|Upper Canada Rebellion|
Battle of Windmill
| United Kingdom|
| United States Hunters' Lodges|
Republic of Canada
| George Browne|
| William Lyon Mackenzie|
Anthony Van Egmond
Lester Hoadley †
Nils von Schoultz
The Upper Canada Rebellion was, along with the Lower Canada Rebellion in Lower Canada, a rebellion against the British colonial government in 1837 and 1838. The Lower Canada Rebellion is the name given to the armed conflict between the rebels of Lower Canada (now Quebec) and the British colonial power of that The Province of Lower Canada (French Province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Year 1837 ( MDCCCXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Year 1838 ( MDCCCXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Collectively they are also known as the Rebellions of 1837. The Rebellions of 1837 were a pair of Canadian armed uprisings that occurred in 1837 and 1838 in response to frustrations in political reform and ethnic conflict
In Upper Canada, one of the most controversial issues in the early 19th century was the allocation of land. The Province of Upper Canada (French Province du Haut-Canada) was a British colony located in what is now the southern portion of the Province of Ontario The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Much land had been set aside as "Crown reserves" or for the support of the Church of England. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican These reserves of unworked land lowered the value of neighbouring farms because isolated farms were less efficient than farms close together, and people of other religious sects (particularly Methodists, Presbyterians and Roman Catholics) resented the preferential treatment of the official English church. Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity The British government's system of allocating land was seen by many as excessively bureaucratic when compared with the American system. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the After the War of 1812 the government of Upper Canada was run by the wealthy owners of most of this reserve land, known as the Family Compact. The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies This article is about a group in nineteenth century Canadian history
As it had before the War of 1812, the government of Upper Canada continued to fear what it suspected might be a growing interest in American republicanism within the province. Reasons for this must be sought in the patterns of settlement across the province in the last half-century. Although the British had originally hoped that an orderly settlement in Upper Canada would inspire the former American colonies to abandon their democratic form of government, demographic realities intervened. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system After an initial group of about 7,000 United Empire Loyalists were thinly settled across the province in the mid-1780s, a far larger number of American settlers came after the American Revolution were attracted by the cheap land grants offered by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe to promote land settlement. The name United Empire Loyalists is a honorific name which has been given after the fact to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other Lieutenant-General John Graves Simcoe ( February 25, 1752 &ndash October 26, 1806) was the first Lieutenant governor of Upper Although these settlers, known as "late-Loyalists," were required to take an oath of allegiance to the British Crown in order to obtain land, their fundamental political allegiances were always considered dubious. By 1812 this had become acutely problematic since the American settlers outnumbered the original Loyalists by more than ten to one. It was this reality that led American legislators to speculate that bringing Upper Canada into the American fold would be a "mere matter of marching. " After the War of 1812 the government took active steps to prevent Americans from taking an oath of allegiance thereby making them ineligible to obtain land grants. Relations between the appointed Legislative Council and the elected Legislative Assembly, moreover, became increasingly strained in the years after the war over issues of both immigration and taxation. The Legislative Council of Upper Canada was the Upper house governing the province of Upper Canada. The Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada was the elected Legislature for the province of Upper Canada and functioned as the province's Lower house.
William Lyon Mackenzie, one of the more radical reformers in Upper Canada, made outright calls for republican government. William Lyon Mackenzie ( March 12, 1795 &ndash August 28, 1861) was a Canadian Journalist, Politician, and Other reformers, however, such as Robert Baldwin, were less extreme in their views. Robert Baldwin (May 12 1804 – December 9 1858 was born at York (now Toronto) Mackenzie, a Scottish immigrant, founded a reformist newspaper called The Colonial Advocate in 1824 in the Upper Canada capital of York (later Toronto). Year 1824 ( MDCCCXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year York was the name of Toronto, Ontario, between 1793 and 1834 and second capital of Upper Canada. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario He became active in politics, winning a seat in the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada and eventually becoming the first mayor of the newly-renamed Toronto in 1834. The Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada was the elected Legislature for the province of Upper Canada and functioned as the province's Lower house. Year 1834 ( MDCCCXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Neither his radical reform movement nor Baldwin's moderate reform movement were very successful, and Baldwin resigned from the Executive Council of the then Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Francis Bond Head. Sir Francis Bond Head 1st Baronet KCH PC ( 1 January 1793 &ndash 20 July 1875) known as "Galloping Head" was Conservative opposition to Mackenzie also led to attacks on his newspaper press.
In 1836 and 1837, Mackenzie gathered support among farmers around Toronto, who were sympathetic to his cause after an especially bad harvest in 1835. The Battle of Montgomery's Tavern, also known as the Bar Fight on Yonge Street and the Confrontation at Montgomery's Tavern, is the name given to the Year 1836 ( MDCCCXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Year 1837 ( MDCCCXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Year 1835 ( MDCCCXXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common This had led to a recession, and in the following years, the banks had begun to tighten credit and recall loans. When the Lower Canada Rebellion broke out on October 9th, 1837, Bond Head sent all the British troops stationed in Toronto to help suppress it. With the regular troops gone Mackenzie and his followers seized a Toronto armoury, and organized an armed march down Yonge Street, beginning at Montgomery's Tavern on December 4, 1837. Yonge Street (pronounced "young" is a major arterial street in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and its northern Suburbs It was formerly The Battle of Montgomery's Tavern, also known as the Bar Fight on Yonge Street and the Confrontation at Montgomery's Tavern, is the name given to the "December 4th" redirects here For the song by Jay-Z, see December 4th (song. Year 1837 ( MDCCCXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common But when the revolt began, Mackenzie hesitated in attacking the city. On December 7, Mackenzie's military leader, Anthony van Egmond, arrived. Events 43 BC - Marcus Tullius Cicero assassinated 1696 - Connecticut Route 108, one of the oldest highways Anthony Van Egmond, born Antonij Jacobi Willem Gijben ( 10 March 1778 – 5 January 1838) before coming to North America was purportedly a Van Egmond, a veteran on both sides of the Napoleonic Wars, advised immediate retreat, but Mackenzie remained hesitant. The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions That same day, Colonel Moodie attempted to ride through a roadblock to warn Bond Head, but the rebels shot him. Mackenzie waited for Bond Head's force of about 1000 men and one cannon, led by Colonel James Fitzgibbon, which outnumbered Mackenzie's approximately 400 rebels. James FitzGibbon ( November 23 1782 &ndash December 10 1863) was a British soldier and hero of the War of 1812. The fight was very short and in less than half an hour the confrontation was over. The rebel forces dispersed.
Meanwhile, a group of rebels from the settlement of London (in the west of Upper Canada), led by Charles Duncombe, marched toward Toronto to support Mackenzie. London is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada along the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor with a metropolitan area population of 457720 the city proper Charles Duncombe ( 28 July 1792 &ndash 1 October 1867) was a leader in the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1837 Colonel Allan MacNab met them near Hamilton, Ontario on December 13, and the rebels fled. Sir Allan Napier MacNab 1st Baronet (b Niagara, Ontario, 19 February 1798 &ndash d Hamilton (ˈhæməltən ( 2006 population 504559 UA population 647634 CMA population Events 1294 - Saint Celestine V abdicates the papacy after only five months Celestine hoped to return to his previous life
The victorious Tory supporters burned homes and farms of the known rebels and suspected supporters. In the 1860s, some of the former rebels were compensated by the Canadian government for their lost property in the rebellion aftermath.
Mackenzie, Duncombe, John Rolph and 200 supporters fled to Navy Island in the Niagara River, where they declared themselves the Republic of Canada on December 13. John Rolph may refer to John Rolph (judge, American Deputy Judge of the Guantanamo Military Commissions * John Rolph (politician, an Upper Navy Island is a small island in the Niagara River in the province of Ontario, Canada. The Niagara River flows to the north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. This article is about the short-lived Republic of Canada For the article about ending the monarchy in Canada see Canadian Republicanism The Republic of Canada Events 1294 - Saint Celestine V abdicates the papacy after only five months Celestine hoped to return to his previous life They obtained supplies from supporters in the United States resulting in British reprisals (see Caroline Affair). The Caroline Affair was a series of events beginning in 1837 that strained relations between the United States and Britain. On January 13, 1838, under attack by British armaments, the rebels fled. Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks Year 1838 ( MDCCCXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Mackenzie went to the United States where he was arrested and charged under the Neutrality Act. The other major leaders, Van Egmond, Samuel Lount, and Peter Matthews were arrested by the British; Van Egmond died in prison, and Lount and Matthews were executed at 8 AM on April 12, 1838 in Toronto. Samuel Lount ( September 24 1791 – April 12 1838) was a businessman and political figure in Upper Canada. Peter Matthews (1789 April 12 1838) was a farmer and soldier who participated in the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1838 ( MDCCCXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Their last words were: "Mr. Jarvis, do your duty; we are prepared to meet death and our Judge. "
The rebels continued their raids into Canada, however, using the U. S. as a base of operations and cooperating with the U. S. Hunter Lodges, dedicated to the overthrow of British rule in Canada. The Frères chasseurs (French for "Hunter Brothers" though they were also referred to as the Hunter Patriots and Hunters' Lodges) were a paramilitary organization The raids did not end until the rebels and Hunters were decisively defeated at the Battle of the Windmill, nearly a year after the initial battle at Montgomery's Tavern. The " Battle of the Windmill " is also a fictional battle in the book Animal Farm.
Compared to the Lower Canada Rebellion, the initial portion of the Upper Canada Rebellion was short and disorganized. The Lower Canada Rebellion is the name given to the armed conflict between the rebels of Lower Canada (now Quebec) and the British colonial power of that However, the government in London, England was very concerned about the rebellion, especially in light of the strong popular support for the rebels in the United States and the more serious crisis in Lower Canada. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Bond Head was recalled in late 1837 and replaced with Sir George Arthur who arrived in Toronto in March 1838 and sent Lord Durham, who was assigned to report on the grievances among the colonists and find a way to appease them. John George Lambton 1st Earl of Durham (also known as Radical Jack, and commonly referred to in history texts simply as Lord Durham) GCB PC His report eventually led to greater autonomy in the Canadian colonies, and the union of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada in 1840. The Report on the Affairs of British North America, commonly known as Lord Durham's Report, is an important document in the history of Quebec, Canada The Act of Union (3 & 4 Vict c 35 passed in July 1840 and proclaimed February 10, 1841, abolished the legislatures of Lower Canada and Upper Canada The Province of Canada or the United Province of Canada was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867 Year 1840 ( MDCCCXL) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year
A few of the rebels were hanged or transported, but most were pardoned. Hanging is the lethal suspension of a person by a ligature The Oxford English Dictionary states that hanging in this sense is "specifically to put to death Transportation or penal transportation refers to the deporting of Convicted Criminals to a Penal colony, for example by France A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it A general pardon (for everyone but Mackenzie) was issued in 1845, and Mackenzie himself was pardoned in 1849 and allowed to return to Canada, where he resumed his political career. Mackenzie was strongly disillusioned after his time in the United States, writing to his son that "after what I have seen here, I frankly confess to you that, had I passed nine years in the United States before, instead of after, the outbreak, I am sure I would have been the last man in America to be engaged in it" (Charles Lindsey, The Life and Times of William Lyon Mackenzie and the Rebellion of 1837–38. 1862; cited by Betsy Dewar Boyce, The Rebels of Hastings, 1992).