Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, was the site of the camp of the American Continental Army over the winter of 1777–1778 in the American Revolutionary War. The American Continental Army was an Army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" This was a time of great suffering for George Washington's Army, but it was also a time of retraining and rejuvenation. George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the
With the winter setting in and the prospects for campaigning being greatly diminished, General George Washington sought quarters for his men. Washington and his troops had just fought what was to be the last major engagement of 1777 at the Battle of White Marsh (or Edge Hill). Background After their October 4, 1777, defeat at the Battle of Germantown, Washington's army retreated along Skippack Pike to Pawling's He devised to pull his troops from their present encampment in the White Marsh area (now Fort Washington State Park) and move to a more secure location for the coming winter. Fort Washington State Park is a Pennsylvania State Park in Springfield and Whitemarsh Townships Montgomery County, Pennsylvania Though several locations were proposed, he selected Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, 22 miles northwest of Philadelphia. The Village of Valley Forge is an unincorporated settlement located on the west side of Valley Forge National Historical Park at the confluence of Valley Creek and It proved to be an excellent choice. Named for an iron forge on Valley Creek, the area was close enough to the British to keep their raiding and foraging parties out of the interior of Pennsylvania, yet far enough away to halt the threat of British surprise attacks. The high ground of Mount Joy and the adjoining elevated ground of Mount Misery combined with the Schuylkill River to the north, made the area easily defensible. The Schuylkill River, most often ˈskuːkəl ("SKOO-kull" is a river in the U
On December 19, 1777, when Washington's poorly fed, ill-equipped army, weary from long marches, struggled into Valley Forge, winds blew as the 12,000 Continentals prepared for winter's fury. Events 324 - Licinius abdicates his position as Roman Emperor. Year 1777 ( MDCCLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Grounds for brigade encampments were selected, and defense lines were planned and begun. A brigade is a Military unit Echelon: is Within days of the army's arrival, the Schuylkill River was covered with ice. Snow was six inches deep. Though construction of more than 1,000 huts provided shelter, it did little to offset the critical shortages that continually plagued the army.
Soldiers received irregular supplies of meat and bread, some getting their only nourishment from "firecake," a tasteless mixture of flour and water. So severe were conditions at times that Washington despaired "that unless some great and capital change suddenly takes place . . . this Army must inevitably . . . Starve, dissolve, or disperse, in order to obtain subsistence in the best manner they can. " Animals fared no better. General Henry Knox, Washington's Chief of Artillery, wrote that hundreds of horses either starved to death or died of exhaustion. Henry Knox ( July 25, 1750 &ndash October 25, 1806) was an American Bookseller from Boston who became the chief
Clothing, too, was wholly inadequate. Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather Long marches had destroyed shoes. Blankets were scarce. Tattered garments were seldom replaced. At one point these shortages caused nearly 4,000 men to be listed as unfit for duty.
Undernourished and poorly clothed, living in crowded, damp quarters, the army was ravaged by sickness and disease. A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly Typhus, typhoid, dysentery, and pneumonia were among the killers that felled as many as 2,000 men that winter. Typhus is any of several similar diseases caused by Louse -borne bacteria Typhoid fever, also known as enteric fever, bilious fever, Yellow Jack or commonly just typhoid, is an illness caused by the Bacterium Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is an infection of the digestive system that results in severe Diarrhea containing mucus and blood Pneumonia is an inflammatory illness of the Lung. Frequently it is described as lung Parenchyma / alveolar inflammation and abnormal Although Washington repeatedly petitioned for relief, the Congress was unable to provide it, and the soldiers continued to suffer. Women, relatives of enlisted men, alleviated some of the suffering by providing valuable services such as laundry and nursing that the army desperately needed. An enlisted rank in the Military of the United States is any rank below a commissioned officer. Laundry can be items of Clothing and other Textiles that require Washing the act of washing clothing and textiles Nursing is a Profession focused on assisting individuals families, and communities in attaining maintaining and recovering optimal Health
Upgrading military efficiency, morale, and discipline were as vital to the army's well-being as was its source of supply. The army had been handicapped in battle because unit training was administered from a variety of field manuals, making coordinated battle movements awkward and difficult. The soldiers were trained, but not uniformly. The task of developing and carrying out an effective training program fell to Baron Friedrich von Steuben. Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin von Steuben ( September 17, 1730 &ndash November 28, 1794) was a Prussian-German army officer This skilled Prussian drill master, recently arrived from Europe, tirelessly drilled and scolded the regiments into an effective fighting force. The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918 and from 1871 was the leading state of the German Empire, comprising A military parade is a formation of soldiers whose movement is restricted Intensive daily training, coupled with von Steuben's forceful manner, instilled in the men renewed confidence in themselves and their ability to succeed. 
Soon word of the British departure from Philadelphia brought a frenzied activity to the ranks of the Continental Army. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə The American Continental Army was an Army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America On June 19, 1778, six months after its arrival, the army marched away from Valley Forge in pursuit of the British who were moving toward New York. Events 1179 - The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. Year 1778 ( MDCCLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or An ordeal had ended. The war would last for another five years, but for Washington, his men, and the nation to which they sought to give birth, a decisive victory had been won — a victory not of weapons but of will. 
Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben was a onetime member of the elite General Staff of Frederick the Great, King of Prussia. Freiherr, a German word is a title of Nobility of lower Peerage rank in the former Holy Roman Empire (in German Heiliges Römisches Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin von Steuben ( September 17, 1730 &ndash November 28, 1794) was a Prussian-German army officer Frederick II (Friedrich II January 24 1712 August 17 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740&ndash1786 from the No longer in the Prussian Army, indeed without employment of any kind, von Steuben offered his military skills to the patriot cause. When he arrived at Valley Forge from France on February 23, 1778, he was armed with a letter of introduction from Benjamin Franklin. Events 1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western Book printed from Movable Year 1778 ( MDCCLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Benjamin Franklin ( April 17 1790 was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. General Washington saw great promise in the Prussian and almost immediately assigned him the duties of Acting Inspector General with the task of developing and carrying out an effective training program. George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the
Numerous obstacles threatened success. No standard American training manuals existed, and von Steuben himself spoke little English. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Undaunted, he drafted his own manual in French. His aides often worked late into the night, translating his work into English. The translations were in turn copied and passed to the individual regiments and companies that carried out the prescribed drill the following day. A drill (from Dutch Drillen) is
Von Steuben shocked many American officers by breaking tradition to work directly with the men. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the One officer wrote of von Steuben's "peculiar grace" as he took "under his direction a squad of men in the capacity of drill sergeant. " From dawn to dusk his familiar voice was heard in camp above the sounds of marching men and shouted commands. Soon companies, regiments, then brigades moved smartly from line to column, column to line; loaded muskets with precision; and drove imaginary redcoats from the field by skillful charges with the bayonet. When the Continental Army paraded on May 6, 1778, to celebrate the French alliance with America, von Steuben received the honor of organizing the day's activities. The American Continental Army was an Army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America Events 1527 - Spanish and German troops sack Rome; some consider this the end of the Renaissance. Year 1778 ( MDCCLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. On that day the Grand Parade became a showplace for the united American army. Cannons boomed in salute. Thousands of muskets fired the ceremonial "feu de joie," a running fire that passed up and down the double ranks of infantrymen. A feu de joie ( French: "fire of joy" is a Gun salute, described as a "running fire of guns" on occasions of public rejoicing of nation and/or The Infantry is the oldest and most numerous of the Combat Arms in the Armed forces, and consists Cheers echoed across the fields. The good drilling order and imposing appearance that the troops presented during the Alliance Day ceremonies demonstrated their remarkable progress in improving their abilities as a unified, fighting force capable of standing up to the British Army. The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. Washington, with von Steuben's aid, had made an army of the Continental troops. With their French allies, the Americans could now proceed with the war.
The site of the encampment became a Pennsylvania State Park in 1893 and, on the 4th of July, 1976, it became Valley Forge National Historical Park. Valley Forge National Historical Park is the site where the Continental Army spent the winter of 1777&ndash1778 near Valley Forge Pennsylvania, during the The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern State Park is a term used in the United States and in Mexico for an area of land preserved on account of its natural beauty historic interest recreation or other Year 1893 ( MDCCCXCIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The United States Bicentennial was celebrated on Sunday July 4, 1976, the 200th Anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence The modern park features historical and recreated buildings and structures; memorials; and a newly renovated visitor center, which shows a short film and has several exhibits. A chapel was built in 1903 as a memorial to George Washington. An adjoining carillon of 58 bells represents all U. S. states and territories. It resides in a tower built by the Daughters of the American Revolution. Other park amenities include walking and bicycle trails.