The use of honorifics (Mr, Mrs, Miss, Ms.) and styles (HRH, His Holiness, etc. An honorific is a word or expression that conveys esteem or respect when used in addressing or referring to a person Mrs (UK or Mrs (USA is an English honorific used for women, usually for those who are married and who do not have a title that would take Ms (UK or Ms (USA (mɪz or /məz/ is an English honorific used with the last name or full name of a Woman. A style of office, or honorific, is a term which by Tradition or Law precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or Title, or to the His Holiness is the official style or manner of address in reference to the leaders of certain religious groups ) differs greatly among publications in both journalism and academia. To publish is to make content Publicly known. The term is most frequently applied to the distribution of text or images on paper or to the placing of content Journalism is the profession of writing or communicating formally employed by publications and broadcasters for the benefit of a particular Community of people The differences are based on tradition, practical concerns (such as space), and cultural norms. There is a continuum among publications between using no honorifics at all, using some honorifics but not styles, and using all honorifics, including styles. In certain cases honorifics and styles may be used according to some other pattern, or selectively only for certain persons. Note that this discussion deals only with the use in the English language; others, for example German, are very different.
Titles, honorifics, and styles
Only some titles are honorifics. A title is a prefix or suffix added to a person's name to signify either veneration an official position or a professional or academic qualification For example, it is customary to address people holding those positions as Alderman, Chairman, or General Secretary; but these titles are not honorific. An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions The term General Secretary (alternatively First Secretary) denotes a leader of various unions parties churches or associations Other titles, such as Ma'am, Doctor, or Lord — and sometimes also Ms. or Professor—are both titles and honorifics. Madam, Madame, ma'am, or Mme is a Title for a Woman. It is derived from the French madame (see different Doctor ( gen: doctoris) means teacher in Latin. The word is originally an Agentive noun of the verb docēre ('teach' Ms (UK or Ms (USA (mɪz or /məz/ is an English honorific used with the last name or full name of a Woman. The meaning of the word professor ( Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science teacher of highest rank) varies As a rough guide, an honorific can often stand alone or be prefixed to another title (such as Mr. Mayor, Mister President, or Rabbi) as terms of address, without an attached surname. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. Rabbi (pronunciation, although in English usually) in Judaism, means a religious ‘teacher’ or more literally ‘my great one’ when addressing any master
A certain class of honorifics are known as styles. A style of office, or honorific, is a term which by Tradition or Law precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or Title, or to the Styles are generally accompanied by a pronoun or article, pertain to holders of royal, religious, or political positions, and contain a descriptive term. A royal family is the extended family of a monarch. Generally the head of a royal family is a king or queen regnant The description attached within a style is of an attribute the holder of the style is purported to have. For example, "the Right Honorable John Smith", "the Rev. The Right Honourable (abbreviated as The Rt Hon) is an Honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain Jane Doe", or "His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI. " Styles are generally not thought of as titles and usually cannot be used without the full name (i. e. "Right Honourable Smith", "Reverend Doe").
Comparison of publications
- Associated Press: The AP does not use courtesy titles except in obituaries, direct quotations, or when a story on a family may cause confusion without the use of courtesy titles. The Associated Press ( AP) is an American News agency. The AP is a Cooperative owned by its contributing Newspapers radio Instead, using the first and last names on first reference and the last name on later references is preferred. The AP Stylebook advises that the first reference to a member of the clergy should include a capitalized title: The Reverend John Smith on first reference and Smith or the reverend on every reference thereafter. For popes, the AP advises Pope John XXIII on first reference and John XXIII, Pope John, the pope, or the pontiff on later references. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and For titles of nobility, the stylebook notes that "references to members of the nobility in nations that have a system of rank present special problems because nobles frequently are known by their titles rather than their given names. Their titles, in effect, become their names. " In general, AP prefers to follow their general guidelines, but uses the titles "Lord," "Lady," and "Dame. " AP never uses styles except in direct quotes.
- United Press International:
- The New York Times: Stylistic concerns are governed by The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage. This article is primarily about Reuters prior to its 2008 merger with Thomson Unlike most newspapers, the Times uses courtesy titles in news stories (but not in editorials or "light" stories, such as lifestyle or fashion): John Smith on first reference, Mr. Smith on later references). This applies even when the person holds a non-courtesy title: Mayor John Smith on first reference, Mr. Smith or the mayor on the second. The Times never uses styles except in direct quotes. For royalty, Queen Elizabeth is acceptable on first reference to Queen Elizabeth II, with the queen or Elizabeth II used on later references. For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II Curiously, upon his death, Pol Pot was referred to as "Mr. Pol Pot," although this changed to "Pol Pot" approximately two weeks later. The reason given by an editor was that for the "renown" (e. g. , Stalin, Lenin), no need for a courtesy title was deemed necessary.
- The Wall Street Journal:
- The Times:
- The Guardian:
- The Los Angeles Times:
- The Globe and Mail:
- USA Today:
- Encyclopædia Britannica:
- Chicago Manual of Style:
- Bartlett's Familiar Quotations: Inconsistent usage. The Times is a daily national Newspaper published in the United Kingdom since 1785 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. The Guardian (until 1959 The Manchester Guardian) is a British Newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily Newspaper published in Los Angeles California and distributed The Globe and Mail is a Canadian English language nationally distributed Newspaper, based in Toronto and printed in six cities USA TODAY is a national American daily Newspaper published by the Gannett Company. Newsweek is an American weekly Newsmagazine published in New York City. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and USNews & World Report is an influential weekly American Newsmagazine published in Washington D The Economist is an English-language weekly news and International affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London Encarta is a Digital Multimedia Encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc The Chicago Manual of Style (abbreviated in writing as CMS or CMOS or verbally as Chicago) is a Style guide for American English Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, often simply called Bartlett's, is an American Reference work that is the longest-lived and most widely distributed "George Noel Gordon, Lord Byron"; "Sir Thomas More"; "Elizabeth I"; "Francis Bacon" (not "Sir"). Most honorifics not used, and styles never.
Styles used sometimes
- The Nobel Prize Nobelprize.org. Style/honorific used in the biography of the Nobel Laureate the Dalai Lama. But no honorific used of (The Honorable) Jimmy Carter, (The Rev. Dr. ) Martin Luther King, Jr. , (The Most Rev. Archbishop) Desmond Mpilo Tutu .
- The Scotsman. One of the most, if not the most important newspapers in Scotland. E. g. Prince Charles styled in , but not in  or . Styles in small minority of articles where potentially applicable. cf  and . Notice that in both searches roughly half of the hits on first two pages are not applicable to this discussion.
- Pravda. Style used for Pope Benedict XVI in opinion column, e. g. , but not in news articles, e. g. 
- The Nation, Thailand. Style used only for King of Thailand (per Thai law), e. g. ; not for Popes  or foreign royalty 
- Times of Oman. Style used only of Sultan Qaboos bin Said (and other Omani royalty), but not of Saudi royalty in same article, e. g. ; nor of Catholic popes, e. g. 
- Two newspapers based in Brunei. Brunei Darussalam, (bruːˈnaɪ in English officially the State of Brunei Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam Jawi: برني دارالسلام See  and .
- Brudirect. com more commonly omits styles for foreign monarchs than includes them .
Styles not used
- Concise Columbia Encyclopedia, 3rd edition: Not used for either Queen Elizabeth (I or II), John F. Kennedy, Pope Benedict (XIV or XV); looked no further.
- Websters New World Encyclopedia, First Prentice Hall Edition (based on 9th edition of Hutchkinson' Encyclopedia): Styles not used, not even mentioned in article body for Queens Elizabeth I & II, John F. Kennedy and Pope John Paul II. Other honorifics used sparingly. Oddly, George Gordon Byron is described as "6th Baron Byron" (right after the name), but the phrase "Lord Byron" does not occur in article; however, Augusta Ada Byron is described as "daughter of Lord Byron" (as well as her math achievements, of course).
- Bartletts's Familiar Quotations, 16th edition (not an encyclopedia, but well known): Inconsistent usage. "George Noel Gordon, Lord Byron"; "Sir Thomas More", "Elizabeth I", "Francis Bacon" (not "Sir"). Most honorifics not used, and styles never.
- Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 1972 edition: Styles never used, honorifics sparingly. Not used for Francis Bacon (mentioned six paragraphs into body). Likewise for various other "sirs". No honorific used for Thomas Jefferson, but described as "third president . . . " in first sentence. Duc Francois De La Rochefoucauld, ". . . was known as the prince de Marcililac until. . . " (first sentence, but after semicolon).
- New York Times. Styles not used.
- The Times. Styles not used.
- Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: Styles not used, other honorifics are. Does not use "Right Honourable" for Privy Councillors or "Royal Highness" for Princes, but does use "Sir" and "Lord Firstname," and peerage titles.
- Encyclopedia Britannica 2004, The Complete Home Library CD: Styles not used. JP2, QE2, Byron.
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