The V sign is a hand gesture in which the first and second fingers are raised and parted, whilst the remaining fingers are clenched. A gesture is a form of Non-verbal communication made with a part of the body used instead of or in combination with verbal communication. With palm inwards, In the United Kingdom and some other English speaking countries, it is an obscene insulting gesture of defiance. During the Second World War Winston Churchill popularised its use as a "Victory" sign (for V as in victory) initially with palm inwards and later in the war palm outwards. With the palm outwards, it is also used to mean "Peace", a meaning that became popular in the United States during the peace movement of the 1960s.
The gesture has varying meanings depending on the context or culture.
The insulting version of the gesture (with the palm inwards) is often compared to the offensive gesture known as "the finger". In Western cultures, the finger (as in giving someone the finger) is a well-known Obscene Hand gesture made by extending the middle finger of The "two-fingered salute", or "bowfinger", as it is also known, is commonly performed by flicking the V upwards from wrist or elbow. The V sign, when the palm is facing toward the person giving the sign, has long been an insulting gesture in England, and later in the rest of the United Kingdom; its use is largely restricted to the UK, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located  It is frequently used to signify defiance (especially to authority), contempt or derision, and is often accompanied by the phrases "up yours" or "fuck off". It is seen in the poster and DVD cover of Ken Loach's film Kes. Kes is a British film from 1969 by director Ken Loach and producer Tony Garnett.
As an example of the V sign (palm inward) as an insult, on November 1, 1990, The Sun, a popular British tabloid, ran an article on its front page with the headline "Up Yours, Delors" next to a large hand making a V sign protruding from a Union flag cuff. Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) The Sun is a Tabloid daily newspaper published in the United Kingdom and Ireland with the highest circulation of any daily English-language A tabloid is a Newspaper industry term which refers to a smaller newspaper format per spread to a weekly or semi-weekly alternative newspaper that focuses on local-interest The Union Flag, also known as the Union Jack, is the national flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The Sun urged its readers to stick two fingers up at then President of the European Commission Jacques Delors, who had suggested that more European integration might be a good thing. The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. Jacques Lucien Jean Delors (born July 20 1925 in Paris) is a French Economist and politician the only person to have served two terms The article attracted a number of complaints about its alleged racism, but the now defunct Press Council rejected the complaints after the editor of The Sun stated that the paper reserved the right to use vulgar abuse in the interests of Britain. 
For a time in the UK, "a Harvey (Smith)" became a way of describing the insulting version of the V sign, much as "the word of Cambronne" is used in France, or "the Trudeau salute" is used to describe the one-fingered salute in Canada. Pierre Jacques Étienne Cambronne, later Pierre Viscount Cambronne ( 26 December 1770 &ndash 29 January 1842) was a General In Western cultures, the finger (as in giving someone the finger) is a well-known Obscene Hand gesture made by extending the middle finger of This happened because, in 1971, show-jumper Harvey Smith was disqualified for making a televised V sign to the judges after winning the British Show Jumping Derby at Hickstead. The All England Jumping Course at Hickstead is the leading outdoor Showjumping venue in England (His win was reinstated two days later. )
Harvey Smith pleaded that he was simply using a Victory sign, a defence also used by other figures in the public eye.  Sometimes foreigners visiting the countries mentioned above use the "two-fingered salute" without knowing it is offensive to the natives, for example when ordering two beers in a noisy pub, or in the case of the United States president George H. W. Bush, who while touring Australia in 1992, attempted to give a "peace sign" to a group of farmers in Canberra — who were protesting about U. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12 1924 served as the forty-first President of the United States from 1989 to 1993 Canberra ( is the capital city of Australia With a population of over 340000 it is Australia's largest inland City. S. farm subsidies — and instead gave the insulting V sign. 
An early recorded use of the 'two-fingered salute' is in the Macclesfield Psalter of c. The Macclesfield Psalter is a lavishly Illuminated manuscript from the English region of East Anglia, written in Latin and produced around 1330 (in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge), being made by a glove in the psalter’s marginalia. The Fitzwilliam Museum is the art and antiquities museum of the University of Cambridge and is located on Trumpington Street Cambridge, England. 
The belief that the V sign originated among archers might have its origin in the work of the historian Jean Froissart (c. Jean Froissart (c 1337 &ndash c 1405 was one of the most important of the Chroniclers of Medieval France. 1337-c. 1404). In his "Chronicles", he recounts a story of the English waving their fingers at the French during a siege of a castle, however he makes no reference to which fingers were used. Froissart's Chronicle was written in French by Jean Froissart. A castle is a defensive structure seen as one of the main symbols of the Middle Ages.
According to a popular legend the two-fingers salute and/or V sign derives from the gestures of longbowmen fighting in the English army at the Battle of Agincourt (1415) during the Hundred Years' War. An urban legend or urban myth is a form of modern Folklore consisting of stories thought to be factual by those circulating them The English longbow, also called the Welsh longbow, was a powerful type of medieval Longbow (a tall bow for Archery) about 6 ft The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English The Battle of Agincourt was an English victory against a larger French army in the Hundred Years' War. The Hundred Years' War (Guerre de Cent Ans was a prolonged conflict lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne vacant with the extinction of the senior  The story claims that the French cut off the index and middle fingers of the right hand of any captured archers, and so the gesture was a sign of defiance from the greatly outnumbered English. Legal residents and citizens To be French according to the first article of the Constitution is to be a citizen of France regardless of one's origin race or religion ( A finger is a type of digit, an organ of manipulation and sensation found in the Hands of Humans and other Primates Normally humans have five digits Historian Juliet Barker quotes Jean Le Fevre (who fought on the English side at Agincourt) as saying that Henry V included a reference to the French cutting off longbowmen's fingers in his pre-battle speech. Jean Le Fevre (c 1395 - June 16, 1468) was a Burgundian chronicler and seigneur of Saint Remy.  If this is correct it confirms that the story was around at the time of Agincourt, although it doesn't necessarily mean that the French practised it, just that Henry found it useful for propaganda, and it does not show that the 'two-fingers salute' is derived from the hypothetical behaviour of English archers at that battle.
It was not until the start of the 20th century that clear evidence of the use of insulting V sign in England became available, when in 1901 a worker outside Parkgate ironworks in Rotherham used the gesture, (captured on the film), to indicated he did not like being filmed.  Peter Opie interviwed children in the 1950s and observed in The Lore And Language Of Schoolchildren that the much older thumbing of the nose (cock-a-snook) had been replaced by the V-sign as the most common insulting gesture used in the playground. 
Desmond Morris discussed various possible origins of the V sign in Gestures: Their Origins and Distribution, (published 1979) and came to no definite conclusion:
because of the strong taboo associated with the gesture (its public use has often been heavily penalized). For the Australian rugby league footballer coach and administrator see Des Morris Desmond John Morris (born 24 January 1928 As a result, there is a tendency to shy away from discussing it in detail. It is "known to be dirty" and is passed on from generation to generation by people who simply accept it as a recognized obscenity without bothering to analyse it. . . Several of the rival claims are equally appealing. The truth is that we will probably never know. . .—Desmond Morris
Winston Churchill used a V sign in both versions to symbolize "V for Victory" during World War II. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including  Early on in the war he used palm in (sometimes with a cigar between the fingers).  Later in the war he used palm out.  It is thought that the aristocratic Churchill made the change after it was explained to him what it signified to the other classes in Britain.  He developed the idea from a BBC campaign.
During World War II, Victor de Lavelaye suggested that Belgians, who were chalking up the letters RAF, should add a V for victoire or vrijheid (respectively French for "victory" and Dutch for "freedom"). Since V stands for "victory" in French, Charles de Gaulle used it in every speech from 1942~1969). Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ( 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French General and statesman who led the Free French This idea was developed by the BBC and on July 20, 1941 a campaign was launched with a message from Churchill for occupied Europe. Events 1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. German–occupied Europe refers to the countries of Europe which were occupied by the Military forces of Nazi Germany at various times during . The Channel islanders also joined in the Churchill's V sign campaign by daubing the letter 'V' (for Victory) over German signs.
Douglas Ritchie of the BBC European Service, suggested an audible V using the Morse code rhythm — three dots and a dash. Morse code is a Character encoding for transmitting telegraphic information using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters numerals This is the rhythm of the opening bars of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony (since V is the Roman numeral for 5), and it was used as the call-sign by the BBC in its foreign language programmes to occupied Europe for the rest of the war. Ludwig van Beethoven 's Symphony No 5 in C minor Op 67 was written in 1804–08 Roman numerals are a Numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. The irony that they were composed by a German was not lost on many of the audience or for the more musically educated that it was "Fate knocking on the door" of the Third Reich. Ludwig van Beethoven 's Symphony No 5 in C minor Op 67 was written in 1804–08 Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers ( )
A rhythm similar to that of the Morse V rhythm is featured prominently in the bass line for the Clash song London Calling. For the debut album by The Clash see The Clash (album The Clash were " London Calling " is a song from the double album London Calling by the U The song's title was taken from the BBC World Service's station identification.
U.S. President Richard Nixon used it to signal victory, an act which became one of his best-known trademarks. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by He also used it on his departure from public office following his resignation in 1974. The Watergate scandals were a series of Political scandals during the presidency of Richard Nixon that resulted in the Indictment of several of Nixon's
A similar sign was used in protests against the Vietnam War (and subsequent anti-war protests) and by the counterculture as a sign of peace, including the sense of not war. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia Counterculture (also " counter-culture " is a sociological term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a Cultural group, or Because the hippies of the day often flashed this sign (palm out) while vocalizing "Peace", it became popularly known (through association) as the peace sign. 
During the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo, figure skater Janet Lynn stumbled into Japanese pop culture when she fell during a free-skate period—but continued to smile even as she sat on the ice. The 1972 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XI Olympic Winter Games, were a Winter Multi-sport event which was celebrated from is the fifth-largest city in Japan by population It is the capital of Hokkaidō Prefecture, located in Ishikari Subprefecture, and an Janet Lynn Nowicki (born Janet Nowicki April 6, 1953 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American figure skater Popular culture (or pop culture) is the Culture — patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance — Though she placed only third in the actual competition, her cheerful diligence and indefatigability resonated with many Japanese viewers, making her an overnight celebrity in Japan. A celebrity is a widely-recognized or famous person who commands a high degree of public and media attention For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Afterwards, Lynn (a peace activist) was repeatedly seen flashing the V sign in the Japanese media. "Popular press" redirects here note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint "The Popular Press" Though the V sign was known of in Japan prior to Lynn's use of it there (from the post-WWII Allied occupation of Japan), she is credited by some Japanese for having popularized its use in amateur photographs. 
Through the 1970s and 1980s in Japan, the V sign was often accompanied by a vocalization: "piisu!" This gairaigo exclamation, which stood for "peace", has since fallen into disuse, though the V sign itself remains steadfastly popular. This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. Gairaigo (外来語 is Japanese for " loan word " or "borrowed word" and indicates a Transliteration (or "transvocalization" It is especially popular in photography, as it is a favorite pose of both teens and adults - in Japan, China and elsewhere in Asia.
Another possible explanation for the popularity (and perhaps emergence) of the sign in Japan is that people (usually children) are asked to answer the question Ichi tasu ichi wa? (meaning "One plus one equals?") whose answer is ni ("two"). Being a Japanese equivalent of saying Cheese, the ee sound makes the photographed ones appear as smiling on the photos. Thus, besides saying "two", they are also giving the answer using two fingers.
The V sign is also commonly used in anime and Japanese live-action shows. (anime in Japanese, When characters show this sign, it is often accompanied by an exclamation of "Vui!" (pronounced /vɯi/ or /bɯi/), an approximation of the English pronunciation "vee" which differentiates it from "bii", the Japanese name of the letter B (as many Japanese speakers hear the voiced labiodental fricative as being the same as the voiced bilabial plosive, see Engrish). The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of Consonantal sound used in some spoken Languages The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet The voiced bilabial plosive is a type of Consonantal sound used in some spoken Languages The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that Engrish refers to non-standard variations of English often found in East Asian countries A more common phrase is "kachi" which means victory (V for Victory) or luck. Several anime characters incorporate the V sign into their poses, including Ash Ketchum of Pokémon fame, both Sailor Moon and Sailor V, as well as video game characters such as Mario, Sonic the Hedgehog, Chun-Li, and Ling Xiaoyu from the Tekken series. Ash Ketchum, known as in Japan, is a Fictional character and the main Protagonist from the ''Pokémon'' anime. If you came here to express your personal opinion about Pokémon please go somewhere else is the title of a Japanese Media franchise created by Naoko Takeuchi. is a Manga created by Naoko Takeuchi. It is about Minako Aino, a cheerful schoolgirl who finds out that she has magical powers that she must use to protect is a Fictional character created by game designer Shigeru Miyamoto. trademarked Sonic The Hedgehog, is a Video game character and the Protagonist of the video game series released by Sega, as well as in numerous } is a Video game character created by Capcom. First introduced in Street Fighter II The World Warrior, she has since appeared as a Player character Ling Xiaoyu ( Chinese: 凌 曉雨 Pinyin: Líng Xiǎoyǔ, Japanese: リン・シャオユウ Rin Shaoyū) is a fictional For other meanings see Tekken. Tekken is a Fighting game and is the first of the series of the same name
In the Philippines, the popularity of the use of the "V" sign in photographs is mostly done as a mockery of its popularity and usage by their Asian neighbors (in particular, of characters in soap operas having their pictures taken). The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP The "V" sign usually stands for "peace" in the Filipino context and is thus a cause for bewilderment and amusement when seen on Asian commercials, soap operas, and other media. When a person uses the "V" sign in the same manner as it is used in photographs by other Asian countries, it is mostly an attempt to be cute or funny in the photograph. When putting the "V" sign on top a person's head, it usually is done to comically "demonize" that person rather than just give that person Bunny ears. The V sign is a hand Gesture in which the first and second fingers are raised and parted whilst the remaining fingers are clenched
During the Yugoslav wars, the V sign was widely used by the Bosnians and Croats as a victory/defiance sign. The Yugoslav Wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY that took place between 1991 and This is page about Bosnians (as citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Croats (Hrvati are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries For Croats it represents bravery and hope. This was brought about as a reaction to the Serbian three finger salute often raised by the Serbs. The three-finger salute (три пpcтa or tri prsta is a Salute with the thumb index and middle fingers open used by some Serbs. Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia,