|United States Army Air Forces (USAAF)|
USAAF Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
|Active||1941-06-20 to 1947-09-17|
|Branch||United States Army|
|Gen. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1176 - The Battle of Myriokephalon is fought 1462 - The Battle of Świecino (or Battle of Żarnowiec The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. Henry H. Arnold, 1941-1946|
Gen. Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold GCB ( June 25, 1886 – January 15, 1950) was a five-star General officer Carl Spaatz, 1946-1947
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the military aviation arm of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II. Carl Andrew "Tooey" Spaatz GBE (June 28 1891 &ndash July 14 1974 was an American general in World War II, and the first Chief of The United States of America —commonly referred to as the World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including It was the direct precursor to the United States Air Force, established in 1947. Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. At its peak strength in 1944, the USAAF had over 2. 4 million men and women in service, nearly 80,000 aircraft and 783 permanent bases, and operated from more than 2,000 airfields worldwide.
The Air Corps became the Army Air Forces in June 1941 to provide the air arm a greater autonomy in which to expand more efficiently, and to provide a structure for the additional command echelons required by a vastly increased force. The United States Army Air Corps (USAAC was the predecessor of the U Although other nations already had separate air forces independent of the army or navy (such as the British Royal Air Force and the German Luftwaffe), the USAAF remained a part of the United States Army. ( German 'luftvafe is a generic German term for an Air force. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities.
** The Air Corps became a subordinate element of the Army Air Forces on 20 June 1941, and it continued to exist as a combat arm of the Army (similar to Infantry) until disestablished by Congress with the creation of the U. Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 96 - Nerva is proclaimed Roman Emperor after Domitian is assassinated Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 96 - Nerva is proclaimed Roman Emperor after Domitian is assassinated Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. S. Air Force in 1947.
The USAAF had its roots in a turn-of-the century effort at technology assessment of the progress of aviation. The issuance of a patent to the Wright Brothers in 1906, and the interest of President Theodore Roosevelt brought about the creation on August 1, 1907, of the Aeronautical Division of the Signal Corps, headed by Captain Charles deForest Chandler, established to develop all forms of flying. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Year 1906 ( MCMVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T Events 30 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman Year 1907 ( MCMVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Aeronautical Division US Signal Corps (1907-1914 was the first Progenitor of the United States Air Force, and as such is the first military air organization In 1908, the corps ordered a dirigible balloon and contracted with the Wrights for an airplane. Terminology In some countries airships are also known as dirigibles from the French (fr ''diriger'' to direct plus -ible) meaning "directable" Despite a crash that destroyed the first model, the Wright plane was delivered in 1909. The inventors then began to teach a few enthusiastic young officers to fly.
The progress of U. S. military aviation was slow in its early years. Congress voted the first appropriation for military aviation in 1911 and expanded the service into an Aviation Section in 1914. The Aviation Section US Signal Corps, was the name of the military aviation service of the United States Army from 1914 to 1918 and a direct ancestor of the United States A provisional squadron was formed to support the Punitive Expedition under General John J. Pershing on the Mexican border in 1916 but failed, largely because of poor equipment unsuited to the harsh expeditionary conditions and bad maintenance. John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing, GCB ( September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army
The importance of military aviation was established with its role in Europe during World War I. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All At the time of America's declaration of war against Germany on April 6, 1917, the Aviation Section was marginal at best. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year France asked the United States to provide an air force of 4,500 airplanes and 50,000 men, and with more enthusiasm than wisdom, Secretary of War Newton D. Baker asked for and received $640 million from Congress for aviation. The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington 's administration Newton Diehl Baker Jr ( December 3, 1871 &ndash December 25, 1937) was an American Politician of the United States The result was chaos. By May of 1918, it was clear that the Signal Corps was overtasked in the aviation mission. The War Department then set up an Air Service consisting, at first, of two agencies reporting directly to the Secretary of War: one under a civilian, to deal with the manufacturers, and one under a military officer, to train and organize units. The United States Army Air Service was a forerunner of the United States Air Force. In August President Woodrow Wilson appointed John D. Ryan, Second Assistant Secretary of War, to consolidate the whole under the aegis of the Air Service. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28 1856—February 3 1924 was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. General John Dale Ryan ( 1915 - October 27, 1983) was the seventh Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force.
As a result of the important role air power had played in the war, a movement developed during the 1920s and 1930s to create an independent air force. The model for this was the Royal Air Force in Great Britain, which early in 1918 had combined its Army and Navy air arms into the RAF. However the U. S. Army's leaders viewed the airplane merely as a weapon for supporting infantry, and gave the Air Service a branch status comparable to that of the field artillery, responsible for procuring equipment and training units. Local ground forces commanders, none of them aviators, directed the aviation units. A series of boards and commissions studied and restudied the question of air organization, with no result other than approval of the name change to the U.S. Army Air Corps in mid-1926. The United States Army Air Corps (USAAC was the predecessor of the U
The Air Corps Act of 1926 changed the name of the Air Service to the Air Corps, "thereby strengthening the conception of military aviation as an offensive, striking arm rather than an auxiliary service," and created an additional Assistant Secretary of War to help foster military aeronautics. Other provisions required that all flying units be commanded by rated personnel and that flight pay be continued, but the position of the air arm within the Department of War remained essentially the same as before. Perhaps the most promising aspect of the act for the Air Corps was the authorization to carry out a five-year expansion program, though inadequate funding limited growth to organizational changes and aircraft development.
The formulation of theories of strategic bombing (long-range bombardment intended to destroy an enemy nation's war-making potential) at the Air Corps Tactical School gave new impetus to arguments for an independent air force. Despite the perception of Army General Staff resistance and even obstruction, much of which was attributable to lack of funds, the Air Corps made great strides in the 1930's. A military staff is a group of officers and enlisted personnel that provides a bi-directional flow of information between a commander and subordinate units The strategy stressing precision bombing of industrial targets by heavily armed, long-range aircraft began to emerge. Along with this development, the Air Corps was given the task of coastal defense.
The next major step toward a separate air force occurred in March 1935. This began with the centralization of all combat air units within the United States under a single command called General Headquarters Air Force. GHQ Air Force took control of aviation operations from Air Corps area commanders, which had controlled them since 1920. It organized them administratively into four geographical districts headquartered in Los Angeles, Seattle, New York, and Tampa. It then created a strike force of three wings.
GHQ Air Force was small in comparison to European air forces. Lines of authority were difficult, at best, since GHQ Air Force controlled only its combat units while the Air Corps was still responsible for all support functions. The Air Corps area commanders, themselves, were still in charge of all airfields and the support personnel manning them. The commanders of GHQ Air Force and the Air Corps, Major generals Frank Andrews and Oscar Westover respectively, clashed philosophically over the direction in which the air arm was taking which added to the difficulties. Frank Maxwell Andrews ( February 3, 1884 &ndash May 3, 1943) was one of the founding fathers of military aviation in the United States Oscar Westover ( July 23 1883 - September 21 1938) was a Major general and chief of the United States Army Air Corps when
The likelihood of U. S. participation in World War II prompted the most radical reorganization of the aviation branch in its history, developing a structure that gave it total autonomy by March 1942. On June 20, 1941, under a revision by the United States Department of War of Army Regulation 95-5, Major General Henry H. Arnold, then Chief of the Air Corps, assumed the title of Chief of Army Air Forces, creating an echelon of command over all military aviation components. Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States Department of War, sometimes also called the War Office, was the department of the United States government 's executive branch Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold GCB ( June 25, 1886 – January 15, 1950) was a five-star General officer The AAF was directly under the orders of the Chief of Staff of the Army, General George C. Marshall. George Catlett Marshall Jr (December 31 1880 &ndash October 16 1959 was an American military leader Chief of Staff of the Army, Secretary of
Arnold and Marshall agreed that the AAF would enjoy autonomy within the War Department until the end of the war, while its commanders would cease lobbying for independence. Marshall, a strong proponent of airpower, left understood that the Air Force would likely achieve its independence after the war. Soon after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, in recognition of importance of the role of the Army Air Forces, Arnold was given a seat on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the planning staff that served as the focal point of American strategic planning during the war, so that the United States would have an air representative in staff talks with their British counterparts on the Combined Chiefs, and in effect gained equality with Marshall. Events 43 BC - Marcus Tullius Cicero assassinated 1696 - Connecticut Route 108, one of the oldest highways Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Joint Chiefs of Staff ( JCS) is a group comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the Armed services in the United States armed forces The Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS was the supreme military command for the Western Allies during World War II. While this step was never officially recognized by the United States Navy, and was bitterly disputed behind the scenes at every opportunity, it nevertheless succeeded as a pragmatic foundation for the future separation of the Air Force.
GHQ Air Force was replaced by the Air Force Combat Command, and its four geographical districts were converted in January 1941 into numbered air forces, with a subordinate organization of 54 groups. Organizationally, the Army Air Forces was created as a higher command echelon encompassing both Air Force Combat Command and the Army Air Corps, thus bringing all of the air arm under a centralized command for the first time. Yet these reforms were only temporary, lasting just nine months as the air arm streamlined in preparation for war, with a goal of centralized planning and decentralized execution of operations.
Executive Order 9082  changed Arnold's title to "Commanding General, Army Air Forces" on March 9, 1942, making him co-equal with the commanding generals of the new Army Ground Forces and Services of Supply, the other two parts of the Army of the United States. Events 590 - Bahram Chobin is crowned as king Barham VI of Persia. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Army Ground Forces was one of the three autonomous components of the Army of the United States during World War II, the others being the United States The Services Of Supply or 'SOS' branch of the Army was created on February 28, 1942 by Executive Order Number 9082 "Reorganizing the Army and the War Department" The Army of the United States is the official name for the Conscription (U War Department Circular No. 59 reorganized the Army Air Forces, disbanding the Combat Command (formerly GHQAF) and changing the Air Corps to a non-organizational combat arm, eliminating their layer of command. Replacing them were eleven numbered air forces (later raised to sixteen) and six major commands (which became eight in January 1943: Flying Training, Technical Training, Troop Carrier, Air Transport, Materiel, Air Service, Proving Ground, and Anti-Submarine Commands). In July 1943 Flying Training and Technical Training Commands merged into a single Training Command.
As a result of its exponential growth during World War II, the Army Air Forces became the world's largest and most powerful air force. The expansion from the Air Corps of 1939, with 20,000 men and 2,320 planes (a limit set in 1934), to the autonomous AAF of 1944, with almost 2. 4 million personnel and 80,000 aircraft, was a remarkable feat. Robert A. Lovett, the Assistant Secretary of War for Air, together with Arnold, presided over an increase of personnel and equipment greater than for either the ground Army or the Navy, while at the same time dispatching combat air forces to theaters of war all over the globe. Robert Abercrombie Lovett ( 14 September 1895 - 7 May 1986) was the fourth United States Secretary of Defense, serving in
By the end of World War II, the USAAF had created sixteen numbered air forces (First through Fifteenth and Twentieth) distributed world-wide to prosecute the war and defend the Americas, plus a Zone of the Interior general air force within the continental United States to support the whole. An additional eight air divisions served as an additional layer of command for the vast organization, capable of acting independently if the need arose. Several of these air forces and divisions grew out of earlier commands—for example, the Eighth Air Force was originally VIII Bomber Command, then later had its designation again assigned to the command when that organization was discontinued——as the service expanded in size and organization, with multiple lower tiers added and higher echelons such as United States Strategic Air Forces (USSTAF) in Europe and U.S. Strategic Air Forces in the Pacific became necessary to control the whole.
Several air forces were created de novo as the service expanded during the war. Inclusive within the air forces and divisions were a total of 91 administrative command headquarters called wings, denoted as bombardment, fighter reconnaissance, training or composite as defined by their functional role. Larger support organizations, such as Air Transport Command (successor to the pre-war Air Corps Ferrying Command) remained under the control of Headquarters Army Air Forces, while their operational organizations (wings, groups, and squadrons) were assigned to the numbered air forces.
In August 1945, the U. S. Strategic Air Forces became the United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE). The United States Air Forces in Europe ( USAFE) is the United States Air Force component of U In 1947, USAFE became a component of the newly-created United States Air Force. Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. From 1948–49, the unit was responsible for the Berlin Airlift. The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948 – 11 May 1949 was one of the first major international crises of the Cold war.
While officially the air arm had become the Army Air Forces, colloquially the term Air Corps persisted among the public as well as veteran airmen, whose branch remained the Air Corps; in addition, the singular "Air Force" often crept into popular use, reflected by usage of the term "Air Force Combat Command" in 1941-42. This misnomer crept onto official recruiting posters (see image on right) and was important in promoting the idea of an "Air Force" as an independent service.
The basic combat component of the Army Air Forces was the group, an organization of three or four flying squadrons and attached or organic ground support elements, and the rough equivalent of a regiment in the Army Ground Forces. First Air Force ( 1 AF) / Air Forces North ( AFNORTH) is a numbered air force (NAF in Air Combat Command (ACC and the headquarters for the Second Air Force is an intermediate echelon Numbered air force of the United States Air Force Air Education and Training Command. Third Air Force is a Numbered air force (NAF of the United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE Fourth Air Force is a Numbered Air Force in Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC and is located at March Air Reserve Base, Riverside California. Fifth Air Force is a Numbered Air Force of the United States Air Force, part of Pacific Air Forces (PACAF United States Air Forces Southern Command (1963 - 1976 was a Major Command of the United States Air Force (USAF responsible primarily for USAF activities in The Seventh Air Force is a United States Air Force Numbered Air Force (NAF under Pacific Air Forces. Eighth Air Force is a Numbered Air Force (NAF of the United States Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC Ninth Air Force (Air Forces Central is a Numbered Air Force in Air Combat Command (ACC Tenth Air Force is a Numbered Air Force headquartered at Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base Fort Worth, Texas China Burma India Theater (CBI (later IBT or India-Burma theater was the name used by the United States Army for its forces operating in conjuction with Allied air The Eleventh Air Force is a United States Air Force Numbered Air Force (NAF under Pacific Air Forces. Thirteenth Air Force is a United States Air Force "Component- Numbered Air Force " (C-NAF and warfighting headquarters in Pacific Air Forces The Fourteenth Air Force is a Numbered Air Force (NAF of Air Force Space Command (AFSPC Twentieth Air Force is a Numbered Air Force of the United States in Air Force Space Command (AFSPC The Army Air Forces fielded a peak of 269 combat groups during World War II, and an operational peak in 1945 of 243 groups.
At the end of 1940 the Air Corps had expanded from 15 to 30 groups. By the time the United States entered World War II, the number had increased to 67, but half were in the process of being organized and were unsuitable for combat. Of the 67 groups, 26 were bombardment: 13 Heavy Bomb groups (B-17 and B-24), and the rest Medium and Light groups (B-25, B-26, and A-20). 26 were Pursuit groups (renamed "Fighter groups" in May 1942), 9 Observation (renamed "Reconnaissance") groups, and 6 Transport (renamed "Troop Carrier" or "Combat Cargo") groups.
The Army Air Forces expanded rapidly in the first half of 1942 and by the beginning of 1944 there were 269 groups. 136 were deployed overseas, and of the remainder still in the United States, 77 were being organized and trained for overseas deployment. The other 56 served as defense units, as Operational Training Units (OTUs) preparing new units for combat, and as Replacement Training Units (RTUs) to train personnel replacements.
Early in 1944, all training was assigned to base units and the OTUs and RTUs inactivated, reducing the number of groups to 218. However, with the formation and deployment of the remaining 25 new groups, the USAAF grew to its final form and at the time of the invasion of France in June 1944, 148 combat groups were fighting against Germany. By August 1945, when all combat operations ended, 86 groups were deployed in the Pacific and Far East, and the remaining force was either in occupation duties in Europe or re-deploying to the United States.
After the operational deployment of the B-29 bomber, Very Heavy Bombardment units became part of the force structure. In February 1945, in its final organizational structure, the USAAF fielded 243 combat groups:
1,226 combat squadrons were active in the USAAF between 7 December 1941 and 1 September 1945.  In 1945 a total of 937 squadrons remained active, with 872 assigned to the various groups. 65 squadrons, mostly reconnaissance and night fighter, were not assigned to groups but as separate units under higher command echelons.
Main Article: United States aircraft production during World War II
|Type of aircraft||Dec 31, 1941||Dec 31, 1942||Dec 31, 1943||Dec 31, 1944||Aug 31, 1945||Date of maximum size|
|Grand total||12,297||33,304||64,232||72,726||63,715||July 1944 (79,908)|
|Combat aircraft||4,477||11,607||27,448||41,961||41,163||May 1945 (43,248)|
|Very heavy bombers||-||3||91||977||2,865||August 1945 (2,865)|
|Heavy bombers||288||2,076||8,027||12,813||11,065||April 1945 (12,919)|
|Medium bombers||745||2,556||4,370||6,189||5,384||October 1944 (6,262)|
|Light bombers||799||1,201||2,371||2,980||3,079||September 1944 (3,338)|
|Fighters||2,170||5,303||11,875||17,198||16,799||May 1945 (17,725)|
|Reconnaissance||475||468||714||1,804||1,971||May 1945 (2,009)|
|Support aircraft||7,820||21,697||36,784||30,765||22,552||July 1944 (41,667)|
|Transports||254||1,857||6,466||10,456||9,561||December 1944 (10,456)|
|Trainers||7,340||17,044||26,051||17,060||9,558||May 1944 (27,923)|
|Communications||226||2,796||4,267||3,249||3,433||December 1943 (4,267)|
SOURCE: Army Air Forces Statistical Digest (World War II), Table 84
|Date||Total USAAF||Tot Officers||Tot Enlisted||# overseas||Officers o/s||Enlisted o/s|
|July 31, 1939||24,724||2,636||22,088||3,991||272||3,719|
|December 31, 1939||43,118||3,006||40,112||7,007||351||6,656|
|December 31, 1940||101,227||6,437||94,790||16,070||612||15,458|
|December 31, 1941||354,161||24,521||329,640||25,884||2,479||23,405|
|December 31, 1942||1,597,049||127,267||1,469,782||242,021||26,792||215,229|
|December 31, 1943||2,373,882||274,347||2,099,535||735,666||81,072||654,594|
|March 31, 1944 (Peak size)||2,411,294||306,889||2,104,405||906,335||104,864||801,471|
|December 31, 1944||2,359,456||375,973||1,983,483||1,164,136||153,545||1,010,591|
|April 30, 1945 (Peak overseas)||2,329,534||388,278||1,941,256||1,224,006||163,886||1,060,120|
|August 31, 1945||2,253,182||368,344||1,884,838||999,609||122,833||876,776|
SOURCE: Army Air Forces Statistical Digest (World War II), Table 4
In accordance with United States strategic policy stated in Rainbow 5, Arnold's staff made the first priority in the war to launch a strategic bombing offensive in support of the RAF against Germany. Total Production Recipients of US aircraft production Source Army Air Forces Statistical Digest (World War II Aircraft and Equipment Table During the 1920s and 1930s the United States military developed a number of Color-coded War Plans to outline potential U The Eighth Air Force, sent to England in 1942, took on that job. Eighth Air Force is a Numbered Air Force (NAF of the United States Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC After a slow and often costly effort to bring the necessary strength to bear, joined in 1944 by the Fifteenth Air Force stationed in Italy, strategic bombing finally began to get results, and by the end of the war, the German economy had been dispersed and pounded to rubble.
Tactical air forces supported the ground forces in the Mediterranean and European theaters, where the enemy found Allied air supremacy a constant frustration. In the war against Japan, General Douglas MacArthur made his advance along New Guinea by leap-frogging his air forces forward and using amphibious forces to open up new bases. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. General MacArthur redirects here for other meanings see General MacArthur (disambiguation. New Guinea, located just north of Australia, is the world's second largest island, having become separated from the Australian mainland when the area now known The AAF also supported Admiral Chester Nimitz's aircraft carriers in their island-hopping across the Central Pacific and assisted Allied forces in Burma and China. Fleet Admiral Chester William Nimitz, USN, GCB ( February 24, 1885 &ndash February 20, 1966) held the dual command An aircraft carrier is a Warship designed with Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National
Arnold directly controlled the Twentieth Air Force, equipped with the new long-range B-29 Superfortresses used for bombing Japan's home islands, first from China and then from the Marianas. Twentieth Air Force is a Numbered Air Force of the United States in Air Force Space Command (AFSPC The, which forms the Country of Japan, extends roughly from northeast to southwest along the northeastern coast of the Eurasia mainland washing upon the northwestern China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning Devastated by fire-raids, Japan was so weakened by August of 1945 that Arnold believed neither the atomic bomb nor the planned invasion would be necessary to win the war. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Operation Downfall was the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II. The fact that AAF B-29s dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nevertheless, demonstrated what air power could do in the future. The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were nuclear attacks near the end of World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States at The Strategic Bombing Survey provided ammunition for the leaders of the AAF in the postwar debates over armed forces unification and national strategy. The term strategic bombing survey refers to a series of American examinations of many topics related to their involvement in World War II.
The United States Army Air Forces incurred 12% of the Army's 936,000 battle casualties in World War II. Over 90,000 airmen died in service (52,173 killed in action and 37,856 non-battle deaths, including 13,093 in aircraft accidents). Killed in action ( KIA or K I A) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own forces by other Only the Army ground forces suffered more battle deaths. 63,209 were wounded in action and over 21,000 were prisoners-of-war. WIA is a Three letter abbreviation standing for Wounded In Action. Its casualties were 5. 1% of its strength, compared to 10% for the rest of the Army. The cost of the war to the USAAF was approximately $50 billion, or about 30% of the cost to the War Department.
With the defeat of Japan, the entire United States military establishment immediately began a drastic demobilization, as it had at the end of World War I. The USAAF was hit as hard or harder as the older services by demobilization. Officers and members were discharged, installations were closed, and aircraft were stored or sold. Between August 1945 and April 1946, its strength fell from 2. 25 million men to just 485,000, and a year later to 304,000. Aircraft inventory fell from 79,000 to less than 30,000, many of them in storage. Permanent bases fell from 783 to 177, just 21 more than pre-war.
By July 1946, the Army Air Forces had only 2 combat-ready groups out of 52 that remained on the list of active units. A rebuilt air force of 70 groups, the authorized peacetime strength, was anticipated, with reserve and national guard forces to be available for active duty in an emergency. However considerable opposition to a large peacetime military establishment, and to the financial cost of such an establishment, resulted in planning cuts to 48 groups.
In February 1946, ill health forced the retirement of General Arnold before he could fulfill his goal of achieving independence of the Air Force as an equal service with the Army and Navy. General Carl A. Spaatz replaced Arnold as the only other commanding general of the USAAF, and he oversaw both the demobilization of the largest air force in military history and its rebirth as envisioned by Generals Billy Mitchell and Arnold. Carl Andrew "Tooey" Spaatz GBE (June 28 1891 &ndash July 14 1974 was an American general in World War II, and the first Chief of For other people with the same name see Billy Mitchell (disambiguation.
Following the immense buildup in aviation infrastructure and personnel during the war, and in recognition of the tremendous new importance and strength of airpower, then President Harry S. Truman created the Department of the Air Force in 1947. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This legislation renamed the aviation military arm to the U. S. Air Force, elevating it to a truly separate branch of the U. S. military. The Key West Agreement outlined the air assets that each service would be permitted to maintain, with the Air Force getting the bulk of strategic, tactical, and transport aircraft. The Key West Agreement is the colloquial name for a policy paper entitled Function of the Armed Forces and the Joint Chiefs of Staff drafted by James V The Army was permitted light aircraft for reconnaissance, the transport of general officers and other miscellaneous duties, under the auspices of Army Aviation. Army aviation refers to aviation-related units of a nation's Army. This state of affairs lasted until the 1960s, when the advent of the jet-turbine helicopter and the concept of air-mobile brigades increased the size and scope of Army Aviation once again. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969
Many persons on this list also served in the U.S. Air Force after it became an independent service on September 18, 1947. Events 96 - Nerva is proclaimed Roman Emperor after Domitian is assassinated Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
To denote the special training and qualifications required for membership in the USAAF, the following military badges (known colloquially but ubiquitously throughout the service as "wings") were authorized for wear by members of the Army Air Forces during World War II:
These aviation qualification badges were typically worn in full three-inch size on service or dress uniforms, but two-inch versions were also authorized for less-formal shirt wear. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern Kenneth Newton Walker was one of the earliest avatiors in the United States Military and went on to win the nations highest award the Medal of Honor during World War II The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. George Corley Wallace Jr (August 25 1919 September 13 1998 was a Democratic Governor of Alabama for four terms (1963-1967 1971-1979 and 1983-1987 and ran for The Governor of the State of Alabama is the chief executive of the Government of Alabama The Governor has the power to execute Alabama 's laws and to call This article is about Jack Warner the head of Warner Brothers John Randolph "Jack" Webb ( April 2 1920 &ndash December 23 1982) was an Emmy -nominated American Actor Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney ( February 20 1899 - December 13 1992) was an American Businessman, Film producer John Hay Whitney ( August 27, 1904 - February 8, 1982) colloquially known as "Jock" Whitney was U The office of United States Ambassador (or Minister to the United Kingdom (known formally as Ambassador to the Court of St James Claude Wright Jr (born December 22, 1922) usually known as Jim Wright, is a former Democratic U The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer&mdashor speaker &mdashof the United States House of Representatives. Coleman Alexander Young ( May 24, 1918 – November 29, 1997) served as Mayor of Detroit in the U This is a list of Mayors of Detroit Michigan. See History of Detroit Michigan, for more information about the incorporation of the city Charles Elwood "Chuck" Yeager (born February 13 1923 is a retired Brigadier-General in the United States Air Force and a noted Test pilot. Military badges of the United States are awards authorized by the United States armed forces that signify rating qualification or accomplishment in several career fields and World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including For the United Kingdom equivilant see Aircrew brevet. The Aircrew Badge is a qualification badge of the United States military that The Observer Badge is a military badge of the United States military which dates to the First World War. The Glider Service and Liaison Pilot Badges were service badges of the United States Army Air Force which were issued during the years of the Second World War A United States Aviator Badge refers to three types of aviation badges issued by the United States military, those being for Army The Observer Badge is a military badge of the United States military which dates to the First World War. The Balloon Pilot Badge is a military badge of the United States Armed Forces which was issued during the First and Second World Wars The The Bombardier Badge was a military badge of the United States military which was issued between the years of 1918 A United States Aviator Badge refers to three types of aviation badges issued by the United States military, those being for Army The Flight Engineer Badge was a qualification badge of the United States Army Air Forces authorized late in the Second World War on 19 June 1945 The Flight Instructor Badge was a decoration of the United States Army during the Second World War. The Flight Nurse Badge is a military badge of the United States armed forces which is issued The Flight Surgeon Badge is a military badge of the United States Armed Forces which has existed since the Second World War. The Glider Service and Liaison Pilot Badges were service badges of the United States Army Air Force which were issued during the years of the Second World War The Gunner Badge was a military recognition insignia of the United States Army Air Forces and was issued during the Second World War. The Glider Service and Liaison Pilot Badges were service badges of the United States Army Air Force which were issued during the years of the Second World War The Navigator Badge is a military qualification badge of the United States Armed Forces which was first created during the Second World War. The Observer Badge is a military badge of the United States military which dates to the First World War. A United States Aviator Badge refers to three types of aviation badges issued by the United States military, those being for Army The Balloon Pilot Badge is a military badge of the United States Armed Forces which was issued during the First and Second World Wars The A United States Aviator Badge refers to three types of aviation badges issued by the United States military, those being for Army The Glider Service and Liaison Pilot Badges were service badges of the United States Army Air Force which were issued during the years of the Second World War The Observer Badge is a military badge of the United States military which dates to the First World War. The Army Air Force Technician Badge was a decoration of the United States Army Air Forces which was first created in 1941. Most aviation badges were made of sterling silver or were given a silver finish, and various devices were used to attach them to uniforms. These included the traditional pin and safety catch and, later, clutch-back fasteners. Most USAAF badges of World War II are now obsolete, having been superseded by later designs, and further information on them can be found under Obsolete badges of the United States military. Obsolete badges of the United States military are a number of U
United States Army Air Corps
|United States Army Air Forces|
United States Air Force