|Universal Media Disc|
|Media type||Optical disc|
|Capacity||900 MB (single layer), 1. A megabyte is a unit of Information or Computer storage equal to either 106 (1000000 Bytes or 220 (1048576 bytes depending on 8 GB (dual layer)|
|Usage||Games, movies, music|
|Optical media types|
The Universal Media Disc (UMD) is an optical disc medium developed by Sony for use on the PlayStation Portable. A gigabyte (derived from the SI prefix Giga-) is a unit of Information or Computer A video game is a Game that involves interaction with a User interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. Optical disc authoring, including DVD and Blu-ray Disc authoring (often referred to colloquially but improperly as burning) is the process of assembling In Computing, an optical disc drive ( ODD) is a Disk drive that uses Laser light or electromagnetic waves near the Light spectrum Optical disc authoring, including DVD and Blu-ray Disc authoring (often referred to colloquially but improperly as burning) is the process of assembling Optical disc authoring software is Computer software for authoring optical discs including CD-ROMs and DVDs They are also known by synonyms Optical disc authoring requires a number of different technologies working in tandem from the media to the firmware to the control electronics of the drive. In Optical disc authoring, there are multiple modes for recording including Disc-At-Once, Track-At-Once, and Session-At-Once. Packet writing is an Optical disc recording technology used to allow write-once and rewritable CD and DVD media to be used in a similar manner to a The Laserdisc (LD is an obsolete Home video disc format and was the first commercial Optical disc storage medium Video Single Disc (abbreviated as VSD was a disc-based format that carried the same analog video information as a Laserdisc, but on a 12-centimetre (4 A Compact Disc (also known as a CD) is an Optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio Red Book is the standard for audio CDs ( Compact Disc Digital Audio system or CDDA) The DTS-CD, DTS Audio CD or 51 Music Disc (official name is an audio Compact Disc that contains music in Surround sound format Super Audio CD ( SACD) is a read-only optical audio disc format that can provide higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the Red Photo CD is a system designed by Kodak for digitizing and storing photos in a CD A CD-R ( C ompact D isc- R ecordable is a variation of the Compact Disc invented by Philips and Sony. CD-ROM (an initialism of "Compact Disc Read-Only Memory " is a pre-pressed Compact Disc that contains data accessible to but not writable Compact Disc ReWritable (CD-RW is a rewritable Optical disc format This article is about 'CD Video' a hybrid analog/digital format Super Video CD ( Super Video Compact Disc or SVCD) is a Digital format for storing Video on standard Compact discs SVCD was intended A CD+G (also known as CD+Graphics) is a special audio Compact disc that contains Graphics Data in addition to the audio data CD-Text is an extension of the Red Book Compact Disc specifications standard for Audio CDs It allows for storage of additional information (e CD-ROM XA is an extension of the Yellow Book Mode 2 standard for CD-ROMs that combines compressed audio visual and computer data allowing all to be accessed CD-i or Compact Disc Interactive is the name of an interactive multimedia CD player developed and marketed by Royal Philips Electronics N A MiniDisc ( MD) is a Magneto-optical disc-based Data storage device initially intended for storage of up to 80 minutes of digitized audio In January 2004 Sony announced the Hi-MD media storage format as a further development of the MiniDisc-Format. DVD (also known as " Digital Versatile Disc " or " Digital Video Disc " - see Etymology)is DVD-R is a DVD recordable format A DVD-R typically has a storage capacity of 4 A DVD+R is a once-writable Optical disc with 47 GB (4377 GiB) of storage capacity (more precisely 2295104 sectors of 2048 Bytes DVD-R DL (DL stands for Dual Layer) also called DVD-R9, is a derivative of the DVD-R format standard DVD+R DL (DL stands for Double Layer) also called DVD+R9, is a derivative of the DVD+R format created by the DVD+RW Alliance. A DVD-RW disc is a rewritable Optical disc with equal storage capacity to a DVD-R, typically 4 DVD+RW is the name of a standard for Optical discs one of several types of DVD, which hold up to about 4 DVD-RW DL is a rewritable Optical disc standard with storage capacity of 8 A DVD+RW DL is a rewritable Optical disc with storage capacity of 8 DVD-RAM ( DVD – Random Access Memory) is a disc specification presented in 1996 by the DVD Forum, which specifies rewritable DVD-RAM media and the appropriate DVD-Ds, also referred to as disposable DVDs are a type of digital video disc that is designed to be used for a maximum 48 hours after the containing package is opened Ultra Density Optical ( UDO) is an Optical disc format designed for high-density storage of high-definition video and not insert the publicly disclosed HD DVD key into this article for the time being not insert the publicly disclosed HD DVD key into this article for the time being not insert the publicly disclosed HD DVD key into this article for the time being not insert the publicly disclosed HD DVD key into this article for the time being not insert the publicly disclosed HD DVD key into this article for the time being Blu-ray Disc recordable (or BD-R) refers to two Optical disc formats that can be recorded with an Optical disc recorder. For the series of US government publications on Computer security standards see Rainbow Series. ISO 9660 a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO defines a File system for CD-ROM media Joliet is the name of an extension to the ISO 9660 File system. The Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (RRIP IEEE P1282 is an extension to the ISO 9660 volume format which adds POSIX File system semantics The El Torito Bootable CD Specification is an extension to the ISO 9660 CD-ROM specification The primary file system for Apple Macintosh computers is HFS (or HFS+ Mount Rainier ( MRW) is a format for writable Optical discs which provides the Packet writing and defect management Although research into Optical data storage has been ongoing for many decades the first popular system was the Compact Disc, introduced in 1982, adapted to data is a multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato Tokyo, Japan, and one of the world's largest Media conglomerates with The PlayStation Portable (officially abbreviated PSP) is a Handheld game console manufactured and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It can hold up to 1. 8 gigabytes of data. A gigabyte (derived from the SI prefix Giga-) is a unit of Information or Computer It is the first optical disc format to be used for a handheld video game system.
ECMA-365: Data Interchange on 60 mm Read-Only ODC – Capacity: 1. Ecma International (Ecma is an international private (membership-based non-profit Standards organization for information and communication systems 8 GB (UMD)
DVD region coding has been applied to most UMD movies and music, although all games, with the exception of Battlezone, do not enforce regional lockout, making them, in effect, region free. In Physics wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a propagating Wave of a given Frequency. A nanometre ( American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) ( Greek: νάνος nanos dwarf; μετρώ metrό count) is a A laser is a device that emits Light ( Electromagnetic radiation) through a process called Stimulated emission. In Cryptography, the Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES) also known as Rijndael, is a Block cipher adopted as an Encryption DVD video discs may be encoded with a region code restricting the area of the world in which they can be played Regional lockout is the programming practice code chip or physical barrier used to prevent the playing of media designed for a device from the country where it is marketed on the
In an effort to combat piracy and maintain exclusive control, the UMD format is proprietary, and neither blank media nor media writers are available to the public.
The primary application for UMD discs is as a storage medium for PSP games, although the format is also used for the storage of motion pictures, and to a lesser degree, television shows for playback on the PSP. The PlayStation Portable (officially abbreviated PSP) is a Handheld game console manufactured and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. The video is encoded in the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC format, with the audio in ATRAC3plus. H264 is a standard for Video compression. It is also known as MPEG-4 Part 10, or MPEG-4 AVC (for Advanced Video Coding) Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding ( ATRAC) is a family of proprietary audio compression algorithms developed by Sony.
The BBC released a number of its TV titles on UMD in the UK, including The Office, The Mighty Boosh, Doctor Who and Little Britain. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This article is about the original version of The Office For the US version see The Office (US TV series, and for a comparison of the various versions from around the The Mighty Boosh, colloquially referred to as The Boosh, is the collective name for the creators of the British television situation comedy written by and starring Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. Little Britain is a character-based comedy Sketch show first appearing on BBC radio and then television
Some adult films have been released on UMD in Japan. Pornographic films are Motion pictures with the purpose of promoting sexual arousal in the viewer often featuring depictions of sexual activity  Sony does not officially approve of such content. A top level Sony executive called this development as being "highly undesirable".
Despite Sony's efforts, the UMD format has been cracked. Software cracking is the modification of Software to remove protection methods Copy prevention, trial/demo version serial number hardware key CD check Using a combination of insecure firmware and reverse engineering, the Sony PSP will run a variety of homebrew games, and backup ISO images. Reverse engineering (RE is the process of discovering the technological principles of a device object or system through analysis of its structure function and operation Homebrew is a term frequently applied to Video games produced by consumers to target Proprietary hardware platforms not typically user-programmable or that use proprietary An ISO image is an Archive file (aka Disk image) of an Optical disc using a conventional ISO ( International Organization for Standardization Each disc uses a file system whose format follows the ISO 9660 standard. In Computing, a file system (often also written as filesystem) is a method for storing and organizing Computer files and the data they contain to make ISO 9660 a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO defines a File system for CD-ROM media The ISO image can then be stored on a Memory Stick, and run via a special disc emulator program, such as Devhook, or launched in the XMB with a custom firmware. Memory Stick is a removable flash Memory card format launched by Sony in October 1998, and is also used in general to describe the whole family
According to the official ECMA specification Sony designed the UMD to support two possible future enhancements and products. 
1. Protective Shutter: Similar to the MiniDisc and floppy disc, this protective shutter will shield the inner disc from accidental contact. These disks if ever produced will still be compatible with some legacy UMD devices, including the PSP-1000 series. However they would not be compatible with the PSP-2000 series.
2. Auto-Loading: UMDs were designed for possible future slot loading devices with Auto-Loading mechanisms. These would be very similar to the auto-loading mechanism used in slot loading MiniDisc home and car decks. It would also be similar to the VHS U-Matic auto-loading mechanism. Unlike the current clamshell loading design the PSP uses, a slot loading device using an Auto-Loading mechanism would be motorized and completely automatic. You would insert the disc into the device slot, similar to the way you insert a VHS cassette into a VCR, and as you begin to insert it, the motorized mechanism would then then take over and completely draw the disc inside the drive, and complete the loading process. The disc would also be ejected fully automatically by the motorized mechanism, like a VCR. This would also mean that power would be required in order to insert or eject a disc.
Although the UMD discs offer large capacity and the capability to store quality audio/video content, the format's proprietary nature and the lack of writers and blank media have spawned criticisms. Comparisons to Sony's MiniDisc format have brought forth further criticisms; for instance, the sliding shield which prevents direct disc contact on MiniDiscs is absent from all UMDs released to date, though it is an option according to the ECMA specification. A MiniDisc ( MD) is a Magneto-optical disc-based Data storage device initially intended for storage of up to 80 minutes of digitized audio 
For security reasons, and to protect DVD sales, Sony had no plans to support UMD playback on normal televisions.  The PSP-1000 series cannot output to a TV set without either a third-party modification that requires the removal of the faceplate among other hardware modifications, or a device such as the Nyko PSP-to-TV adapter that uses a CCD camera to display the PSP screen on a TV using RCA connectors. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic Nyko is a manufacturer of third-party accessories for various gaming consoles A charge-coupled device ( CCD) is an analog Shift register, that enables the transportation of analog signals (electric charges through successive stages (capacitors An RCA jack, also referred to as a phono connector or CINCH/AV connector, is a type of Electrical connector that is commonly used in the audio/video It has yet to be seen if such products will help poor UMD movie sales. This feature has now been added to the newer PSP-2000 model series, which can output at a resolution of 480p using proprietary component cables (sold separately). PSP Slim & Lite as it is known in the PAL territories is the current model of the PlayStation Portable Handheld game console released and manufactured by
The smaller capacity of the UMD discs necessitates that bonus content from DVD releases be removed in large part or entirely before the movie is released on UMD for PSP playback. This has made the UMD movie releases a difficult sell in the face of affordable portable DVD players that can output to TV sets and can play the full-featured DVD releases. UMD movie pricing was also originally higher than DVD pricing, although UMDs have largely fallen to a more reasonable price. Due to the slow sales of UMD movies, some retailers, such as Tower Records, began offering incentives on UMD purchases, such as “buy one, get one free” deals.
In February 2006, Paramount Home Entertainment, Warner Home Video, and even Sony Pictures Home Entertainment announced that they were cutting back releases for the PSP, citing disappointing sales of about 50,000 per title. Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and Distribution company, based in Hollywood California. Warner Home Video is the Home video unit of Warner Bros Entertainment Inc Sony Pictures Home Entertainment is the Home video distribution arm of Sony Pictures Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation.  In March 2006, Reuters reported that Wal-Mart was considering abandoning sales of the format, and that Universal Studios Home Entertainment and Image Entertainment had ceased production. Wal-Mart Stores Inc (or Walmart as written in its new logo is an American public corporation that runs a chain of large discount department stores Universal Studios Home Entertainment (formerly Universal Studios Home Video or MCA/Universal Home Video) is a Home video company founded in 1980 Image Entertainment Inc. is a leading independent licensee producer and distributor of home entertainment programming in North America with approximately 3000 exclusive DVD  Other studios have reportedly terminated their production to the format as well.
In mid-2006, Target began pulling UMDs from shelves and replacing them with a section of independent movies selected by the Independent Film Channel. Target Corporation ( is an American Retailing company that was founded in Minneapolis Minnesota in 1902 An independent film, or indie film, is a film that is produced outside of the Hollywood Studio system, a series of oligopolistic practices by several The Independent Film Channel ( IFC) is a cable network that airs independent film and related programming uncut and uncensored 24 hours a day  While not yet effective at all stores, the response from the corporation was that the UMDs will be shipped back to distribution centers to fulfill online orders through the Target website.  PSP games on UMD discs will be unaffected by this change and will still be carried by all Target stores.
In 2007 Target Stores began putting UMD Movies back on shelves. Target features most current movies available, including the new TV on UMD.
In September 2006, a lower pricing on 22 movies led to a tenfold increase of sales in Japan, suggesting one of the main causes of slow sales was the high price tag.