A urinal is any specialized toilet or container designed for urinating, generally by men and boys. A toilet is a Plumbing fixture and disposal system primarily intended for the disposal of the bodily wastes: Urine and fecal matter. Urination, also known as micturition, voiding, and more rarely emiction, is the process of disposing Urine from the Urinary bladder
Public urinals are normally designed for use while standing upright, and often contains a deodorizing urinal cake contained within a plastic mesh guard container or a plastic mesh guard without a urinal cake. Urinal deodorizer blocks, also often called Urinal cakes, are the small Disinfectant blocks found in Urinals The purpose of these blocks The plastic mesh guard is designed to prevent solid objects (such as cigarette butts, feces, chewing gum, or paper) from being flushed and possibly causing a plumbing stoppage. A cigarette ( French "small Cigar " from cigar + -ette) is a product consumed through Smoking and manufactured Urinals were named after Yuri Gagarin, when similar systems were used onboard the Vostok 1 space shuttle. Soon after, this technology was applied to modern public washroom facilites for males.
The term may also apply to a small building or other structure, in which such toilets are contained. It can also refer to a small container where urine can be collected for medical purposes, or for use where access to toilet facilities is not possible, such as in small aircraft or for the bedridden.
The urinal was first patented in the United States by Shannon King on March 27, 1866. A patent is a set of Exclusive rights granted by a State to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an Events 196 BC - Ptolemy V ascends to the throne of Egypt. 1309 - Pope Clement V excommunicates Year 1866 ( MDCCCLXVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common 
Most public urinals incorporate a flushing system to rinse urine from the bowl of the device to prevent foul odors. The flush can be triggered by one of several methods:
This type of flush might be regarded as standard in the United States. Each urinal is equipped with a button or short lever to activate the flush, with users expected to operate it as they leave. Such a directly-controlled system is the most efficient provided that patrons remember to use it. This is far from certain, however, often because of fear of touching the handle, which is located too high to kick.  Urinals with foot-activated flushing systems are sometimes found in high-traffic areas; these systems have a button set into the floor or a pedal on the wall at ankle height. Some establishments, often bars, pubs, or nightclubs, fill their urinals with ice cubes during peak hours. As the ice melts, it serves to slowly flush the urinal, and also cools the urine to prevent smells from rising during use. Urine is a liquid waste product of the body secreted by the Kidneys by a process of filtration from Blood and Excreted through the Urethra. The Americans with Disabilities Act requires that flush valves be mounted no higher than 44" AFF (above the finished floor). The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA is the short title of United States ( codified at et seq Additionally, the urinal shall be mounted no higher than 17" AFF, which has a rim that is tapered and elongated and protrudes at least 14" from the wall. This enables users in wheelchairs to straddle the lip of the urinal and urinate without having to "arc" the flow of urine too high.
In some regions of Japan, particularly the industrial zones of Honshu, many urinals feature a voice-activated flushing system. These flush systems are triggered by the word "wash!", "fire" or "destroy the grime" in over 30 different languages.
In the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, Hong Kong and some parts of Sweden and Finland, manual flush handles are unusual. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Instead, the traditional system is a timed flush that operates automatically at regular intervals. Groups of up to ten or so urinals will be connected to a single overhead cistern, which contains the timing mechanism. A constant drip-feed of water slowly fills the cistern, until a tripping point is reached, the valve opens, and all the urinals in the group are flushed. Electronic controllers performing the same function are also used.
This system does not require any action from its users, but it is wasteful of water where the toilets are used irregularly. However, in these countries men are so used to the automatic system, attempts to install manual flushes to save water are generally unsuccessful. Users ignore them not through deliberate laziness or fear of infection, but because activating the flush is not habitual.
To help reduce water usage when restrooms are closed, some restrooms with timed flushing use an electric water valve connected to the restroom light switch. When the building is in active use during the day and the lights are on, the timed flush operates normally. At night when the building is closed, the lights are turned off and the flushing action stops.
A flushing system connected to the opening of the washroom door can count the number of users and operate when the count reaches a certain value. At night, the door never opens, so flushing never occurs.
Electronic automatic flushes solve the problems of both previous approaches, and are common in new installations. Active or (more usually) passive infrared sensors identify when the urinal has been used (or when someone has stood in front of it and moved away), and activate the flush. A Passive InfraRed sensor (PIR sensor is an Electronic device that measures Infrared (IR light radiating from objects in its field of view Thus the urinal is cleaned, where with a manual flush it might not have been, but water is not wasted when the toilet is not used.
Automatic flush facilities can be retrofitted to existing systems. The handle-operated valves of a manual system can be replaced with a suitably-designed self-contained electronic valve, often battery-powered to avoid the need to add cables. Timed-flush installations may add a device that regulates the water flow to the cistern according to the overall activity detected in the room. This does not provide true per-fixture automatic flushing, but is simple and cheap to add because only one device is required for the whole system.
To prevent false-triggering of the automatic flush, most infra-red detectors require that a presence be detected for at least five seconds, such as when a person is standing in front of it. This prevents a whole line of automatic flush units from triggering in series if someone just walks past them.
The automatic flush mechanism also typically waits for the presence to go out of sensor range before flushing. This reduces water usage, compared to a sensor that would trigger a continuous flushing action all the while a presence is being detected.
This is an older method of water-saving automatic flushing, which only operates when the room is being used. A push-button switch is mounted in the door frame of the restroom, and triggers the flush valve for all restroom urinals every time the door is opened. A push-button (often simply " button " or " pushbutton " is a simple Switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of a Machine While it can't detect the use of individual urinals, it provides reasonable flushing action without wasting excessive amounts of water when the restroom is not being used. This method requires a spring-operated automatic door closer, since the flush mechanism only operates when the restroom door opens. A door closer is a Mechanical device that closes a Door, in general after someone opens it or after it was automatically opened
A more recent innovation is urinals that do not use water at all. Models introduced by Waterless Company in 1992 and others in 2001 by Falcon Waterfree Technologies and Sloan Valve Company, as well as Duravit, utilize a trap insert filled with a sealant liquid instead of water. Sloan Valve Company was founded in 1906 with the introduction of the Royal Flushometer which is now widely used Duravit AG is a German manufacturer and a leading supplier of Sanitary Ceramic, bathroom furniture accessories bathtub furniture and wellness ideas with The lighter-than-water sealant floats on top of the urine collected in the U-bend, preventing odors from being released into the air. Although the cartridge and sealant must be periodically replaced, the system saves anywhere between 15,000 and 45,000 gallons (approx. between 56,800 and 170,000 liters) of water per urinal per year. Other companies do not use a cartridge; instead they have developed an outlet system that traps the odor, preventing the smell often present in toilet blocks. They can be installed in high-traffic facilities and in situations where providing a water supply may be difficult or where water conservation is desired. Due to high-level water restrictions, Brisbane has mandated conversion to waterless urinals and flush urinals are rarely seen. An outdoor water-use restriction is a Ban or other lesser Restrictions put into effect that restricts the outdoor use of water Supplies. Brisbane ( is the state capital of Queensland. Brisbane is the third most populous city in Australia and the most populous city of Queensland
Urinals are usually associated with a commercial, industrial, or high capacity men's washroom, where they are used, together with toilets, for high throughput capacity, as part of an efficiently designed washroom architecture. See also Toilet A washroom, public toilet, public convenience, comfort room, toilet room, bathroom, water closet See also Toilet A washroom, public toilet, public convenience, comfort room, toilet room, bathroom, water closet For this reason, one seldom finds an individual urinal. Instead, large numbers of them are installed along a common supply pipe and drain. They are always out in the open so that those using them are in plain sight to everyone in the room. They are usually located in the traffic pattern of the room so there is little to no privacy at a urinal. There may be small partitions for privacy but they only serve the purpose of hiding the exposed private area. Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively The rest of the person will be in plain view. Also, the urinals may be spaced far apart to create an air of comfort. Where urinals are more closely arranged, some men follow the so-called "1-3-5 rule," under which men only occupy the odd-numbered urinals, thus leaving the even ones to serve as barriers. Of course, this rule can be followed only when the facility's instantaneous usage is low enough to permit using only every other urinal. However, men will generally stare straight ahead at the wall or down into their own urinal rather than at a man at an adjacent urinal.
Often, one or two of the urinals, typically at one end of a long row of urinals, will be mounted lower than the others; they are meant for young boys and men who cannot reach the regular urinals. In facilities where males of various heights are present, such as schools, urinals that extend down to floor level may be used to allow anyone of any height to use any urinal. Individual single-user facilities usually do not have a urinal, and instead have just one toilet. A toilet is a Plumbing fixture and disposal system primarily intended for the disposal of the bodily wastes: Urine and fecal matter.
Once used exclusively in commercial or institutional washrooms, urinals for private home installation are now available. They offer the advantage of substantial savings of water in homes with multiple male occupants.
In some localities, urinals may be located on public sidewalks or in public areas such as parks. These urinals are usually equipped with partitions or dividers to provide some semblance of privacy. They may or may not be equipped with flush mechanisms.
A city famous for its street urinals is Paris, France. A urinal is a specialized Toilet for urinating only generally by men and boys Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Until the 1990s, street urinals were a common sight in the city, and in the 1930s more than 1200 were in service. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) Year 1930 ( MCMXXX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Parisians referred to them as vespasiennes, the name being derived from that of the Roman Emperor Vespasian, who imposed a tax on urine. The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC Titus Flavius Vespasianus, commonly known as Vespasian ( November 17 9 &ndash June 23 79) was a Roman Emperor who Beginning in the 1990s, the vespasiennes (renowned for their smell and lack of hygiene) were gradually replaced by the far superior Sanisettes. Sanisette (saniˈzɛt is a registered trademark for a self-contained self-cleaning unisex Public toilet pioneered by the French company JCDecaux Today only one vespasienne remains in the city (on the boulevard Arago), and it is still regularly used. They still exist in other French cities, and in other countries.
See also Public toilets. A toilet is a Plumbing fixture and disposal system primarily intended for the disposal of the bodily wastes: Urine and fecal matter.
During the Korean War, Vietnam War, Operation Desert Storm etc. The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia , "piss tubes" were used as make-shift urinals. To make one, soldiers would affix an inverted water bottle on one end of a rigid tube, burying the other end. Removing the base of the bottle made a funnel which would be left at the proper height. Deposited urine simply soaked into the ground. When the area became saturated, the device was relocated.
Nearly all urinals are intended for use by males, but a few have been designed for use by women. From 1950 to 1974, the American Standard company offered the mass-produced "Ladies' Home Urinal. American Standard Companies Inc was a global manufacturer of Air conditioning systems and services bath & Kitchen products and Vehicle " It did not provide significant advantages over conventional toilets, because it used just as much floor space and flushing water. Its main selling point was that women could use the fixture without touching it.
Several other designs have been tried since then, but they either required the user to hover awkwardly or to bring her genitals into close contact with the fixture. Most have not caught on. Current clothes fashion such as panty hose and slacks inhibit women from using them because they don't want their garments to touch the urinals or the floor. Often, women have little experience with them and don't know whether to approach them forward or backward.
More recently, models that use specialized funnels have been introduced, with some success, at outdoor festivals (to reduce cycle times and alleviate long lines). A funnel is a pipe with a wide often conical mouth and a narrow stem
"Kisses!" is a controversial urinal designed by the female Dutch designer Meike van Schijndel. A female urination device (FUD or female urination aid is a small funnel which enables a woman to urinate while standing upright
It is shaped like an open pair of red lips.  In early March of 2004 the National Organization for Women (NOW) took offense to these new urinals Virgin Atlantic Airways decided to install in the Virgin Atlantic clubhouse at JFK Airport in New York, New York. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The National Organization for Women ( NOW) is the largest American Feminist organization Virgin Atlantic Airways Ltd (operating as Virgin Atlantic) is a British airline which is owned by Richard Branson 's Virgin Group (51% and John F Kennedy International Airport is an International airport located in Queens County on Long Island in southeastern New York City about 12 miles (19 The City of New York  After receiving many angry phone calls from female customers Virgin Atlantic Vice President John Riordan called NOW to apologize.  Protestors surmised a connection to oral sex and/or urolagnia, and based complaints on the urinals being sexist. Oral sex refers to sexual activities involving the use of the Mouth, and may include use of the Tongue, Teeth, and Throat, in order Urolagnia (also urophilia, undinism) is a Sexual activity in which participants derive sexual pleasure from Urine and/or Urination
A McDonald's restaurant in the Netherlands removed them after an American complained to the U. S. head office.
In March of 2006, the Associated Press reported that the plumbers union in Philadelphia had become upset because the developer of the city's newest skyscraper, Liberty Property Trust, has decided to use waterless urinals. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The Associated Press ( AP) is an American News agency. The AP is a Cooperative owned by its contributing Newspapers radio A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Many in the union decided that because of the decision that this would lead to less work for them. The developer cited saving the city 1. 6 million gallons (approx 6. 06 million liters) of water per year as its deciding factor. 
Conduct in urinals varies widely across cultures and sexes. In some western societies, men do not address each other while urinating and do not stare at others who are urinating, although, some men will continue a conversation with a friend, while only shifting their eyes and not staring the other male's genitals. It is also considered proper to wash one's hands after urinating.
Some manufacturers of urinals are: