup by-product from the processing of the Sugarcane or Sugar beet into Sugar. Whole grains are cereal grains that Bran and germ as well as the Endosperm, in contrast to Refined grains, which retain only  Vegan diets are usually higher in iron than vegetarian diets because dairy products are low in iron.  Iron stores are lower in vegetarians than non-vegetarians and iron deficiency is thus more common in vegetarian and vegan women and children (adult males are rarely iron deficient), but iron deficiency anaemia is rare. Anemia ( AmE) or anæmia/anaemia ( BrE) (from the Ancient Greek grc-Latn anaîmia, meaning “without blood” is defined as a qualitative 
Plants are not generally significant sources of Vitamin B12, and even nori (seaweed) does not contain it in significant amounts. Nori (海苔 ( 김 kim or gim) is the Japanese name for various edible Seaweed species of the Red alga Porphyra However, vegetarians can obtain it through dairy products, eggs, fortified foods and dietary supplements.  Since the human body preserves B12 and reuses it without destroying the substance, clinical evidence of B12 deficiency is uncommon.  The body can preserve stores of the vitamin for up to 30 years without needing its supplies to be replenished. 
The recommendation of taking supplements has been recently challenged by studies indicating that exogenous B12 may actually interfere with the proper absorption of this vitamin in its natural form.  The research on vitamin B12 sources has increased in the latest years  and researchers at Hiroshima University have developed methods for growing plants rich in vitamin B12. 
A vegetarian diet does not include fish — a major source of Omega 3 fatty acids, although some plant-based sources exist such as soy, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, canola oil and, especially, hempseed, chia seed, and flaxseed. Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two n −3 fatty acids (popularly referred to as ω−3 fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids) are a family of unsaturated Fatty acids that Walnuts (genus Juglans) are Plants in the family Juglandaceae. Pumpkin is a Gourd -like squash of the genus Cucurbita and the family Cucurbitaceae (which also includes gourds Canola is a type of Edible oil derived from plants initially bred in Canada by Keith Downey and Baldur Stefansson in the 1970s This article is about the cultivation and uses of industrial hemp not its psychoactive cousin Cannabis (drug. Chia ( Salvia hispanica) is a plant of the genus Salvia in the Mint family Flax (also known as common flax or linseed) (binomial name Linum usitatissimum) is a member of the genus Linum Plant foods can provide alpha-linolenic acid but not the long-chain n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, which are found in low levels in eggs and dairy products. α -Linolenic acid ( ALA) is an organic compound found in many common vegetable oils. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA or also icosapentaenoic acid is an Omega-3 fatty acid. Docosahexaenoic acid (commonly known as DHA; 226(ω-3 all-cis -docosa-4710131619-hexa- enoic acid Trivial name cervonic Vegetarians, and particularly vegans, have lower levels of EPA and DHA than meat-eaters. While the health effects of low levels of EPA and DHA are unknown, it is unlikely that supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid will significantly increase levels. 
Calcium intake in vegetarians is similar to non-vegetarians. Some impaired bone mineralisation has been attached to Vegans who don't consume enough leafy greens, which are sources of abundant calcium.  However, this is not found in vegetarians. 
Vitamin D levels do not appear to be lower in vegetarians (although studies have shown that much of the general population is deficient). Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble Prohormones, the two major forms of which are vitamin D2 (or Ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (or Vitamin D needs can be met via the human body's own generation upon sufficient and sensible UV sun exposure. Products including milk, soy milk and cereal grains may be fortified to provide a good source of Vitamin D and mushrooms provide over 2700 IU per serving (approx. Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes. Soy milk (also called soya milk, soybean milk, or soy juice) and sometimes referred to as soy drink/beverage is a beverage made from Fortifications are Military Constructions and Buildings designed for defense in Warfare Humans have constructed defensive works for A mushroom is the fleshy Spore -bearing Fruiting body of a Fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source 3 oz or 1/2 cup) of vitamin D2, if exposed to just 5 minutes of UV light after being harvested;. This article is about the unit of mass For the unit of force see Pound-force. Ergosterol (ergosta-5722-trien-3β-ol a Sterol, is a biological precursor (a Provitamin) to Vitamin D2. For those who don't get adequate sun exposure and/or food sources, Vitamin D supplementation may be necessary.
A 1999 metastudy compared six major studies from western countries. The study found that the mortality ratio was the lowest in fish eaters (0. The standardized mortality ratio or SMR in Epidemiology is the ratio of observed deaths to expected deaths according to a specific Health outcome in a 82) followed by vegetarians (0. 84) and occasional meat eaters (0. 84), and was then followed by regular meat eaters (1. 0) and vegan (1. 0) . When the study made its best estimate of mortality ratio with confounding factors considered, the mortality ratio for vegetarians was found to be (0. 94).
In "Mortality in British vegetarians", it was concluded that "British vegetarians have low mortality compared with the general population. Their death rates are similar to those of comparable non-vegetarians, suggesting that much of this benefit may be attributed to non-dietary lifestyle factors such as a low prevalence of smoking and a generally high socio-economic status, or to aspects of the diet other than the avoidance of meat and fish. "
The Adventist Health Study is an ongoing study of life expectancy in Seventh-day Adventists. The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated " Adventist " Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance This is the only study among others with similar methodology which had favourable indication for vegetarianism. The researchers found that a combination of different lifestyle choices could influence life expectancy by as much as 10 years. Among the lifestyle choices investigated, a vegetarian diet was estimated to confer an extra 1-1/2 to 2 years of life. The researchers concluded that "the life expectancies of California Adventist men and women are higher than those of any other well-described natural population" at 78. 5 years for men and 82. 3 years for women. The life expectancy of California Adventists surviving to age 30 was 83. Life expectancy is the average number of years of life remaining at a given age 3 years for men and 85. 7 years for women. 
However, Adventist health study is again incorporated into meta studies titled "Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans?" published in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, which made the conclusion that occasional/low meat eating and other life style choices significantly increase the life expectancy.  The study also concluded that "Some of the variation in the survival advantage in vegetarians may have been due to marked differences between studies in adjustment for confounders, the definition of vegetarian, measurement error, age distribution, the healthy volunteer effect, and intake of specific plant foods by the vegetarians. " It further states that "This raises the possibility that a low-meat, high plant-food dietary pattern may be the true causal protective factor rather than simply elimination of meat from the diet. " In a recent review of studies relating low-meat diet patterns to all-cause mortality, Singh noted that "5 out of 5 studies indicated that adults who followed a low meat, high plant-food diet pattern experienced significant or marginally significant decreases in mortality risk relative to other patterns of intake. "
Statistical studies, such as comparing life expectancy with regional areas and local diets in Europe also have found life expectancy considerably greater in southern France, where a low meat, high plant Mediterranean diet is common, than northern France, where a diet with high meat content is more common. Life expectancy is the average number of years of life remaining at a given age This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Mediterranean diet is a modern nutritional recommendation inspired by the traditional dietary patterns of some of the countries of the Mediterranean Basin. 
A study by the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, and Institute of Physiological Chemistry looked at a group of 19 vegetarians (lacto-ovo) and used as a comparison a group of 19 omnivorous subjects recruited from the same region. The study found that vegetarians (lacto-ovo) have a significantly higher amount of plasma carboxymethyllysine and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) compared to omnivores . N(6-carboxymethyllysine is an Advanced glycation endproduct. Carboxymethyllysine is a glycation product which represents "a general marker of oxidative stress and long-term damage of proteins in aging, atherosclerosis and diabetes. Glycation (sometimes called non-enzymatic Glycosylation) is the result of a sugar molecule such as Fructose or Glucose, bonding to a Protein " "Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may play an important adverse role in process of atherosclerosis, diabetes, aging and chronic renal failure. " The researchers theorized that it may be the higher fructose intake of vegetarians (from higher fruit and vegetable intake) that increased their AGEs levels. Fructose (also levulose or laevulose) is a simple reducing Sugar ( Monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three Some nutritional experts, such as low carb advocate Michael R. Low-carbohydrate diets or low-carb diets are dietary programs that restrict Carbohydrate consumption usually for Weight control or for the treatment of Eades, M. D. , have said that this study suggests that vegetarians age faster than those eating an omnivorous diet.
Vegetarianism is believed to reduce E. coli infections, and proponents point to the link between E.coli contaminations in food and industrial scale meat and dairy farms. The most recent E. coli outbreak in North America has once again demonstrated this link because the source of this E. The 2006 North American E coli outbreak was an outbreak in two principal phases of foodborne ''E coli was traced back to "a large ranch in the Salinas Valley that has a beef cattle operation" about a half-mile from the spinach fields where spinach became contaminated. 
There are several variants of E. coli and they can be found in a healthy human gut, but the deadly strain, O157:H7 was virtually unheard of until the 1980s. Escherichia coli O157H7 is an Enterohemorrhagic strain of the bacterium Escherichia coli and a cause of Foodborne illness It is believed that this strain evolved in the digestive system of grain fed cattle on large industrial farms.  On these farms, grain is used as cattle feed because it is nutrient-packed and increases efficiency. A side effect of feeding grain to cattle is that it increases the acidity of their stomach — and it is in this acidic gut that the deadly O157:H7 thrives.
In 2003, an article in the Journal of Dairy Science found that between 30 and 80 percent of cattle carry E. coli O157:H7.  In that same journal article, a quick fix was pointed out: Cows that are switched from a grain diet to a forage diet saw, within 5 days, a 1,000 fold decrease in the abundance of strain O157. But until changes like this are made, the source of many E. coli outbreaks will continue to be high-yield (industrial) meat and dairy farms. 
More likely, rather than change the way cattle are fed or raised on industrial farms there will instead be pressure to find technological solutions like food irradiation, plans for HACCP, or simply cooking burgers longer. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP is a systematic preventive approach to Food safety and pharmaceutical safety that addresses physical chemical, Suggestions like this have led some experts, like Professor of Science and Environmental Journalism at UC Berkeley, Michael Pollan, to suggest that "All of these solutions treat E. Michael Pollan (born February 6, 1955) is an American author columnist activist and professor of Journalism and director of the Knight Program in coli O157:H7 as an unavoidable fact of life rather than what it is: a fact of industrial agriculture. "
E. Coli can be still acquired from any excrement-contaminated food or human commensal bacteria. The recent case of spinach and onions with E. Coli contamination in the U. S. shows that vegetarian foods are also susceptible to food safety concerns.  In 2005, some people who had consumed branded triple-washed, pre-packaged lettuce were infected with E. Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa) is a Temperate annual or Biennial plant of the daisy family Asteraceae. Coli, and in 2007, branded lettuce salad were recalled after they were found to be contaminated by E. ColiIn fact E. coli outbreaks have also involved unpasteurized apple and orange juice, milk, alfalfa sprouts, and even water. Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa) is a flowering plant in the pea family Fabaceae cultivated as an important forage crop 
Various animal food safety scares over recent years have led to increased numbers of people choosing a semi-vegetarian or vegetarian diet.  These scares have included Avian influenza in poultry, foot-and-mouth in sheep, PCBs in farmed salmon, mercury in fish, generally high dioxin concentrations in animal products, and artificial growth hormones, antibiotics or BSE, also known as Mad Cow Disease, in cows. For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. Avian influenza, sometimes Avian flu, and commonly Bird flu refers Foot-and-mouth disease ( FMD) or hoof-and-mouth disease ( Aphtae epizooticae) is a highly contagious and sometimes fatal viral Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCB s are a class of Organic compounds with 1 to 10 Chlorine atoms attached to Biphenyl which is a molecule composed Mercury poisoning (also known as mercurialism, hydrargyria, Hunter-Russell syndrome, or acrodynia when affecting children is a Disease Not to be confused with Dioxane or Digoxin. Dioxin is a heterocyclic, organic, antiaromatic compound Growth hormone ( GH) is a Peptide hormone that stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals In modern usage an antibiotic is a Chemotherapeutic agent with activity against Microorganisms such as Bacteria, fungi or Protozoa Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy ( BSE) commonly known as Mad-Cow Disease ( MCD) is a fatal Neurodegenerative disease in Cattle According to various organisations, vCJD in humans is strongly linked with exposure to the BSE agent that has been found in beef. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease ( CJD) is a very rare and incurable degenerative neurological disorder ( Brain Disease) that is ultimately Beef is the Culinary name for Meat from Bovines especially domestic Cattle (cows  Toxins such as lead and mercury can bioaccumulate in animal products in higher concentrations than what is considered safe. Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate greater than that at ftudruinsubstance is lost  Vegetables and fruits have a risk of being contaminated by pesticide residue or by banned chemicals being used to ripen fruits.   Recent cases of several widespread outbreaks of salmonella infection, including outbreaks from contaminated peanut butter, frozen pot pies & puffed vegetable snacks also indicate that vegetarian foodstuff is succeptible to contamination. 
In Western medicine, patients are sometimes advised to adhere to a vegetarian diet. Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the  Certain alternative medicines, such as Ayurveda and Siddha, prescribe a vegetarian diet as a normal procedure. The term alternative medicine, as used in the modern western world encompasses any healing practice "that does not fall within the realm of conventional Medicine. Ayurveda ( Devanāgarī: आयुर्वॆद the 'science of life' is a system of Traditional medicine native to India, and practiced in other for the towns in Nepal see Siddha Nepal A siddha சித்தா in Tamil means "one who is accomplished" and refers to 
The mainstream scientific consensus is that humans are physiologically best suited to an omnivore diet. Human physiology is the science of the mechanical physical and biochemical functions of Humans in good health their organs and the cells of which they are composed Omnivores (from Latin omne all everything vorare to devour are species that eat both Plants and Animals as their primary The Vegetarian Resource Group, among others, has concluded that humans are naturally omnivores based on the human ability to digest meat as well as plant foods.  Other arguments, pushed by a small but vocal minority, hold that humans are more anatomically similar to herbivores, with long intestinal tracts and blunt teeth, unlike omnivores and carnivores. Herbivory is a form of Predation in which an Organism, known as a herbivore, consumes principally Autotrophs ref name=Campbell>Campbell Human teeth, including relatively blunt canines, are more similar to those found in animals with herbivore diets than in carnivores and most omnivores.  Nutritional experts believe that early hominids evolved into eating meat as a result of huge climatic changes that took place three to four million years ago, when forests and jungles dried up and became open grasslands and opened hunting and scavenging opportunities. A hominid is any member of the biological family Hominidae (the "great apes" including the extinct and extant Humans Chimpanzees 
Various ethical reasons have been suggested for choosing vegetarianism. Ethical issues regarding the consumption of Meat can include objections to the act of killing animals and the agricultural practices surrounding the It has been argued, for example, that the production, slaughtering, and consumption of meat or animal products is unethical. A slaughterhouse, also called an abattoir (from the French verb abattre, "to strike down" or freezing works ( New Zealand Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life Reasons for this include a belief in animal rights, an aversion to inflicting pain or harm on other sentient beings, or a belief that the unnecessary killing of other animals is inherently wrong. "Animal liberation" redirects here for other uses see Animal liberation (disambiguation. Sentience is the ability to feel or perceive subjectively. It is an important concept in the philosophy of Animal rights, in buddhist philosophy and in
It has also been argued that although production and consumption of meat may be acceptable on its own terms, the methods by which animals are reared in the commercial industry are unethical. The book Animal Liberation by Peter Singer has been very influential on the animal rights movement and specifically ethical vegetarianism and veganism. Animal Liberation is a book by Australian philosopher Peter Singer, published in 1975 Peter Albert David Singer (born July 6, 1946 in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) is an Australian philosopher. In developed countries, ethical vegetarianism has become popular particularly after the spread of factory farming,a system of livestock farming where animals are kept indoors throughout the greater part of their lives in conditions of very restricted mobility. Factory farming is the practice of raising Farm animals in confinement at high stocking density where a farm operates as a Factory &mdash a practice typical in Pigs, laying hens, broiler chickens, and veal calves are the animals most often kept under these conditions.  Factory farming has reduced the sense of husbandry that used to exist in farming and which has led to animals being treated as commodities. Animal husbandry, also called Animal science, stockbreeding or simple husbandry, is the agricultural practice of breeding Many believe that the treatment that animals undergo in the production of meat and animal products obliges them to never eat meat or use animal products.
Hinduism and Jainism teach vegetarianism as moral conduct whilst Christianity and Islam generally do not. Vegetarianism and religion are strongly linked in a number of religions that originated in ancient India ( Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism) Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Buddhism in general does not prohibit meat eating, while Mahayana Buddhism encourages vegetarianism as beneficial for developing compassion. Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for Other denominations that advocate a fully vegetarian diet include the Seventh-day Adventists, the Rastafari movement and the Hare Krishnas. The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated " Adventist " Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, Rastafarianism or simply Rasta) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic, New Testament The International Society for Krishna Consciousness ( ISKCON) also known as 'the Hare Krishna ' movement is one of several Vaishnava groups
Most major paths of Hinduism hold vegetarianism as an ideal. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. There are three main reasons for this: the principle of nonviolence (ahimsa) applied to animals; the intention to offer only "pure" (vegetarian) food to a deity and then to receive it back as prasad; and the conviction that non-vegetarian food is detrimental for the mind and for spiritual development. Ahimsa ( Devanagari: sa अहिंसा IAST ahiṃsā is a Sanskrit term meaning Non-violence (literally the avoidance of violence - Prasāda ( Sanskrit: प्रसाद marathi:प्रसाद prasād / prashad ( Hindi) Prasāda in (Kannada prasādam Nonviolence is a common concern of all the vegetarian traditions in Hinduism; the other two aspects are relevant for those who follow special spiritual paths.
However, the food habits of Hindus vary according to their community and according to regional traditions. Hindu vegetarians usually eschew eggs but consume milk and dairy products, so they are lacto-vegetarians. Milk and milk products are vital in the traditional food habits of India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Many coastal habitants of India are also fish eaters.
Followers of Jainism are most commonly lacto-vegetarians. Jain vegetarianism is the diet of the Jains the followers of Jainism. Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. No products obtained from dead animals are allowed. Jains hold vegetarianism as the ideal diet in a similar fashion to Hindu traditions but with emphasis on their principle of all-round non-violence (ahimsa). Ahimsa ( Devanagari: sa अहिंसा IAST ahiṃsā is a Sanskrit term meaning Non-violence (literally the avoidance of violence - This is for them an indispensable condition for spiritual progress.  Some particularly dedicated individuals are fruitarians. Fruitarianism is a form of Veganism that is limited to eating the ripe fruits of plants and trees  Honey is forbidden, because its collection is seen as violence against the bees. Some Jains do not consume plant parts that grow underground such as roots and bulbs, because tiny animals may be killed when the plants are pulled up. 
In the Pali canon of Theravada Buddhism, the Buddha himself ate meat and he did not prohibit it for his followers. In Buddhism, the views on Vegetarianism vary from school to school History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder Theravadins make the distinction between the direct taking of life and eating meat which is already killed. Thus, they consider the careers of being a butcher or hunter to be unethical and would not promote it by purchasing meat, but monks also could not refuse meat if it was offered. For laypeople, there is no such prohibition on buying meat.
In Mahayana Buddhism, there are several Sanskrit texts where the Buddha instructs his followers to avoid meat. Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Mahayana Buddhism advises monks to be strictly vegetarian and is recommended for laypeople, but not required.
Followers of the Sikh religion are divided in their opinion on whether their religion opposes meat consumption for Sikhs. Sikhism ( IPA: or; ਸਿੱਖੀ sikkhī, IPA:) founded on the teachings of Nanak and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century  Although many Sikhs do eat meat, the majority of initiated Sikhs or "amritdharis" abstain from the consumption of meat and eggs. 
In the case of meat, the Sikh Gurus have indicated their preference for a simple diet and depending on what one sees as a simple diet could be meat or vegetarian. Sikhism was established by Guru Nanak over the period of 1469 to 1708. Passages from the Guru Granth Sahib (the holy book of Sikhs, also known as the Adi Granth) says that fools argue over this issue. The Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji (ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ gurū granth sāhib) or Guru Granth Sahib, is the eleventh and eternal Guru of the Guru Nanak said that any consumption of food involves a drain on the Earth's resources and thus on life. Guru Nanak Dev (ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ ਦੇਵ (गुरु नानक گرونانک Gurū Nānak ( 15 april 1469, Nankana Sahib  The tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, prohibited the Sikhs from the consumption of halal or Kutha (any ritually slaughtered meat) meat because of the Sikh belief that sacrificing an animal in the name of God is mere ritualism (something to be avoided). Guru Gobind Singh (ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ gʊɾu gobɪn̪d̪ sɪ́ŋg ( December 22, 1666 &ndash 7 October, 1708) was 
A number of medieval scholars of Jewish religion (e. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut g. Joseph Albo) regard vegetarianism as a moral ideal, not because of a concern for the welfare of animals, but because of the fact that the slaughter of animals might cause the individual who performs such acts to develop negative character traits, viz. Joseph Albo ( Hebrew: יוסף אלבו) (c 1380–1444 was a Jewish philosopher and Rabbi who lived in Spain during the , meanness and cruelty. Therefore, their concern was with regard to possible harmful effects upon human character rather than with animal welfare. Indeed, Rabbi Joseph Albo maintains that renunciation of the consumption of meat for reasons of concern for animal welfare is not only morally erroneous but even repugnant. 
One modern-day scholar who is often cited as looking upon vegetarianism with extreme favor is the late Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook. Abraham Isaac Kook (1865–1935 was the first Ashkenazi Chief rabbi of the British Mandate for Palestine, the founder of the Religious Zionist It is indeed the case that in his writings, Rabbi Kook speaks of vegetarianism as an ideal, and points to the fact that Adam did not partake of the flesh of animals. In context, however, Rabbi Kook makes those comments in his portrayal of the eschatological (messianic) era. He regards man's moral state in that period as being akin to that of Adam before his sin and does indeed view renunciation of enjoyment of animal flesh as part of the heightened moral awareness which will be manifest at that time.
Rabbi Kook is emphatic in admonishing that vegetarianism not be adopted as a norm of human conduct prior to the advent of the eschatological era. 
According to some Kabbalists, only a mystic, who is able to sense and elevate the reincarnated human souls and "divine sparks", is permitted to consume meat, though eating the flesh of an animal might still cause spiritual damage to the soul. Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה lit "receiving" is a discipline and school of thought discussing the mystical aspect of Judaism. A number of Orthodox Jewish vegetarian groups and activists promote such ideas and believe that the halakhic permission to eat meat is a temporary leniency for those who are not ready yet to accept the vegetarian diet. Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law 
Having ties with both ancient Judaism and Christianity members of the ancient Essene religious group practiced strict vegetarianism sharing a similar belief with the Hindus'/Jains' idea of Ahimsa or "harmlessness". Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The Essenes were strictly speaking a Jewish religious group that flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD Ahimsa ( Devanagari: sa अहिंसा IAST ahiṃsā is a Sanskrit term meaning Non-violence (literally the avoidance of violence - 
Translation of the Torah's Ten Commandments state "thou shall not murder. term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to " Many argue that this can also be taken as meaning not to kill at all, animals nor humans, or at least "that one shall not kill unnecessarily," in the same manner that onerous restrictions on slavery in the bible have been interpreted by modern theologians as to suggest banning the practice. .
While vegetarianism is not common in Christian thought, the concept appears periodically. Christian vegetarianism is based on extending the compassionate teachings of Jesus, the Twelve apostles and the Early church to all living beings through A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Bible, in the beginning, humans and animals were vegetarian.  Immediately after the Flood, God permitted the eating of meat.  Creationists say this is because the antediluvian ecology allowed edible plants to flourish worldwide, and since the Flood altered the Earth's environment so drastically, in order for Man to survive, animals would have to be eaten. Some Christians believe that the Bible explains that, in the future, humans and animals will return to vegetarianism. Most vegetarians believe that there is no sin in vegetarianism, that when God gave humans control over the earth (Genesis 1:27-31), that they had the choice to eat as they please.
Some Christian leaders, such as the Reverend Andrew Linzey, have supported the view that Jesus was a vegetarian. Andrew Linzey is an Anglican Priest, theologian writer and Christian vegetarian. Some people believe that the Book of Daniel specifically promotes vegetarianism as beneficial. The Book of Daniel (דניאל, originally written in Hebrew and Aramaic, is a Book in both the Hebrew Bible ( Tanakh) and the Christian  However, common theology argues that in this instance Daniel is rejecting food that is considered to be unholy by his faith (eating food that had been sacrificed to pagan gods), not strictly meat. The Bible's New Testament says that a person's dietary choice is of small consequence and should not be a point of confrontation (see Romans 14:1-3). Therefore, some modern Christians consider vegetarianism as a perfectly acceptable personal choice that has many of the same implications as fasting.
All Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox, and Eastern Catholic monastics abstain from meat year-round, and many abstain from dairy and seafood as well. Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world This article refers to Eastern Churches in full communion with the Holy See MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective Laity generally abstain from animal products on Wednesdays (due to a traditional belief that it was a Wednesday on which Judas arranged to betray Jesus Christ) and Fridays (because Jesus was crucified on a Friday), as well as during the four major fasting periods of the year: Great Lent, the Apostles' Fast, the Dormition Fast and the Nativity Fast. In religious organizations the laity comprises all persons who are not Clergy. Crucifixion (from Latin crucifixio, noun of process crucifixio, from perfect passive participle crucifixus, fixed to a cross from Great Lent, or the Great Fast, is the most important Fasting season in the Church year in Eastern Christianity, which prepares Christians The Dormition of the Theotokos ( Greek: Koimesis) is a Great Feast of the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and The Nativity Fast, is a period abstinence and penance practiced by the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Eastern Catholic Churches, in preparation This is not for environmental or animal welfare reasons, but for spiritual reasons. Animal welfare refers to the viewpoint that it is morally acceptable for humans to use nonhuman animals for food in animal research, as clothing and in entertainment Fasting is seen as purification and the regaining of innocence. Through obedience to the Orthodox Church and its ascetic practices, the Orthodox Christian seeks to rid himself or herself of the passions, or the disposition to sin.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Christian denomination that recommends the vegetarian diet as a holistic lifestyle choice within its teachings. The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated " Adventist " Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance Distinguish from the suffix -holism, which describes addictions  A number of the founders of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, including Joseph Bates and Ellen White adopted the vegetarian diet during the nineteenth century, and Ellen White reportedly received visions regarding the health benefits of the vegetarian diet. Joseph Bates (July 8 1792 - March 19 1872 was an American seaman and revivalist minister  More recently, members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in California have been involved in research into longevity due to their healthy lifestyle, which includes maintaining a vegetarian diet.  This research has been included within a National Geographic article. 
Islam allows the consumption of meat, if the meat is "halal", however, the option of vegetarianism is also available. This article is about Animals in Islamic thought The Qur'an assigns an inferior status to animals in comparison with humans and has a tendency towards For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Halal (حلال ḥalāl, halaal) is an Arabic term meaning permissible. This is a personal decision only, supported by a general religious philosophy stressing kind treatment of animals. Vegetarianism has been practiced by some influential Muslems including the Indian theologian, female mystic and poet Râbi‘ah al-‘Adawîyah of Basrah, who died in the year 801, and the Sri Lankan sufi master Bawa Muhaiyaddeen who established The Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship of North America in Philadelphia. Muhammad Raheem Bawa Muhaiyaddeen was a saintly Tamil -speaking teacher and Sufi mystic from the island of Sri Lanka who first came to the United States 
Muslims have the freedom of choice to be vegetarian for medical reasons or if they do not personally like the taste of meat. However, the choice to eat vegetarian can be controversial. According to Hâfiz Nazr Ahmad, although the number of Muslim vegetarians today is increasing, individual adherents tend to keep quiet about it. 
In January 1996, The International Vegetarian Union announced the formation of the Muslim Vegetarian/Vegan Society.  They noted that the Quran states that "There is not an animal on earth, nor a bird that flies on its wings - but they are communities like you. " (The Quran, 6:38)
Many who practice a faith that falls under the Neopagan umbrella also practice vegetarianism. Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is an Umbrella term used to identify a wide variety of modern religious movements particularly those influenced by historical Since Neopaganism generally emphasizes the sanctity of Earth and Nature, a vegetarian diet is sometimes adopted out of concern for the environment and/or animal welfare. Environmental vegetarianism is the practice of Vegetarianism or Veganism based on the fact that the animal production by intensive agriculture is environmentally Ethical issues regarding the consumption of Meat can include objections to the act of killing animals and the agricultural practices surrounding the Conversely, some Neopagans view the consumption of meat as natural and a part of the cycles of life. .
Environmental vegetarianism is based on the belief that the production of meat and animal products for mass consumption, especially through factory farming, is environmentally unsustainable or otherwise harmful. Environmental vegetarianism is the practice of Vegetarianism or Veganism based on the fact that the animal production by intensive agriculture is environmentally Factory farming is the practice of raising Farm animals in confinement at high stocking density where a farm operates as a Factory &mdash a practice typical in Environmentalism is a broad philosophy and Social movement centered on a concern for the conservation and improvement of the environment. Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present Recent research strongly supports these concerns. According to a 2006 United Nations initiative, the livestock industry is one of the largest contributors to environmental degradation worldwide, and modern practices of raising animals for food contributes on a "massive scale" to air and water pollution, land degradation, climate change, and loss of biodiversity. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The initiative concluded that "the livestock sector emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global. "
In addition, animal agriculture has been pointed out as one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases — responsible for 18 percent of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO2 equivalents. By comparison, all transportation emits 13. 5 percent of the CO2. Animal farming produces 65 percent of human-related nitrous oxide (which has 296 times the global warming potential of CO2) and 37 percent of all human-induced methane (which is 23 times as warming as CO2). It is also accused of generating 64 percent of the ammonia, which contributes to acid rain and acidification of ecosystems The habitat for wildlife provided by large industrial monoculture farms is very poor, and modern industrial agriculture has been considered a threat to biodiversity compared with farming practices such as organic farming, permaculture, arable, pastoral, and rainfed agriculture. Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing one single crop over a wide area Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on Crop rotation, Green manure, Compost, Biological pest control, and mechanical Cultivation The word permaculture, coined by Australians Bill Mollison and David Holmgren during the 1970s is a Portmanteau of perma nent agri' Agronomy is the science and technology of using plants for food fuel feed and fiber Pastoral, as an adjective refers to the lifestyle of Shepherds and Pastoralists moving livestock around larger areas of land according to seasons and availability
Animals fed on grain, and those that rely on grazing need far more water than grain crops.  According to the USDA, growing the crops necessary to feed farmed animals requires nearly half of the United States' water supply and 80 percent of its agricultural land. Additionally, animals raised for food in the U. S. consume 90 percent of the soy crop, 80 percent of the corn crop, and a total of 70 percent of its grain. 
When tracking food animal production from the feed trough to consumption, the inefficiencies of meat, milk and egg production range from 4:1 up to 54:1 energy input to protein output ratio. As it was published, "U. S. could feed 800 million people with grain that livestock eat, Cornell ecologist advises animal scientists; Future water and energy shortages predicted to change face of American agriculture. " To produce animal based food seems to be, according to these studies, typically much less efficient than the harvesting of grains, vegetables, legumes, seeds and fruits. Exception is made of animals that are grazed rather than fed, especially those grazed on land that could not be used for other purposes.
According to the theory of trophic dynamics, it requires 10 times as many crops to feed animals being bred for meat production as it would to feed the same number of people on a vegetarian diet. In Ecology, trophic dynamics is the system of trophic levels ( Greek trophē, food which describe the position that an organism occupies Currently, 70 percent of all the wheat, corn, and other grain produced is fed to farmed animals.  This has led many proponents of vegetarianism to believe that it is ecologically irresponsible to consume meat. It must also be noted that the benefits of rearing grazing animals is often beneficial, as observed Food Climate Research Network at Surrey University, which reports that 'A little bit of livestock production is probably a good thing for the environment'.
Some groups promote vegetarianism as a way to offset poor treatment and working conditions of workers in the contemporary meat industry. These groups cite studies showing the psychological damage caused by working in the meat industry, especially in factory and industrialized settings, and argue that the meat industry violates its labourers' human rights by delegating difficult and distressing tasks without adequate counselling, training and debriefing. 
However, it must be noted that the working conditions of agricultural workers, particularly non-permanent ones, remain poor and well below conditions prevailing in other economic sectors.  Accidents, including pesticide poisoning, among the farmers and plantation workers contribute to increased health risks including mortality.  In fact, according to the International Labour Organization, agriculture is one of the three most dangerous jobs in the world. The International Labour Organization 
Similar to environmental vegetarianism is the concept of economic vegetarianism. An economic vegetarian is a person who practices Vegetarianism from either the philosophical viewpoint that the consumption of meat is expensive part of a conscious An economic vegetarian is someone who practices vegetarianism from either the philosophical viewpoint concerning issues such as public health and curbing world starvation, the belief that the consumption of meat is economically unsound, part of a conscious simple living strategy or just out of necessity. Simple living (or voluntary simplicity) is a lifestyle individuals choose to minimize the 'more-is-better' pursuit of Wealth and consumption. According to the WorldWatch Institute, "Massive reductions in meat consumption in industrial nations will ease their health care burden while improving public health; declining livestock herds will take pressure off rangelands and grainlands, allowing the agricultural resource base to rejuvenate. As populations grow, lowering meat consumption worldwide will allow more efficient use of declining per capita land and water resources, while at the same time making grain more affordable to the world's chronically hungry. " Economic vegetarians also may include people from third world countries who follow a de facto vegetarian diet due to the high price of meat. Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically
Some vegetarians choose to be so in part because they find meat and meat products aesthetically unappetizing. The Whole Earth Vegetarian Catalogue's '49 good reasons for being a vegetarian' says that one reason for being a vegetarian is that "Decaying animal parts, whether in a freezer case or served in restaurants, can never be as aesthetically pleasing to the senses as the same foods made from wholesome vegetable sources. Only habit can allow one not to perceive this: a change in diet makes this self evident. "
The metaphor by Douglas Dunn is that if one gives a young child an apple and a live chicken, the child would instinctively play with the chicken and eat the apple, whereas if a cat were presented with the same choices, its natural impulse would be the opposite. Douglas Eaglesham Dunn, OBE (born October 23, 1942) is a Scottish Poet, academic and critic 
Though this may be considered a flawed comparison, as cats are carnivores and not omnivores, it has been noted that comparatively omnivorous human-like species such as chimpanzees' offspring may not instinctively kill such hunted prey as Senegal Bushbabys when presented with one and banana or other fruit either, despite hunting and eating them. The Senegal Bushbaby ( Galago senegalensis) also known as the Senegal Galago, the Lesser Galago or the Lesser Bush Baby, is a small nocturnal The comparison may also suffer from the "Appeal to nature" logical fallacy. Appeal to nature is a commonly seen Fallacy of relevance consisting of a claim that something is good or right because it is natural, or that
In a similar assertion, Scott Adams, who is also a vegetarian, once wrote humorously: "I point out that a live cow makes a lion salivate, whereas a human just wants to say "moo" and see if the cow responds" . Scott Raymond Adams (born June 8, 1957) is the creator of the Dilbert Comic strip and the Author of several Business
Moreover, research on the psychology of meat consumption suggests that consumers of meat may need to use defense mechanisms such as psychological numbing to distance themselves from the notion that they are eating animals. Psychological numbness is a mental self- Defense mechanism used to prevent Psychological trauma, in which a mental entity chooses to ignore thoughts or emotions 
In the therapy of some health disorders and/or food intolerances vegetarian diets are considered a necessary element. 
Some people may choose vegetarianism because they were raised in a vegetarian household or because of a vegetarian partner, family member, or friend. A predominantly and traditionally vegetarian society also facilitates the continuance of such a tradition.
In countries where religious belief have become inherent to society and daily life, vegetarianism is more easily seen.
Limited vegetarianism appears to be an appealing alternative for young people in Western societies. In 2007 an experiment, originating at the University of Michigan Medical School, intending to study how memes spread led to an included attempt to encourage limited vegetarianism. It has been the meme itself that has brought life to the concept of "Vegetarian Wednesday. Vegetarian Wednesday is a grass-roots movement aimed at getting people to try Vegetarianism one day each week " The idea is that those choosing to adopt this limited vegetarian diet would consume their normal daily food except for Wednesday of each week when they would maintain a vegetarian diet.
One observational study in British Medical Journal found that high childhood IQ was associated with vegetarianism in later life. According to the study, "Higher IQ at age 10 years was associated with an increased likelihood of being vegetarian at age 30 [. . . ] IQ remained a statistically significant predictor of being vegetarian as an adult after adjustment for social class (both in childhood and currently), academic or vocational qualifications, and sex. " 
A 1992 market research study conducted by the Yankelovich research organisation claimed that "of the 12. 4 million people who call themselves vegetarian, 68 percent are female while only 32 percent are male. " 
Some studies show that vegetarian women are much more likely to have female babies. A study of 6,000 pregnant women in 1998 "found that while the national average in Britain is 106 boys born to every 100 girls, for vegetarian mothers the ratio was just 85 boys to 100 girls. " This research was dismissed by Catherine Collins, of the British Dietetic Association, as a "statistical fluke". 
There is some speculation that diets high in soy, due to high isoflavone content, can have a feminizing effect on humans due to the phytoestrogens contained. Phytoestrogens, sometimes called "dietary estrogens" are a diverse group of naturally occurring non steroidal plant compounds that because of their structural similarity with Proponents of this theory claim that diets high in isoflavones promote earlier onset of female puberty and delayed male puberty.  These effects, however, are not observed in populations of the Far East, where soy-rich diets are traditional.
Vegetarianism is viewed in different ways around the world. In some areas there is cultural and even legal support, but in others the diet is poorly understood or even frowned upon. In many countries food labeling is in place that makes it easier for vegetarians to identify foods compatible with their diets.
In India, not only is there food labeling, but many restaurants are marketed and signed as being either "Vegetarian" or "Non-Vegetarian". People who are vegetarian in India are usually Lacto-vegetarians, and therefore, to cater for this market, the majority of vegetarian restaurants in India do serve dairy products while eschewing egg products. A lactovegetarian diet is a vegetarian diet which includes Dairy products such as Milk, Cheese, Yogurt, Butter, Cream Most Western vegetarian restaurants, in comparison, do serve eggs and egg-based products.