Map of UN member states
and their UN-recognized dependencies. This article lists the member states of the United Nations (UN.
|Headquarters||International territory in Manhattan, New York City|
|Official languages||Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish|
|Membership||192 member states|
|-||United Nations Charter||June 26, 1945|
The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. The United Nations Headquarters is a distinctive complex in New York City that has served as the headquarters of the United Nations since its completion in 1950 Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York The City of New York An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages This article lists the member states of the United Nations (UN. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. Ban Ki-moon (born 13 June 1944 Korean: 반기문 Hanja: 潘基文 is the current Secretary-General of the United Nations. The United Nations Charter is the Treaty that forms and establishes the International organization called the United Nations. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar International Organization is a peer-reviewed Academic journal that covers the entire field of International affairs. International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that bind together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards Global Security redirects here For the website of that name see GlobalSecurity Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants Social development redirects here For the aspect of Human biological development, see Psychosocial development Social change is a general term which Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled The UN was founded in 1945 to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between nations and to provide a platform for dialogue. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920
There are now 192 member states, including almost every recognized independent state. This article lists the member states of the United Nations (UN. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. From its headquarters on international territory within New York City, the UN and its specialized agencies decide on substantive and administrative issues in regular meetings held throughout the year. The United Nations Headquarters is a distinctive complex in New York City that has served as the headquarters of the United Nations since its completion in 1950 The City of New York The organization is divided into administrative bodies, primarily:
Additional bodies deal with the governance of all other UN System agencies, such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). While the United Nations is an International organization, the United Nations System is the whole network of international organizations treaties and conventions The United Nations Children's Fund (or UNICEF) was created by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946 The UN's most visible public figure is the Secretary-General, currently Ban Ki-moon of South Korea. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. Ban Ki-moon (born 13 June 1944 Korean: 반기문 Hanja: 潘基文 is the current Secretary-General of the United Nations. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː
The UN is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions from member states, and has six official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages
The United Nations was founded as a successor to the League of Nations, which was widely considered to have been ineffective in its role as an international governing body insofar as it had been unable to prevent World War II. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920
The term "United Nations" (which appears in stanza 35 of Canto III of Byron's Childe Harold's Pilgrimage) was decided by Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill during World War II, to refer to the Allies. Childe Harold's Pilgrimage is a lengthy Narrative poem written by the poet George Gordon Lord Byron when at Kinsham. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 Its first formal use was in the 1 January 1942 Declaration by the United Nations, which committed the Allies to the principles of the Atlantic Charter and pledged them not to seek a separate peace with the Axis powers. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Declaration by United Nations was a World War II document agreed to on January 1 1942 during the Arcadia Conference by 26 governments several The Atlantic Charter was negotiated at the Atlantic Conference (codenamed Riviera) by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U The Axis powers also known as the Axis alliance Axis nations Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those Countries Thereafter, the Allies used the term "United Nations Fighting Forces" to refer to their alliance. The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War.
The idea for the UN was espoused in declarations signed at the wartime Allied conferences in Moscow, Cairo, and Tehran in 1943. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of From August to October 1944, representatives of the Republic of China, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union met to elaborate the plans at the Dumbarton Oaks estate in Washington, D.C. Those and later talks produced proposals outlining the purposes of the organization, its membership and organs, and arrangements to maintain international peace and security and international economic and social cooperation. REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Dumbarton Oaks is a 19th century Federal-style Mansion with famous gardens in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington D Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D
On 25 April 1945, the UN Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco. Events 1607 - Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city In addition to the governments, a number of non-governmental organizations were invited to assist in drafting the charter. The 50 nations represented at the conference signed the Charter of the United Nations two months later on 26 June. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. Poland had not been represented at the conference, but a place had been reserved for it among the original signatories, and it added its name later. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland The UN came into existence on 24 October 1945, after the Charter had been ratified by the five permanent members of the UN Security Council — the Republic of China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States — and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. Events 69 - Second Battle of Bedriacum, forces under Antonius Primus the commander of the Danube armies loyal to Vespasian, defeat Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the That these countries are the permanent members of the Security Council, and have veto power on any Security Council resolution, reflects that they are the main victors of World War II or their successor states: the People's Republic of China replaced the Republic of China in 1971 and Russia replaced the Soviet Union in 1991. The United Nations Security Council 'power of veto' refers to the Veto power wielded solely by the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council Succession of states is a theory in International relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created State by other states based on Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 
Initially, the body was known as the United Nations Organization, or UNO. However, by the 1950s, English speakers were referring to it as the United Nations, or the UN.
With the addition of Montenegro on 28 June 2006, there are 192 United Nations member states, including virtually all internationally-recognized independent states. This article lists the member states of the United Nations (UN. Montenegro ( British English) Montenegrin / Serbian: PLEASE DO NOT CHANGE THE LANGUAGES WITHOUT CONSENSUS ON THE TALK PAGE! Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. This article lists the member states of the United Nations (UN. This list of sovereign states, alphabetically arranged gives an overview of States around the world with information on the extent of their Sovereignty. 
The United Nations Charter outlines the rules for membership:
- Membership in the United Nations is open to all other peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations. The United Nations Charter is the Treaty that forms and establishes the International organization called the United Nations.
- The admission of any such state to membership in the United Nations will be effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.—United Nations Charter, Chapter 2, Article 4, http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/
The Group of 77 at the UN is a loose coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations. The Group of 77 at the United Nations is a loose coalition of Developing nations designed to promote its members' collective Economic interests and create Developing countries are countries that haven't reached Western-style standards of democratic government free market economy industrialization social programs and human rights guaranties An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area There were 77 founding members of the organization, but the organization has since expanded to 130 member countries. The group was founded on 15 June 1964 by the "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). Events 763 BC - Assyrians record a Solar eclipse that will be used to fix the Chronology of Mesopotamian history Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development ( UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body The first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967, where the Charter of Algiers was adopted and the basis for permanent institutional structures was begun. Algiers (الجزائر Algerian Arabic: Dzayer ( (From kabyle pronunciation Kabyle: Ledzayer, Alger) is the Capital and largest 
The United Nations headquarters is a golden rectangled building in New York City. The United Nations Headquarters is a distinctive complex in New York City that has served as the headquarters of the United Nations since its completion in 1950 A golden rectangle is a Rectangle whose side lengths are in the Golden ratio, 1\varphi (one-to- phi) that is approximately 11 The City of New York It is located in the Turtle Bay neighborhood, on the east side of Midtown Manhattan, on spacious grounds overlooking the East River. See also Manhattan Midtown Manhattan, or simply Midtown, is an area of Manhattan, New York City home to world-famous commercial The East River is a tidal Strait in New York City. It connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end Though the building is in New York City, the land occupied by the United Nations Headquarters is considered international territory. FDR Drive passes underneath the Conference Building of the complex. The Franklin D Roosevelt East River Drive (commonly referred to as the FDR Drive) is a Freeway -standard Parkway on the east side of the New York Other major UN agencies are located in Geneva, Vienna and Nairobi as well as in Rome, The Hague, Addis Ababa, Montreal, Copenhagen, Bonn, and elsewhere. The Palais des Nations (Palace of Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, was built between 1929 and 1938 as the headquarters of the League of Nations The Vienna International Centre (VIC, colloquially also known as UNO City in Vienna is the campus and building complex hosting United Nations organizations in The United Nations Office at Nairobi (UNON is one of the four major UN office sites where several different UN agencies have a joint presence Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Addis Ababa (sometimes spelled Addis Abeba, the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority Amharic Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec Copenhagen (ˌkəʊpənˈheɪgən ˌkəʊpənˈhɑːgən ˈkəʊpənˌheɪgən ˈkəʊpənˌhɑːgən kʰøb̥ənˈhɑʊ̯ˀn kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn is the capital and largest city Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia
|Major contributors to the regular UN budget for 2006|
|Member Nation (the list is not complete)||Contribution (% of total UN budget)|
|United States||22. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 00%|
|Japan||16. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. 624%|
|Germany||8. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. 66%|
|United Kingdom||6. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located 13%|
|France||6. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. 03%|
|Italy||4. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest 89%|
|Canada||2. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page 81%|
|Spain||2. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. 52%|
|China||2. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES 667%|
|Mexico||1. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. 88%|
|Australia||1. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. 59%|
|Brazil||1. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld 52%|
The UN is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions from member states. The regular two-year budgets of the UN and its specialized agencies are funded by assessments. The General Assembly approves the regular budget and determines the assessment for each member. This is broadly based on the relative capacity of each country to pay, as measured by their Gross National Income (GNI), with adjustments for external debt and low per capita income. Gross National Income (GNI comprises the total value produced within a country (i 
The Assembly has established the principle that the UN should not be overly dependent on any one member to finance its operations. Thus, there is a 'ceiling' rate, setting the maximum amount any member is assessed for the regular budget. In December 2000, the Assembly revised the scale of assessments to reflect current global circumstances. As part of that revision, the regular budget ceiling was reduced from 25% to 22%. The U. S. is the only member that has met the ceiling. In addition to a ceiling rate, the minimum amount assessed to any member nation (or 'floor' rate) is set at 0. 001% of the UN budget. Also, for the least developed countries (LDC), a ceiling rate of 0. 01% is applied. 
The current operating budget is estimated at $4. 19 billion (refer to table for major contributors).
A large share of UN expenditures addresses the core UN mission of peace and security. The peacekeeping budget for the 2005-2006 fiscal year is approximately $5 billion (compared to approximately $1. 5 billion for the UN core budget over the same period), with some 70,000 troops deployed in 17 missions around the world.  UN peace operations are funded by assessments, using a formula derived from the regular funding scale, but including a weighted surcharge for the five permanent Security Council members, who must approve all peacekeeping operations. This surcharge serves to offset discounted peacekeeping assessment rates for less developed countries. As of 1 January 2008, the top 10 providers of assessed financial contributions to United Nations peacekeeping operations were: the United States, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, China, Canada, Spain and the Republic of Korea. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː 
Special UN programmes not included in the regular budget (such as UNICEF and UNDP) are financed by voluntary contributions from member governments. The United Nations Children's Fund (or UNICEF) was created by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946 Most of this is financial contributions, but some is in the form of agricultural commodities donated for afflicted populations. A commodity is anything for which there is demand but which is supplied without qualitative differentiation across a market
The six official languages of the United Nations, used in intergovernmental meetings and documents, are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.  The Secretariat uses two working languages, British English and French. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people
Five of the official languages were chosen when the UN was founded (the languages of the permanent members of the Security Council, plus Spanish, which was the official language of the largest number of nations at the time). Arabic was added in 1973; the number of Arabic-speaking member states had increased substantially since 1945, and the 1973 oil crisis provided the catalyst for the addition. The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17 1973 when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC consisting of the Arab members of A "documentary language" status was granted for use of the German language in 1974, allowing for translation of important documents (funded, however, by the German-speaking member countries). The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. 
The UN standard for English language documents (United Nations Editorial Manual) follows British usage and Oxford spelling (en-gb-oed). British English or UK English ( BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the Oxford spelling (or Oxford English spelling) is the Spelling used in the editorial practice of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED and other The UN standard for Chinese (Standard Mandarin) changed when the Republic of China (Taiwan) was succeeded by the People's Republic of China in 1971. Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used in mainland China and Taiwan REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES From 1945 until 1971 traditional characters were used, and since 1972 simplified characters have been used.
The United Nations system is based on five principal organs (formerly six - the Trusteeship Council suspended operations in 1994); the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the Secretariat, and the International Court of Justice. While the United Nations is an International organization, the United Nations System is the whole network of international organizations treaties and conventions The United Nations Trusteeship Council, one of the principal organs of the United Nations, was established to help ensure that non-self-governing territories were administered
The General Assembly is the main deliberative assembly of the United Nations. Membership For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly see General Assembly members A deliberative assembly is an Organization, comprising of members that uses Parliamentary procedure for making decisions Composed of all United Nations member states, the assembly meets in regular yearly sessions under a president elected from among the member states. This article lists the member states of the United Nations (UN. Over a two-week period at the start of each session, all members have the opportunity to address the assembly. Traditionally, the Secretary-General makes the first statement, followed by the president of the assembly. The first session was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Westminster Central Hall in London and included representatives of 51 nations. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
When the General Assembly votes on important questions, a two-thirds majority of those present and voting is required. Examples of important questions include: recommendations on peace and security; election of members to organs; admission, suspension, and expulsion of members; and, budgetary matters. All other questions are decided by majority vote. Each member country has one vote. Apart from approval of budgetary matters, resolutions are not binding on the members. The Assembly may make recommendations on any matters within the scope of the UN, except matters of peace and security that are under Security Council consideration.
Conceivably, the one state, one vote power structure could enable states comprising just eight percent of the world population to pass a resolution by a two-thirds vote. In Politics, representation describes how political power is alienated from most of the members of a group and vested for a certain time period in the hands of a small subset However, as no more than recommendations, it is difficult to imagine a situation in which a recommendation by member states constituting just eight percent of the world's population, would be adhered to by the remaining ninety-two percent of the population, should they object.
The Security Council is charged with maintaining peace and security among countries. Reform of the United Nations Security Council encompasses a variety of proposals including procedural reforms such as eliminating the veto held by the five permanent members While other organs of the United Nations can only make 'recommendations' to member governments, the Security Council has the power to make binding decisions that member governments have agreed to carry out, under the terms of Charter Article 25. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. The United Nations Charter is the Treaty that forms and establishes the International organization called the United Nations.  The decisions of the Council are known as United Nations Security Council resolutions. A United Nations Security Council Resolution is a United Nations resolution voted on by the fifteen members of the United Nations Security Council; the United
The Security Council is made up of 15 member states, consisting of five permanent seats and ten temporary seats. The permanent five are China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the These members hold veto power over substantive but not procedural resolutions allowing a permanent member to block adoption but not to block the debate of a resolution unacceptable to it. The United Nations Security Council 'power of veto' refers to the Veto power wielded solely by the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council This article concerns the legal meaning of the term resolution. The ten temporary seats are held for two-year terms with member states voted in by the General Assembly on a regional basis. Membership For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly see General Assembly members The presidency of the Security Council is rotated alphabetically each month. 
The Security Council has been criticised for being unable to act in a clear and decisive way when confronted with a crisis.
The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. The Economic and Social Council ( ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation ECOSOC has 54 members, all of whom are elected by the General Assembly for a three-year term. The president is elected for a one-year term and chosen amongst the small or middle powers represented on ECOSOC. ECOSOC meets once a year in July for a four-week session. Since 1998, it has held another meeting each April with finance ministers heading key committees of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The World Bank Group (WBG is a family of five International organizations responsible for providing Finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic Viewed separate from the specialized bodies it coordinates, ECOSOC's functions include information gathering, advising member nations, and making recommendations. In addition, ECOSOC is well-positioned to provide policy coherence and coordinate the overlapping functions of the UN’s subsidiary bodies and it is in these roles that it is most active.
The United Nations Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-General, assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide. The United Nations Secretariat is one of the principal organs of the United Nations and it is headed by the United Nations Secretary-General, assisted by a staff The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. It provides studies, information, and facilities needed by United Nations bodies for their meetings. It also carries out tasks as directed by the UN Security Council, the UN General Assembly, the UN Economic and Social Council, and other UN bodies. The United Nations Charter provides that the staff be chosen by application of the "highest standards of efficiency, competence, and integrity," with due regard for the importance of recruiting on a wide geographical basis.
The Charter provides that the staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any authority other than the UN. Each UN member country is enjoined to respect the international character of the Secretariat and not seek to influence its staff. The Secretary-General alone is responsible for staff selection.
The Secretary-General's duties include helping resolve international disputes, administering peacekeeping operations, organizing international conferences, gathering information on the implementation of Security Council decisions, and consulting with member governments regarding various initiatives. Key Secretariat offices in this area include the Office of the Coordinator of Humanitarian Affairs and the Department of Peacekeeping Operations. The Secretary-General may bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter that, in his or her opinion, may threaten international peace and security.
The International Court of Justice (ICJ), located in The Hague, Netherlands, is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. See also International Commission of Jurists The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; Cour The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Established in 1945 by the United Nations Charter, the Court began work in 1946 as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice. The Permanent Court of International Justice, sometimes called the World Court, was the international court of the League of Nations, established in 1922 The Statute of the International Court of Justice, similar to that of its predecessor, is the main constitutional document constituting and regulating the Court. 
It is based in the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands, sharing the building with the Hague Academy of International Law, a private centre for the study of international law. The Peace Palace ("Vredespaleis" in Dutch) situated in The Hague, Netherlands, is often called the seat of International law The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The Hague Academy of International Law is a center for high-level Education in both public and private International law housed in the Peace Palace in Several of the Court's current judges are either alumni or former faculty members of the Academy. Its purpose is to adjudicate disputes among states. The court has heard cases related to war crimes, illegal state interference and ethnic cleansing, among others, and continues to hear cases. 
A related court, the International Criminal Court (ICC), began operating in 2002 through international discussions initiated by the General Assembly. The International Criminal Court ( ICC or ICCt) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for Genocide, crimes against It is the first permanent international court charged with trying those who commit the most serious crimes under international law, including war crimes and genocide. The ICC is functionally independent of the UN in terms of personnel and financing, but some meetings of the ICC governing body, the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute, are held at the UN. There is a "relationship agreement" between the ICC and the UN that governs how the two institutions regard each other legally. 
The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations, and acts as the de facto spokesman and leader of the United Nations. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. The United Nations Secretariat is one of the principal organs of the United Nations and it is headed by the United Nations Secretary-General, assisted by a staff
The UN Charter provides little guidance for the selection of the Secretary General. The Charter states that "the Secretary-General shall be appointed by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council". Over the years the process has changed, but always requires bartering and negotiation on the part of the five veto holding members of the Security Council. 
In practice, a few details have remained consistent:
|No.||Name||Country of Origin||Since||Prior||Note|
|1||Trygve Lie||Norway||2 February 1946||10 November 1952||Resigned|
|2||Dag Hammarskjöld||Sweden||10 April 1953||18 September 1961||Died in a plane crash while over Africa|
|3||U Thant||Burma||30 November 1961||1 January 1972||First Secretary General from Asia|
|4||Kurt Waldheim||Austria||1 January 1972||1 January 1982|
|5||Javier Pérez de Cuéllar||Peru||1 January 1982||1 January 1992||First Secretary General from South America|
|6||Boutros Boutros-Ghali||Egypt||1 January 1992||1 January 1997||First Secretary General from Africa|
|7||Kofi Annan||Ghana||1 January 1997||1 January 2007|
|8||Ban Ki-moon||South Korea||1 January 2007|
The 1945 UN Charter envisaged a system of regulation that would ensure "the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources". The advent of nuclear weapons came only weeks after the signing of the Charter and provided immediate impetus to concepts of arms limitation and disarmament. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Disarmament refers to the act of reducing limiting or abolishing Weapons. In fact, the first resolution of the first meeting of the General Assembly (24 January 1946) was entitled "The Establishment of a Commission to Deal with the Problems Raised by the Discovery of Atomic Energy" and called upon the commission to make specific proposals for "the elimination from national armaments of atomic weapons and of all other major weapons adaptable to mass destruction. In Policy debate, a resolution or topic is a normative statement which the affirmative team affirms and the negative team negates Events 41 - Gaius Caesar (Caligula, known for his eccentricity and cruel Despotism, is Assassinated by his disgruntled Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. "
The UN has established several forums to address multilateral disarmament issues. The First Committee is one of six main committees at the General Assembly of the United Nations which deals with matters concerning World peace. The principal ones are the First Committee of the General Assembly, the UN Disarmament Commission, and the Conference on Disarmament. Conference on Disarmament ( CD) is a multilateral disarmament negotiating forum Items on the agenda include consideration of the possible merits of a nuclear test ban, outer-space arms control, efforts to ban chemical weapons and land mines, nuclear and conventional disarmament, nuclear-weapon-free zones, reduction of military budgets, and measures to strengthen international security. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT bans all nuclear explosions in all environments for military or civilian purposes Key points of the Treaty The Outer Space Treaty represents the basic legal framework of international space law Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of Chemical substances to kill injure or incapacitate an enemy. The Ottawa Treaty or the Mine Ban Treaty, formally the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use Stockpiling Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their A Nuclear-Weapons-Free Zone, or NWFZ is defined by the United Nations as an agreement generally by internationally recognized treaty to ban the use development This is a list of countries by military expenditures using the latest information available Global Security redirects here For the website of that name see GlobalSecurity The UN Office for Disarmament Affairs  promotes the goal of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation and the strengthening of the disarmament regimes in respect to other weapons of mass destruction, chemical and biological weapons. It also promotes disarmament efforts in the area of conventional weapons, especially land mines and small arms, which are the weapons of choice in contemporary conflicts.
UN peacekeepers are sent to regions where armed conflict has recently ceased (or paused) to enforce the terms of peace agreements and to discourage combatants from resuming hostilities. Since the UN does not maintain its own military, peacekeeping forces are voluntarily provided by member states of the UN. All UN peacekeeping operations must be approved by the Security Council.
The founders of the UN had envisaged that the UN would act to prevent conflicts between nations and make future wars impossible. Those hopes have not been fully realized. During the Cold War (from about 1945 until 1991), the division of the world into hostile camps made peacekeeping agreement extremely difficult. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Following the end of the Cold War, there were renewed calls for the UN to become the agency for achieving world peace, as there are several dozen ongoing conflicts that continue to rage around the globe. This is a list of ongoing conflicts that are happening around the world which continue to result in violent deaths
The UN Peace-Keeping Forces (called the Blue Helmets) received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1988. The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor In 2001, the UN and Secretary General Kofi Annan won the Nobel Peace Prize "for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world. Kofi Atta Annan, GCMG (born 8 April 1938 is a Ghanaian Diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations ";
The UN maintains a series of United Nations Medals awarded to military service members who enforce UN accords. The term United Nations Medal refers to one of several International decorations which are issued by the United Nations (U The first such decoration issued was the United Nations Service Medal, awarded to UN forces who participated in the Korean War. The United Nations Service Medal for Korea is an International military decoration which was established by the United Nations on December 12, 1950 The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the The NATO Medal is designed on a similar concept and both are considered international decorations instead of military decorations. The NATO Medal is an International military decoration which is awarded to various militaries of the world under the authority of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation An international decoration is a military award which is not bestowed by a particular country but rather by an international organization such as the United Nations or A military decoration is a decoration given to Military personnel or units for Heroism in battle or distinguished service
The Human Security Report 2005, produced by the Human Security Centre at the University of British Columbia with support from several governments and foundations, documented a dramatic, but largely unrecognized, decline in the number of wars, genocides and human rights abuses since the end of the Cold War. The Human Security Report 2005 is a report outlining declining world trends of global violence from the early 1990s to 2003 The University of British Columbia ( UBC) is a Canadian public research University with campuses near Vancouver and in Kelowna Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Statistics include:
The report argued that international activism — mostly spearheaded by the UN — has been the main cause of the post–Cold War decline in armed conflict, though the report indicated the evidence for this contention is mostly circumstantial.
In the area of Peacekeeping, successes include:
In many cases UN members have shown reluctance to achieve or enforce Security Council resolutions. Such issues stem from the UN's intergovernmental nature — in many respects it is an association of 192 member states who must reach consensus, not an independent organization.
Other serious security failures include:
The UN has not only acted to keep the peace but also occasionally intervened in armed conflicts, the first of which was the Korean War (1950-1953). Peace enforcement is a practice of ensuring peace in an area or region The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the More recently, the UN authorized the intervention in Iraq after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990.
The pursuit of human rights was a central reason for creating the UN. The full title of this treaty is The United Nations 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery the Slave Trade and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, often referred to as CRC or UNCRC, is an international convention setting out the civil political Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled World War II atrocities and genocide led to a ready consensus that the new organization must work to prevent any similar tragedies in the future. Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction in whole or in part of an ethnic racial religious or national group An early objective was creating a legal framework for considering and acting on complaints about human rights violations.
The UN Charter obliges all member nations to promote "universal respect for, and observance of, human rights" and to take "joint and separate action" to that end. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, though not legally binding, was adopted by the General Assembly in 1948 as a common standard of achievement for all. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly ( 10 December 1948 at Palais The Assembly regularly takes up human rights issues.
The UN and its agencies are central in upholding and implementing the principles enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. A case in point is support by the UN for countries in transition to democracy. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Technical assistance in providing free and fair elections, improving judicial structures, drafting constitutions, training human rights officials, and transforming armed movements into political parties have contributed significantly to democratization worldwide. A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral The UN has helped run elections in countries with little democratic history, including recently in Afghanistan and East Timor. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت,
The UN is also a forum to support the right of women to participate fully in the political, economic, and social life of their countries. The UN contributes to raising consciousness of the concept of human rights through its covenants and its attention to specific abuses through its General Assembly, Security Council resolutions, or International Court of Justice rulings. See also International Commission of Jurists The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; Cour
The purpose of the Human Rights Council is to address human rights violations. The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. The Council is the successor to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, which was often criticised for the high-profile positions it gave to member states that did not guarantee the human rights of their own citizens
The United Nations General Assembly established the Human Rights Council on 15 March 2006. The United Nations Commission on Human Rights ( UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations. Membership For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly see General Assembly members Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.  The council has 47 members distributed by region, which each serve three year terms, and may not serve three consecutive terms.  A candidate to the body must be approved by a majority of the General Assembly. In addition, the council has strict rules for membership, including a universal human rights review. While some members with questionable human rights records have been elected, it is fewer than before with the increased focus on each member state's human rights record. 
On 17 September 2007 the United Nations General Assembly adopted a declaration outlining the rights of some 370 million indigenous peoples around the world. Membership For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly see General Assembly members The term Indigenous Peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any Ethnic group who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest historical 
Following two decades of debate, the "United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples" was approved. The Declaration outlines the individual and collective rights to culture, language, education, identity, employment and health, thereby addressing post-colonial issues which had confronted Indigenous peoples for centuries. The Declaration aims to maintain, strengthen and encourage the growth of Indigenous institutions, cultures and traditions. It also prohibits discrimination against Indigenous peoples and promotes their active participation in matters which concern their past, present and future. 
The declaration was approved when 143 member states voted in its favour. This article lists the member states of the United Nations (UN. Eleven member states abstained and four voted against the text: Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
The United Nations linked human rights treaty bodies are committees of independent experts that monitor implementation of the core international human rights treaties. International human rights instruments can be classified into two categories declarations, adopted by bodies such as the United Nations General Assembly, which are There are now seven UN-linked human rights treaty bodies, including the Human Rights Committee and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. The Human Rights Committee is a United Nations body of 18 experts that meets three times a year to consider the five-yearly reports submitted by UN member states on their compliance The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women ( CEDAW) is an international Secretariat services are provided regarding all of those by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights ( OHCHR) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human
In conjunction with other organizations such as the Red Cross, the UN provides food, drinking water, shelter and other humanitarian services to populaces suffering from famine, displaced by war, or afflicted by other disasters. The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an International humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers worldwide who stated A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation Major humanitarian branches of the UN are the World Food Programme (which helps feed more than 100 million people a year in 80 countries), the office of the High Commissioner for Refugees with projects in over 116 countries, as well as peacekeeping projects in over 24 countries. Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR (established December 14, 1950) is a
At times, UN relief workers have been subject to attacks. Humanitarian Aid workers belonging to UN organisations PVOs / NGOs or the Red Cross / Red Crescent have traditionally enjoyed both international
The UN is involved in supporting development, e. Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants g. by the formulation of the Millennium Development Goals. The UN Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. Organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO), UNAIDS, and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria are leading institutions in the battle against diseases around the world, especially in poor countries. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS, or UNAIDS, is the main advocate for accelerated comprehensive and coordinated global action The Global Fund to Fight AIDS Tuberculosis and Malaria (often commonly called "The Global Fund" was established in January 2002 to dramatically increase global A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly The UN Population Fund is a major provider of reproductive services. It has helped reduce infant and maternal mortality in 100 countries. Death is the termination of the biological functions that define living Organisms It refers both to a specific
The UN also promotes human development through various related agencies. The World Bank Group and International Monetary Fund (IMF), for example, are independent, specialized agencies and observers within the UN framework, according to a 1947 agreement. The World Bank Group (WBG is a family of five International organizations responsible for providing Finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic They were initially formed as separate from the UN through the Bretton Woods Agreement in 1944. The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the world's major industrial states 
The UN annually publishes the Human Development Index (HDI), a comparative measure ranking countries by poverty, literacy, education, life expectancy, and other factors. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 Poverty (also called penury) is deprivation of common necessities that determine the quality of life including food clothing shelter and safe Drinking water, and traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write or the ability to use Language to read, write, listen, Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Life expectancy is the average number of years of life remaining at a given age
The Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that all 192 United Nations member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015.  The United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000, commits the states to:
Since its founding, there have been many calls for reform of the United Nations. Since the late 1990s there have been many calls for reform of the United Nations (UN A United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, or United Nations People's Assembly ( UNPA; French: Assemblée parlementaire des Nations Unies Reform of the United Nations Security Council encompasses a variety of proposals including procedural reforms such as eliminating the veto held by the five permanent members But there is little clarity, let alone consensus, about how to reform it. Some want the UN to play a greater or more effective role in world affairs, others want its role reduced to humanitarian work. There have also been numerous calls for the UN Security Council's membership to be increased to reflect the current geo-political state, for different ways of electing the UN's Secretary-General, and for a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations.
An official reform programme was begun by former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan soon after starting his first term in 1997. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. Kofi Atta Annan, GCMG (born 8 April 1938 is a Ghanaian Diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations Reforms mentioned include changing the permanent membership of the Security Council (which currently reflects the power relations of 1945); making the bureaucracy more transparent, accountable and efficient; making the UN more democratic; and imposing an international tariff on arms manufacturers worldwide. Reform of the United Nations Security Council encompasses a variety of proposals including procedural reforms such as eliminating the veto held by the five permanent members For other uses of this word see Tariff (disambiguation. A tariff is a tax imposed on goods when they are moved across a political boundary The following list of modern armament manufacturers presents major companies producing modern weapons and munitions
In September 2005, the UN convened a World Summit that brought together the heads of most member states, calling the summit "a once-in-a-generation opportunity to take bold decisions in the areas of development, security, human rights and reform of the United Nations. The 2005 World Summit, 14&ndash 16 September 2005, was a follow-up summit meeting to the United Nations ' 2000 Millennium Summit " Kofi Annan had proposed that the summit agree on a global "grand bargain" to reform the UN, revamping international systems for peace and security, human rights and development, to make them capable of addressing the extraordinary challenges facing the UN in the 21st century.
World leaders agreed on a compromise text, including the following notable items:
The UN has been accused of bureaucratic inefficiency and waste. During the 1990s the United States, currently the largest contributor to the UN, gave this inefficiency as a reason for withholding their dues. The repayment of the dues was made conditional on a major reforms initiative. In 1994 the Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) was established by the General Assembly to serve as an efficiency watchdog.  Further management reforms have been proposed through the World Summit, including changes to the OIOS, the establishment of an ethics office, and a review of UN mandates that are older than five years.
The Office of Internal Oversight Services is being restructured to more clearly define its scope and mandate. It will receive more resources. In addition, to improve the oversight and auditing capabilities of the General Assembly, an Independent Audit Advisory Committee (IAAC) is being created. In June 2007, the Fifth Committee created a draft resolution for the terms of reference of this committee. Terms of reference, abbreviated as TOR describe the purpose and structure of a Project, Committee, Meeting, Negotiation, etc 
An ethics office was established in 2006, responsible for administering new financial disclosure and whistleblower protection policies. This is an article about a term For the 2008 RTÉ drama see Whistleblower (TV series. Working with the OIOS, the ethics office also plans to implement a policy to avoid fraud and corruption. 
The Secretariat is in the process of reviewing all UN mandates that are more than five years old. The review is intended to determine which duplicative or unnecessary programmes should be eliminated. Not all member states are in agreement as to which of the over 7000 mandates should be reviewed. The dispute centres on whether mandates that have been renewed should be examined. As of September 2007, the process is ongoing. 
The UN and its agencies are immune to the laws of the countries where they operate, safeguarding UN's impartiality with regard to the host and member countries. In Political geography and International politics, a country is a Political division of a geographical entity This independence allows agencies to implement human resources policies that may even be contrary to the laws of a host - or a member country.
Despite their independence in matters of human resources policy, the UN and its agencies voluntarily apply the laws of member states regarding same-sex marriages, allowing decisions about the status of employees in a same-sex partnership to be based on nationality. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Same-sex marriage (also referred to as gay marriage) is a term for a legally or Socially recognized Marriage between two people of the same The UN and its agencies recognize same-sex marriages only if the employees are citizens of countries that recognize the marriage. This practice is not specific to the recognition of same-sex marriage but reflects a common practice of the UN for a number of human resources matters. It has to be noted though that some agencies provide limited benefits to domestic partners of their staff and that some agencies do not recognise same-sex marriage or domestic partnership of their staff. A domestic partnership is a legal or Personal relationship between two individuals who live together and share a common domestic life but are neither joined by a traditional
There are many UN organizations and agencies that function to work on particular issues.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an intergovernmental forum for scientific and technical cooperation in the field of nuclear technology. The International Atomic Energy Agency ( IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its Nuclear power is any Nuclear technology designed to extract usable Energy from atomic nuclei via controlled Nuclear reactions It seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. Nuclear Energy is released by the splitting (fission or merging together (fusion of the nuclei of Atom (s A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. The IAEA was set up as an autonomous organization in 29 July 1957. Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) Prior to this, in 1953, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower envisioned the creation of this international body to control and develop the use of atomic energy, in his "Atoms for Peace" speech before the UN General Assembly. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general "Atoms for Peace" was the title of a speech delivered by U  The organization and its Director General, Mohamed ElBaradei, were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize announced on 7 October 2005. DrMohamed Mostafa El-Baradei ( Arabic: محمد البرادعي transliteration) (born June 17, 1942, in Cairo, Egypt The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Events 3761 BC - The epoch (origin of the modern Hebrew calendar ( Proleptic Julian calendar) Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Its current membership is 144 countries. 
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was founded in 1947. The International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO) an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. An airline provides air transport services for Passengers or Freight, generally with a recognized operating certificate or license Its headquarters are located in the Quartier international de Montréal of Montreal, Canada. The Quartier international de Montréal ( QIM) or Montreal's International District is a district of the Ville-Marie borough of downtown Montreal Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page
The ICAO Council adopts standards and recommended practices concerning air navigation, prevention of unlawful interference, and facilitation of border-crossing procedures for international civil aviation. Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying representing all non- Military aviation, both private and commercial In addition, the ICAO defines the protocols for air accident investigation followed by transport safety authorities in countries signatory to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, commonly known as the Chicago Convention. The Convention on International Civil Aviation, also known as the Chicago Convention, established the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO a specialized The Convention on International Civil Aviation, also known as the Chicago Convention, established the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO a specialized
The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) was established as an international financial institution in 1977, as one of the major outcomes of the 1974 World Food Conference and a response to the situation in the Sahel. The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD a specialized agency of the United Nations, was established as an international financial institution in 1977 as one See also Sahel Tunisia, a region of eastern Tunisia. The Sahel or Sahel Belt (from Arabic ساحل sāḥil IFAD is dedicated to eradicating rural poverty in developing countries. Its headquarters are in Rome, Italy. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest
The International Labour Organization (ILO) deals with labour issues. The International Labour Organization Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland. Geneva (Genève is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French -speaking Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Founded in 1919, it was formed through the negotiations of the Treaty of Versailles, and was initially an agency of the League of Nations. The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 It became a member of the UN system after the demise of the League and the formation of the UN at the end of World War II. Its Constitution, as amended to date, includes the Declaration of Philadelphia on the aims and purposes of the Organization. The Declaration of Philadelphia, adopted in 1944, is the current Charter of the International Labour Organization. Its secretariat is known as the International Labour Office.
The International Maritime Organization (IMO), formerly known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), was established in 1948 through the United Nations to coordinate international maritime safety and related practices. The International Maritime Organization ( IMO) formerly known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization ( IMCO) is a late 20th century However the IMO did not enter into full force until 1958.
Headquartered in London, the IMO promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to prevent marine pollution. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. IMO is governed by an Assembly of members and is financially administered by a Council of members elected from the Assembly. The work of IMO is conducted through five committees and these are supported by technical sub-committees. Member organizations of the UN organizational family may observe the proceedings of the IMO. Observer status may be granted to qualified non-governmental organizations.
The IMO is supported by a permanent secretariat of employees who are representative of its members. The secretariat is composed of a Secretary-General who is periodically elected by the Assembly, and various divisions including, inter alia, marine safety, environmental protection, and a conference section.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) was established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. It was founded as the International Telegraph Union in Paris on 17 May 1865. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Its main tasks include standardization, allocation of the radio spectrum, and organizing interconnection arrangements between different countries to allow international phone calls — in which regard it performs for telecommunications a similar function to what the UPU performs for postal services. Standardization (or standardisation) is the process of developing and agreeing upon technical standards. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. It has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, next to the main United Nations campus. Geneva (Genève is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French -speaking Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate agreements and debate policy. FAO's mandate is to raise levels of nutrition, improve agricultural productivity, better the lives of rural populations and contribute to the growth of the world economy. FAO is the largest of UN agencies and its headquarters are in Rome, Italy. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 Its stated purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and the human rights and fundamental freedoms proclaimed in the UN Charter.
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), French/Spanish acronym ONUDI, is a specialized agency in the United Nations system, headquartered in Vienna, Austria. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO, French/Spanish acronym ONUDI, is a specialized agency in the United Nations system headquartered The Organization's primary objective is the promotion and acceleration of industrial development in developing countries and countries with economies in transition and the promotion of international industrial cooperation. UNIDO believes that competitive and environmentally sustainable industry has a crucial role to play in accelerating economic growth, reducing poverty and achieving the Millennium Development Goals. The Organization therefore works towards improving the quality of life of the world's poor by drawing on its combined global resources and expertise in the following three interrelated thematic areas:
The Universal Postal Union, headquartered in Berne, Switzerland, coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. The Universal Postal Union ( UPU, French: Union postale universelle) is an International organization that coordinates postal policies among member The city of Berne or Bern (, Berne, Berna, Romansh: Berna, Bernese German: Bärn) is the Bundesstadt ( Federal Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Each member country agrees to the same set of terms for conducting international postal duties.
The World Bank, a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), makes loans to developing countries for development programmes with the stated goal of reducing poverty. The World Bank Group (WBG is a family of five International organizations responsible for providing Finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic The World Bank differs from the World Bank Group in that the former only comprises the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Development Association, while the latter incorporates these entities in addition to three others.
The World Health Organization (WHO) acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. Established on 7 April 1948, and headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health Organization, which had been an agency of the League of Nations.
The World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) (French: Organisation mondiale de la propriété intellectuelle or OMPI) is a specialized agency of the United Nations created in 1967 and headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The World Intellectual Property Organization ( WIPO) is one of the 16 specialized agencies of the United Nations. Its purpose is to encourage creative activity and to promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world. The organisation administers several treaties concerning the protection of intellectual property rights. Intellectual property ( IP) is a legal field that refers to creations of the mind such as musical literary and artistic works inventions and symbols names
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was founded in 1873. Established in 1950, WMO became the specialized agency of the United Nations for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences. It has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.
Conferences and International Observances are other activities of the United Nations. Over the lifetime of the UN, over 80 colonies have attained independence. The General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples in 1960 with no votes against but abstentions from all major colonial powers. The Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples was a milestone in the process of Decolonization. Through the UN Committee on Decolonization, created in 1962, the UN has focused considerable attention on decolonization. The Special Committee on Decolonization (also known as the UN Decolonization refers to the undoing of Colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction It has also supported the new states that have arisen as a result self-determination initiatives. The committee has overseen the decolonization of every country larger than 20,000 km² and removed them from the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories, besides Western Sahara, a country larger than the UK only relinquished by Spain in 1975. The United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories documents countries that according to the United Nations, are non- decolonized. Western Sahara ( Arabic: الصحراء الغربية; transliterated: as-Ṣaḥrā' al-Gharbīyah; Sahara Occidental is a territory
When an issue is considered particularly important, the General Assembly may convene an international conference to focus global attention and build a consensus for consolidated action. Examples include:
The UN declares and coordinates international observances, periods of time to observe some issue of international interest or concern. This is not a list of National Days commemorative days, or days which have some significance in one or a very small number of countries Using the symbolism of the UN, a specially designed logo for the year, and the infrastructure of the United Nations System, various days and years have become catalysts to advancing key issues of concern on a global scale. While the United Nations is an International organization, the United Nations System is the whole network of international organizations treaties and conventions For example, World Tuberculosis Day, Earth Day and International Year of Deserts and Desertification. World Tuberculosis Day, falling on March 24th each year is designed to build public awareness that Tuberculosis today remains an Epidemic in much of the Earth Day is one of two Observances both held annually during spring in the Northern hemisphere, and autumn in the Southern hemisphere. The year 2006 was declared the International Year of Deserts and Desertification by the United Nations General Assembly.
There has been controversy and criticism of the UN organization and its activities since at least the 1950s. In the United States, an early opponent of the UN was the John Birch Society, which began a "get US out of the UN" campaign in 1959, charging that the UN's aim was to establish a "One World Government. The John Birch Society is a political education and action organization founded by Robert W " In 1967, Richard Nixon, while running for President of the United States, criticized the UN as "obsolete and inadequate" for dealing with then-present crises like the Cold War. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the  Jeane Kirkpatrick, who was appointed by Ronald Reagan to be United States Ambassador to the United Nations, wrote in a 1983 opinion piece in The New York Times that the process of discussions at the Security Council "more closely resembles a mugging" of the United States "than either a political debate or an effort at problem solving. Jeane Jordan Kirkpatrick ( November 19, 1926  &ndash December 7, 2006) was an American ambassador and an ardent The United States Ambassador to the United Nations (full title Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, with the rank and status " In a February 2003 speech, soon before the United States invasion of Iraq (for which he had been unable to get UN approval), George W. Bush said, "free nations will not allow the United Nations to fade into history as an ineffective, irrelevant debating society. The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. " In 2005, Bush appointed John R. Bolton to the position of Acting U. John Robert Bolton (born November 20, 1948) is an American public servant who has served in several Republican presidential administrations S. Ambassador to the UN; Bolton had made several statements critical of the UN, including saying, in 1994, "There is no such thing as the United Nations. There is only the international community, which can only be led by the only remaining superpower, which is the United States. "
The Security Council has been criticized for being unable to act in a clear and decisive way when confronted with a crisis. Reform of the United Nations Security Council encompasses a variety of proposals including procedural reforms such as eliminating the veto held by the five permanent members The veto power of the five permanent members has often been cited as the cause of this problem. The United Nations Security Council 'power of veto' refers to the Veto power wielded solely by the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council  However, according to UN Charter interpretations that were made law by the General Assembly's 'Uniting for Peace' resolution, adopted 3 November 1950, the Assembly may make any recommendations necessary to restore international peace and security, in cases where the Security Council, because of lack of unanimity between its permanent members, fails to act in situations where there appears to be a threat to international peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression. United Nations General Assembly (UNGA resolution 377 A, the "Uniting for Peace" resolution, states that in cases where the United Nations Security Events 644 - Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second Muslim Caliph, is killed by a Persian slave in Medina. Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Given this, the position that reform of the Security Council veto power is a necessary prerequisite to ensuring the effectiveness of the UN Organization, has been questioned. 
The makeup of the Security Council dates back to the end of World War II, and this division of powers is often said to no longer represent the current power realities in the world. Critics question the effectiveness and relevance of the Security Council, because responsibility for the enforcement of its resolutions lies primarily with the Council members themselves, and there are often no consequences for violating a Security Council resolution. 
The United Nations Commission on Human Rights, which existed from 1946 to 2006, was criticized for producing a disproportionate number of resolutions blaming Israel for its treatment of the Palestinian people while ignoring other human rights violators. The United Nations Commission on Human Rights ( UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations. The United Nations Commission on Human Rights ( UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Palestinian people or Palestinians ( الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha`b al-filasTīni; الفلسطينيون, al-filasTīnīyyūn  It was also criticized for letting countries accused of violating human rights, such as Cuba and Sudan, become members of the commission. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. The commission was dissolved in 2006, as part of a reform of the United Nations. Since the late 1990s there have been many calls for reform of the United Nations (UN
The commission's successor, the United Nations Human Rights Council was soon accused of perpetuating the UNHCR's anti-Israel bias while ignoring the plight of other oppressed people, for example in Darfur. The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. See also War in Darfur While there is a general consensus in the International community that Ethnic groups have been targeted and that Crimes against  Similar criticism has been echoed by Secretaries-General Kofi Annan and Ban Ki-moon and U. S. President George W. Bush. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States.  Doru Costea, the current UNHCR President admitted an anti-Israel bias and hoped for reform of the Council.  This "mea culpa" was contradicted by accusations from the Canadian delegation of personal interference by Costea. 
Issues relating to the state of Israel, the Palestinian people and other aspects of the Arab-Israeli conflict occupy a large amount of debate time, resolutions and resources at the United Nations. United Nations article Please do not remove -->Issues relating to the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Palestinian people or Palestinians ( الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha`b al-filasTīni; الفلسطينيون, al-filasTīnīyyūn
The partition of Palestine by the UNSCOP in 1947 was one of the earliest decisions of the UN. Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP was formed in the May 1947 in response to the British Governments announcement to terminate Mandate of Palestine. Since then, it maintained a central role in this region, especially by providing support for Palestinian refugees via the UNRWA and by providing a platform for Palestinian political revendications via the CEIRPP, the UNDPR, the SCIIP, the UNISPAL and the International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People. United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East ( UNRWA) is a relief and human development agency providing education health care social services The Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People was founded in 1975, by its resolution 3376 the UN General Assembly The United Nations Division for Palestinian Rights (UNDPR is a part of the Department of Political Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat The Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Palestinian People and Other Arabs of the Occupied Territories was established by United Nations The United Nations Information System on the Question of Palestine (UNISPAL is an online collection of texts of current and historical United Nations decisions and publications The International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People is a UN organized observance The UN has sponsored several peace negotiations between the parties, the latest being the 2002 Road map for peace. The "road map" for peace is a Plan to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict proposed by a " quartet " of international entities the
In recent years, the Middle East, which represents 2% of its member states and 0. 5% of the world's population, was the subject of 76% of country-specific UNGA resolutions, 100% of the Human Rights Council resolutions, 100% of the Commission on the Status of Women resolutions, 50% of reports from the World Food Program, 6% of Security Council resolutions and 6 of the 10 Emergency sessions. Membership For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly see General Assembly members The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. The Commission on the Status of Women (CSW or UNCSW is a functional commission of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC one of main UN organs within the An emergency special session is an unscheduled meeting of the United Nations General Assembly to make urgent recommendations on a particular issue Of note is Resolution 3379 (1975) stating that "zionism is racism"; it was rescinded in 1991. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379, adopted on November 10, 1975 by a vote of 72 to 35 (with 32 abstentions "determine that These decisions, passed with the support of the OIC countries, invariably criticize Israel for her treatment of Palestinians. The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC is an International organization with a permanent delegation to the United Nations. Many have qualified this degree of criticism as excessive. In particular, the UNHRC was widely criticized in 2007 for failing to condemn other human rights abusers besides Israel. The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System.
The United States has been criticized as well as supported for vetoing most UNSC decisions critical of Israel on the basis of their biased language, the so-called Negroponte doctrine. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the On July 26 2002, John Negroponte, the United States Ambassador to the United Nations, stated (during a closed meeting of the UN Security
Since 1961, Israel has been barred from the Asia regional group. The United Nations is unofficially divided into five geopolitical regional groupings In 2000, she was accepted within the WEOG group. The Western European and Others Group (WEOG is one of several unofficial Regional Groups in the United Nations that act as voting blocs and negotiation The UNRWA has been accused of perpetuating the plight of Palestinian refugees. United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East ( UNRWA) is a relief and human development agency providing education health care social services Although the UN condemns antisemitism, it has be accused of tolerating antisemitic remarks within its walls. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility Some argue that disproportional criticism of Israel constitutes a new form of antisemitism. New antisemitism is the concept that a new form of Antisemitism is on the rise in the 21st century emanating simultaneously from the left, the Right, and UN personnel have been accused of participating directly in the armed conflict on several occasions.
The Oil-for-Food Programme was established by the UN in 1996 to allow Iraq to sell oil on the world market in exchange for food, medicine, and other humanitarian needs of ordinary Iraqi citizens who were affected by international economic sanctions, without allowing the Iraqi government to rebuild its military in the wake of the first Gulf War. The Oil-for-Food Programme, established by the United Nations in 1995 (under UN Security Council Resolution 986) and terminated in late 2003 was intended Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Food is any substance usually composed primarily of Carbohydrates Fats water and/or Proteins that can be eaten or drunk by an Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the Humanitarianism is an active belief in Humanism (the idea of the value of human life whereby Humans practice benevolent treatment and provide assistance to other humans Economic sanctions are domestic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries on another for a variety of reasons Over $65 billion worth of Iraqi oil was sold on the world market. Officially, about $46 billion was used for humanitarian needs. Additional revenue paid for Gulf War reparations through a Compensation Fund, UN administrative and operational costs for the Programme (2. War reparations refer to the monetary compensation intended to cover damage or injury during a war 2%), and the weapons inspection programme (0. United Nations Special Commission ( UNSCOM) was an inspection regime created by the United Nations to ensure Iraq 's compliance with policies concerning 8%).
The programme was discontinued in late 2003 amidst allegations of widespread abuse and corruption. Benon Sevan, the former director, was suspended and then resigned from the UN, as an interim progress report of a UN-sponsored investigation concluded that Sevan had accepted bribes from the Iraqi regime, and recommended that his UN immunity be lifted to allow for a criminal investigation. Benon Vahe Sevan (born December 18, 1937 Nicosia, Cyprus) was the head of the United Nations ' Oil-for-Food Programme, established  Beyond Sevan, Kojo Annan was alleged to have illegally procured Oil-for-Food contracts on behalf of the Swiss company Cotecna. Kojo Annan (born July 1973 in Geneva, Switzerland) is the son of ex- UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation India's foreign minister, K. Natwar Singh, was removed from office because of his role in the scandal. Kunwar Natwar Singh, popularly known as K Natwar Singh (born May 16, 1931, Jaghina Bharatpur, Rajastan, India) is And the Cole Inquiry investigated whether the Australian Wheat Board breached any laws with its contracts with Iraq. The Cole Inquiry, formally the Inquiry into certain Australian companies in relation to the UN Oil-For-Food Programme was a Royal Commission set up by the 
There have been other controversies involving the United Nations. Examples include:
Inter Press Service (abbreviated IPS) is a global News agency. The Committee for a Democratic UN, or KDUN (for its German name "Komitee für eine demokratische UNO" is a Nongovernmental organization based in Berlin Global Policy Forum, or GPF, is an organization seeking to promote accountability of International organizations such as the United Nations and strengthen