Văn Miếu (文廟) or Temple of Literature, known as "pagode des Corbeaux" during the period of French colonisation, is a temple of Confucius in Vietnam. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. A Temple of Confucius or Confucian temple ( is a Temple devoted to the memory of Confucius and the sages and philosophers of Confucianism Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The most prominent and famous is that situated in the city of Hanoi, although Văn Miếu can be found throughout Vietnam. Hanoi ( Vietnamese: Hà Nội Hán Tự: 河[[wikt 内|内]], estimated population 3398889 (2007, is the Capital of Vietnam
It was founded in 1070 as a Confucian temple. Hanoi ( Vietnamese: Hà Nội Hán Tự: 河[[wikt 内|内]], estimated population 3398889 (2007, is the Capital of Vietnam A Temple of Confucius or Confucian temple ( is a Temple devoted to the memory of Confucius and the sages and philosophers of Confucianism Only parts of the Văn Miếu complex date back to the earliest period, although much of the architecture dates to the Lý (1010 – 1225) and Trần (1225 – 1400) Dynasties. The Lý Dynasty ( Vietnamese: nhà Lý, IPA: /ɲa˨˩ li˦˥/ pronounced like Lee) sometimes known as the Posterior Lý Dynasty ( The Trần Dynasty ( Vietnamese: Nhà Trần, Hán Việt: Trần Triều, 陳朝 was a Vietnamese dynasty that ruled Vietnam (at that
In 1076 Vietnam's first university, the Quốc Tử Giám (國子監) or Imperial Academy, was established within the temple to educate Vietnam's bureacrats, royalty and other members of the elite. The Guozijian (國子監 guózǐjiàn) the School of the Sons of State sometimes called the Imperial Central School, Imperial Academy A Mandarin was a Bureaucrat in Imperial China, and also in the monarchist days of Vietnam where the system of Imperial examinations and The university functioned for more than 700 years, from 1076 to 1779. During that time 2,313 doctors graduated. 
In 1484 emperor Lê Thánh Tông started the tradition of carving the names of the laureates of the university on stone steles, which were placed on top of stone turtles. Lê Thánh Tông ( Hán tự: 黎[[wikt 聖|聖]] 宗; 1442&ndash1497 was emperor of Đại Việt from 1460 until his death A stele (from Greek:, stēlē, ˈstiːli plural stelae,, stēlai, ˈstiːlaɪ also found Latinised singular stela Of the 116 steles corresponding to the examinations held between 1142 and 1778, only 82 remain. Year 1778 ( MDCCLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or
First court yard
Steles with names of those successful at the imperial exams
Third court yard
First court yard
According to the book the Complete History of the Great Viet: "In the autumn of the year Canh Tuat, the second year of Than Vu (1070), in the 8th lunar month, during the reign of King Ly Thanh Tong, the Temple of Literature was built. Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư ( Hán tự: 大越 史記全書 "A Complete History of Great Viet" is a 15th-century Vietnamese work The statues of Confucius, his four best disciples (Nhan Uyên, Tăng Sâm, Tử Tư and Mạnh Tử) and Chu Công were carved and 72 other statues of Confucian scholars were painted. Sima Qian has Confucius saying The disciples who received my instructions and could themselves comprehend them were seventy-seven individuals Zengzi ( Tsang) ( 505 – 436 BC) born Zeng Shen ( 曾[[wikt 參|參]] Courtesy name Ziyu ( 子[[wikt Zisi ( ca 481–402 BCE born Kong Ji ( 孔[[wikt 伋|伋]] was a Chinese philosopher. Life Mencius also known by his birth name Meng Ke or Ko, was born in the State of Zou (simp Ceremonies were dedicated to them in each of the four seasons. The Crown Princess studied here. "
This ancient Confucian sanctuary is now considered one of Hanoi's finest historical sites. The temple is based on Confucius' birthplace at Qufu in the Chinese province of Shandong. Qufu ( is a city in Shandong Province, China. It is located at 35 ° 36 ′ northern latitude and 117 °, 02 ′ ( is a coastal province of eastern People's Republic of China. It consists of five courtyards lined out in order, entrance to the first, via the impressive twin-tiered Văn Miếu gate, leads to three pathways that run the length of the complex. The centre path was reserved for the king, the one to its left for administrative Mandarins and the one to its right for military Mandarins. The first two courtyards are peaceful havens of ancient trees and well-trimmed lawns where scholars could relax away from the bustle of the city outside the thick stone walls.
Entrance to the third courtyard is through the dominating Khuê Văn Các (constellation of literature), a large pavilion built in 1802. Central to this courtyard is the Thien Quang Tinh ("Well Of Heavenly Clarity"), either side of which stand two great halls which house the true treasures of the temple. These are 82 stones steles. A stele (from Greek:, stēlē, ˈstiːli plural stelae,, stēlai, ˈstiːlaɪ also found Latinised singular stela Another 34 are believed to have been lost over the years. They sit upon stone tortoises and are inscribed with the names and birth places of 1306 men who were awarded doctorates from the triennial examinations held here at the Quốc Tử Giám ("Imperial Academy") between 1484 and 1780, after which the capital was moved to Hue. Hue is one of the main properties of a Color described with names such as " Red " " Yellow " etc
The fourth courtyard is bordered on either side by great pavilions which once contained altars of 72 of Confucius' greatest students but now contain offices, a gift shop and a small museum displaying ink wells, pens, books and personal artifacts belonging to some of the students that studied here through the years. At the far end of the courtyard is the altar with statues of Confucius and his four closest disciples. The fifth courtyard contained the Quốc Tử Giám, Vietnam's first university founded in 1076 King Ly Can Duc, but this was destroyed by French bombing in 1947.
The complex may have undergone a lot of restoration work, most recently in 1920 and again in 1954, but has one of the few remaining examples of later Lý Dynasty (1009-1225) architecture within easy walking distance of Ba Dinh square.
Other prominent Vietnamese Văn Miếu are: