|Environmental Protection Agency|
Environmental Protection Agency logo
|Formed||December 2, 1970|
|Annual Budget||$7. Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 3 billion (2007)|
|Agency Executives||Stephen L. Johnson, Administrator|
Marcus Peacock, Deputy Administrator
The U. Stephen L Johnson (born March 21, 1951 in Washington D C) is the current Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency is the head of the United States federal government's Environmental Protection Agency, and is thus responsible Marcus C Peacock (born March 21 1960 is the current Deputy Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or sometimes USEPA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States charged with protecting human health and with safeguarding the natural environment: air, water, and land. This is an incomplete list of United States federal agencies. The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. Health is a state of complete physical mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity See also Nature The natural environment, commonly referred to simply as the environment, is a terminology that is comprised of all living and The EPA began operation on December 2, 1970, when it was established by President Richard Nixon, and has since been chiefly responsible for the environmental policy of the United States. Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Environmental policy of the United States is federal governmental action to regulate activities that have an environmental impact in the United States It is led by its Administrator, who is appointed by the President of the United States. The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency is the head of the United States federal government's Environmental Protection Agency, and is thus responsible The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by The EPA is not a Cabinet agency, but the Administrator is normally given cabinet rank. The United States Cabinet (usually simplified as "the Cabinet" is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the Executive branch of the Federal government The current Administrator (as of 2007) is Stephen L. Johnson, and the current Deputy Administrator is Marcus Peacock. Stephen L Johnson (born March 21, 1951 in Washington D C) is the current Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA Marcus C Peacock (born March 21 1960 is the current Deputy Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA The agency has approximately 18,000 full-time employees. 
EPA comprises 17,000 people in headquarters program offices, 10 regional offices, and 27 laboratories across the country. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D More than half of its staff are engineers, scientists, and environmental protection specialists; other groups include legal, public affairs, financial, and computer specialists.
The agency conducts environmental assessment, research, and education. It has the primary responsibility for setting and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state, tribal, and local governments. It delegates some permitting, monitoring, and enforcement responsibility to U.S. states and Native American tribes. A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States EPA enforcement powers include fines, sanctions, and other measures. Sanctions are usually monetary fines, levied against a party to a Legal action or his/her Attorney, for violating rules of procedure
The agency also works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts.
On July 9, 1970, Richard Nixon transmitted Reorganization Plan No. 3 to the United States Congress by executive order, creating the EPA as a single, independent, agency from a number of smaller arms of different federal agencies. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Reorganization Plan No 3 was an Executive order by President Richard Nixon establishing the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses Prior to the establishment of the EPA, the federal government was not structured to make a coordinated attack on the pollutants which harm human health and degrade the environment. The EPA was assigned the task of repairing the damage already done to the natural environment and to establish new criteria to guide Americans in making a cleaner, safer America.
Each EPA regional office is responsible within its states for implementing the Agency's programs, except those programs that have been specifically delegated to states.
Each regional office also implements programs on Indian Tribal lands, except those programs delegated to Tribal authorities.
The legislation here is general environmental protection legislation, and may also apply to other units of the government, including the Department of the Interior and the Department of Agriculture. The United States Department of the Interior ( DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally
In 1992 the EPA launched the Energy Star program, a voluntary program that fosters energy efficiency; in 2006 EPA launched WaterSense to similarly foster water efficiency. The Air Pollution Control Act was the first United States legislation concerning Air quality. A Clean Air Act describes one of a number of pieces of legislation relating to the reduction of Smog and Air pollution in general The Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act is a 1965 amendment to the U The National Environmental Policy Act ( NEPA) is a United States environmental law that was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by U The Clean Air Act Extension of 1970 (84 Stat 1676 Public Law 91-604 is a United States federal law that requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA to develop The Toxic Substances Control Act ( TSCA) is a United States law passed by the United States Congress in 1976, that regulates the introduction The 1990 Clean Air Act is a piece of United States environmental policy relating to the reduction of Smog and Air pollution. The Clean Water Act is the primary Federal law in the United States governing Water pollution. The Clean Water Act is the primary Federal law in the United States governing Water pollution. The National Environmental Policy Act ( NEPA) is a United States environmental law that was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by U The Clean Water Act is the primary Federal law in the United States governing Water pollution. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA is the principal federal law in the United States that ensures safe Drinking water for the public The Toxic Substances Control Act ( TSCA) is a United States law passed by the United States Congress in 1976, that regulates the introduction The Clean Water Act is the primary Federal law in the United States governing Water pollution. The Clean Water Act is the primary Federal law in the United States governing Water pollution. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA is the principal federal law in the United States that ensures safe Drinking water for the public The Wilderness Act of 1964 ( was written by Howard Zahniser of The Wilderness Society. The National Environmental Policy Act ( NEPA) is a United States environmental law that was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by U The Wilderness Act of 1964 ( was written by Howard Zahniser of The Wilderness Society. The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA is the primary federal law that regulates the environmental effects of Coal mining in the United States The Wilderness Act of 1964 ( was written by Howard Zahniser of The Wilderness Society. The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 prohibits with certain exceptions the taking of Marine mammals in United States waters and by U The Endangered Species Act of 1973 ( et seq or ESA is the most wide-ranging of the dozens of United States environmental laws passed in the 1970s The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA enacted in 1976, is a Federal law of the United States contained in 42 U The National Environmental Policy Act ( NEPA) is a United States environmental law that was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by U The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA enacted in 1976, is a Federal law of the United States contained in 42 U Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental policy officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act The Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act (Pub. Energy Star is an international standard for energy efficient Consumer products EPA also administers the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) (which is much older than the agency) and registers all pesticides legally sold in the United States. The Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (or FIFRA) Et seq. A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest. It is also responsible for reviewing projects of other federal agencies' Environmental Impact Statements under NEPA. An ( EIA) is an assessment of the possible impact&ndashpositive or negative&ndashthat a proposed project may have on the Natural environment. The National Environmental Policy Act ( NEPA) is a United States environmental law that was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by U
American automobile manufacturers are required to use EPA fuel economy test results to advertise the gas mileage of their vehicles, and the manufacturers are disallowed from providing results from alternate sources. Fuel economy in automobiles is the amount of Fuel required to move the Automobile over a given Distance. The fuel economy is calculated using the emissions data collected during two of the vehicle's Clean Air Act certification tests, by measuring the total volume of carbon captured from the exhaust during the test. The Clean Air Act Extension of 1970 (84 Stat 1676 Public Law 91-604 is a United States federal law that requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA to develop This calculated fuel economy is then adjusted downward by 10% city and 22% highway to compensate for changes in driving conditions since 1972.
The current testing system was developed in 1972, and is a simulation of rush-hour Los Angeles of that era. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West Prior to 1984, the EPA did not adjust the fuel economy downward, and instead used the exact fuel economy figures calculated from the test. In December 2006, the EPA finalized new test methods to improve fuel economy and emission estimates, which would take effect with model year 2008 vehicles, setting the precedent of a 12 year review cycle on the test procedures.
As of the 2000s, most motor vehicle users report significantly lower real-world fuel economy than the EPA rating; this problem is most evident in hybrid vehicles. A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to propel the vehicle This is mainly because of drastic changes in typical driving habits and conditions which have occurred in the decades since the tests were implemented. For example, the average speed of the 1972 "highway" test is a mere 48 mph, with a top speed of 60 mph. It is expected that when the 2008 test methods are implemented, city estimates for non-hybrid cars will drop by 10-20%, city estimates for hybrid cars will drop by 20-30%, and highway estimates for all cars will drop by 5-15%. The new methods include factors such as high speeds, aggressive accelerations, air conditioning use and driving in cold temperatures.
In February 2005, the organization launched a program called "Your MPG" that allows drivers to add real-world fuel economy statistics into a database on the EPA's fuel economy website and compare them with others and the original EPA test results.
The Air Quality Modeling Group (AQMG) is in the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) and provides leadership and direction on the full range of air quality models, air pollution dispersion models and other mathematical simulation techniques used in assessing pollution control strategies and the impacts of air pollution sources. The Air Quality Index ( AQI) is a standardized indicator of the Air Quality in a given location Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of Chemicals Particulate matter, or Biological materials that cause harm or discomfort Atmospheric dispersion models are computer programs that use mathematical Algorithms to simulate how Pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse
The AQMG serves as the focal point on air pollution modeling techniques for other EPA headquarters staff, EPA regional Offices, and State and local environmental agencies. Atmospheric dispersion modeling is the mathematical simulation of how air pollutants disperse in the ambient atmosphere. It coordinates with the EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) on the development of new models and techniques, as well as wider issues of atmospheric research. Finally, the AQMG conducts modeling analyses to support the policy and regulatory decisions of the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS).
The AQMG is located in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.
SPCC - Spill Prevention Containment and Counter Measures. Secondary Containment mandated at oil storage facilities. Oil release containment at oil development sites.
Advance Identification, or ADID, is a planning process used by the EPA to identify wetlands and other bodies of water and their respective suitability for the discharge of dredged and fill material. The EPA conducts the process in cooperation with the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers and local States or Native American Tribes. The United States Army Corps of Engineers ( USACE) is a federal agency and a major Army command made up of some 34600 Civilian and 650 Military personnel A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States As of February 1993, 38 ADID projects had been completed and 33 were ongoing. 
Since its inception the EPA has begun to rely less and less on its scientists and more on nonscience personnel. EPA has recently changed their policies regarding limits for ground-level ozone, particulates, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and lead. New policies will minimize scientist interaction in this process and rely more on policy makers who have minimal scientific knowledge. This new policy has been criticized by Democrats. The air in hundreds of U. S. counties is simply too dirty to breathe, the Federal government of the United States told March 12, 2008, ordering a multibillion-dollar expansion of efforts to clean up smog in cities and towns nationwide. The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. Events 538 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common 
In July 2005, an EPA report showing that auto companies were using loopholes to produce less fuel-efficient cars was delayed. The report was supposed to be released the day before a controversial energy bill was passed and would have provided backup for those opposed to it, but at the last minute the EPA delayed its release. 
The EPA has also come under fire from environmentalists for refusing to allow California and 16 other states to raise fuel economy standards for new cars. EPA administrator Stephen Johnson has claimed that the EPA is working on its own standards, but this move has been widely considered as an attempt to shield the auto industry from environmental regulation by setting lower standards at the federal level, which would then preempt state laws. Stephen Johnson may refer to Stephen C Johnson, computer scientist mathematician and Unix specialist Stephen L 
In June 2005, a memo revealed Philip Cooney, former chief of staff for the White House Council on Environmental Quality, and former lobbyist for the American Petroleum Institute, had personally edited documents, summarizing government research on climate change, before their release. Philip A Cooney (born July 16, 1959) is a former member of the administration of President George W The Council on Environmental Quality ( CEQ) is a division of the White House that coordinates federal environmental efforts in the United States Lobbying includes all attempts to influence Legislators and officials whether by other legislators constituents or organized groups The American Petroleum Institute, commonly referred to as API is the main U Climate change is any long-term significant change in the “average weather” that a given region experiences 
Cooney resigned two days after the memo was published in The New York Times. Cooney said he had been planning to resign for over two years, implying the timing of his resignation was just a coincidence. Specifically, he said he had planned to resign to "spend time with his family. " One week after resigning he took a job at Exxon Mobil in their public affairs department. The Exxon Mobil Corporation, or ExxonMobil, is an American oil and gas Corporation and a direct descendant of John D 
The Supreme Court ruled on April 2, 2007 in Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency that the EPA has the authority to regulate the emission of greenhouse gases in automobile emissions, stating that "greenhouse gases fit well within the Clean Air Act capacious definition of air pollutant. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Massachusetts v Environmental Protection Agency, 549 US 497 (2007 is a U Greenhouse gases are gaseous constituents of the atmosphere bothnatural and anthropogenic that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of thermal infrared A Clean Air Act describes one of a number of pieces of legislation relating to the reduction of Smog and Air pollution in general " The court also stated that the EPA must regulate in this area unless it is able to provide a scientific reason for not doing so. 
In 2004, the Agency began a strategic planning exercise to develop plans for a more virtual approach to library services. The effort was curtailed in July 2005 when the Agency proposed a $2. 5 million cut in its 2007 budget for libraries. Based on the proposed 2007 budget, the EPA posted a notice to the Federal Register, September 20, 2006 that EPA Headquarters Library would close its doors to walk-in patrons and visitors on October 1, 2006. The Federal Register (since March 14, 1936) abbreviated Fed Reg 
The EPA has also closed some of its regional libraries and reduced hours in others,  using the same FY 2007 proposed budget numbers.
In March 2005, nine states, California, New York, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine, Connecticut, New Mexico and Vermont, sued the EPA. The EPA's inspector general had determined that the EPA's regulation of mercury emissions did not follow the Clean Air Act, and that the regulations were influenced by top political appointees. Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum A Clean Air Act describes one of a number of pieces of legislation relating to the reduction of Smog and Air pollution in general  The EPA had suppressed a study it commissioned by Harvard University which contradicted its position on mercury controls. The suit alleges that the EPA's rule allowing exemption from "maximum available control technology" was illegal, and additionally charged that the EPA's system of pollution credit trading allows power plants to forego reducing mercury emissions.  Several states also began to enact their own mercury emission regulations. In one of the most stringent examples, Illinois' proposed rule would reduce mercury emissions from power plants by an average of 90% by 2009, with no trading allowed. 
Tiny particles, under 2. The EPA 9/11 pollution controversy was the result of a report released by the Office of the Inspector General of the United States Environmental Protection Agency in August 5 micrometres, are attributed to health and mortality concerns so some health advocates want EPA to regulate it. The science may be in its infancy although many conferences have discussed the trails of this airborne matter in the air. Foreign governments like Australia and most EU states have addressed this issue. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
The EPA first established standards in 1997, and strengthened them in 2006. As with other standards, regulation and enforcement of the PM2. 5 standards is the responsibility of the state governments, through State Implementation Plans. A State Implementation Plan (SIP is a United States state plan for complying with the federal Clean Air Act, administered by the Environmental Protection Agency 
An extensive online questionnaire responded by 1600 EPA staff scientists who have worked in the agency for more than 10 years has determined that they have been pressured to skew their findings. The survey included chemists, toxicologists, engineers, geologists and experts in other fields of science. About 40% scientists have reported that the interference has been more prevalent in the last five years compared to previous years. The highest number of complaints came from scientists who are involved in determining the risks of cancer by chemicals used in food and other aspects of our everyday life.  These findings correlate with high prevalence of cancer among people in countries who use frozen, processed and preserved food and are used to a lifestyle where usage of drugs, chemicals and cosmetics are commonpractice.
|1970–1973||William D. Ruckelshaus|
|1973–1977||Russell E. Train|
|1977–1981||Douglas M. Costle|
|1981–1983||Anne M. Gorsuch (Burford)|
|1983–1985||William D. William Doyle Ruckelshaus (born July 24, 1932 in Indianapolis Indiana) is an American attorney and civil servant Russell Errol Train (born June 4, 1920) was the second EPA Agency Administrator from September 1973 to January 1977 Douglas Michael Costle was born July 27 1939 in Long Beach California. Anne M Burford ( April 21 1942 – July 18 2004) was the first female Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency Ruckelshaus|
|1985–1989||Lee M. Thomas|
|1989–1993||William K. Reilly|
|1993–2001||Carol M. Browner|
|2001–2003||Christine Todd Whitman|
|2003–2005||Michael O. Leavitt|
|2005—||Stephen L. Johnson|