United National Party
|Founded||September 6, 1946|
|International affiliation||International Democrat Union|
The United National Party, often referred to as the UNP Sinhalese: එක්සත් ජාතික පක්ෂය (pronounced Eksath Jathika Pakshaya), Tamil: ஐக்கிய தேசியக் கட்சி), is a leading political party in Sri Lanka. Ranil Shriyan Wickramasinghe, MP (born March 24, 1949) is a Sri Lankan politician and current Events 3114 BC - According to the Proleptic Julian calendar the current era in the Maya Long Count Calendar started Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The centre-right is a political term commonly used to describe or denote individuals political parties or organizations (such as Think tanks whose views The International Democrat Union (IDU is an Center-right international grouping of conservative, Christian-democratic and Liberal-conservative Sinhalese or Sinhala (සිංහල ISO 15919: siṁhala ˈsiŋhələ earlier referred to as Singhalese) is the language of the Sinhalese Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island It currently is the main opposition party in Sri Lanka and is headed by Ranil Wickremesinghe. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island Ranil Shriyan Wickramasinghe, MP (born March 24, 1949) is a Sri Lankan politician and current The UNP is considered to have right-leaning, business friendly policies.
At the last legislative elections in Sri Lanka, held on 2 April 2004, the UNP was the leading member of the coalition United National Front, which won 37. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation Parliamentary elections were held in Sri Lanka on 2 April 2004. Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " United National Front can refer to United National Front (Afghanistan United National Front (Sri Lanka United National 8% of the popular vote and 82 out of 225 seats in Parliament. It came in second to the United People's Freedom Alliance, a left-leaning coalition, which won 45. The United People's Freedom Alliance is a political alliance in Sri Lanka. 60% of the vote. The Front previously held a majority in parliament from December 2001 until April 2004, when it had 109 seats, with Ranil Wickremesinghe as prime minister. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. The UNP had previously been the governing party or in the governing coalition from 1947 to 1956, from 1965 to 1970 and from 1977 to 1994. In total, the UNP governed Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon) for 33 of 57 years of its independent history. The UNP also had control of the executive presidency from its formation in 1978 to 1994. The President of Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is the elected Head of state and the Head of government.
The UNP is a democratic socialist party, although it is generally seen as more conservative than the Sri Lanka Freedom Party, favouring a more neo-liberal market-oriented economy. Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined The Sri Lanka Freedom Party is one of the major political parties in Sri Lanka. Originally coined by its critics and opponents " neoliberalism " is a label referring to the recent reemergence of Economic liberalism or Classical liberalism The UNP is comparatively to the right and is part of the International Democrat Union. The International Democrat Union (IDU is an Center-right international grouping of conservative, Christian-democratic and Liberal-conservative
The UNP was founded on 6 September 1946 by amalgamating three right-leaning pro-dominion parties from the majority Sinhalese community and minority Tamil and Muslim communities. Events 3114 BC - According to the Proleptic Julian calendar the current era in the Maya Long Count Calendar started Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Sinhalese are the main ethnic group of Sri Lanka. They speak Sinhala, an Indo-Aryan language and number approximately 15 million people with the Tamil people (also called Tamils or Tamilians) ( are an Ethnic group native to Tamil Nadu, a state in India, and the north-eastern A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion It was founded by Don Stephen Senanayake, who was in the forefront in the struggle for independence from the United Kingdom, having resigned from the Ceylon National Congress because he disagreed with its revised aim of 'the achieving of freedom' from the British Empire. Don Stephen Senanayake ( October 20 1884 &ndash 22 March 1952) was an independence activist who served as the first Prime Minister of The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. . The UNP represented the business community and the landed gentry. However, Senanayake also adopted populist policies that made the party accepted in the grassroots level.
The UNP campaigned in the 1947 general election on a platform of dominion under the United Kingdom and protecting the traditional way of life and Buddhism, the religion followed by the majority of the people, from alleged communist threats from the left-wing opposition parties (the Lanka Sama Samaja Party and the Communist Party of Ceylon). A dominion, often Dominion, refers to one of a group of autonomous polities under sovereign authority within the British Empire and The Lanka Sama Samaja Party (literally Ceylon Equal Society Party in Sinhala: ලංකා සම සමාජ පක්ෂය in Tamil: லங்கா சமசமாஜக் The Communist Party of Sri Lanka is a Communist Political party in Sri Lanka. The UNP failed to win ana working majority and cobbled together a coalition with Sinhalese and Tamil elements. A coalition is an alliance among individuals during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own Self-interest. Ceylon became a dominion in 1948, with D. S. Senanayake as the first prime minister. He followed a pro-West, anti-Communist foreign policy much to the ire of the Soviet Union. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The commanders of the armed forces were all British officers and Britain retained military bases in the country.
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The new government proceeded to disenfranchise the plantation workers of Indian descent, the Indian Tamils, using the Citizenship Act of 1948 and the Parliamentary Elections Amendment Act of 1949. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island TemplatePolitics of Sri Lanka Politics of Sri Lanka takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President The President of Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is the elected Head of state and the Head of government. Percy Mahinda Rajapaksa (commonly known as Mahinda Rajapaksa, Sinhala මහින්ද රාජපක්ෂ; maˈhində ˈraːjəˌpakʂə born November The Prime Minister of Sri Lanka is the functional head of the Cabinet of Sri Lanka. Ratnasiri Wickremanayake MP (born on May 5, 1933) is the 14th Prime Minister of Sri Lanka and a veteran politician The Cabinet of Sri Lanka is the council of cabinet ministers, responsible to parliament. The Parliament of Sri Lanka is a Unicameral 225-member Legislature elected by Universal suffrage and Proportional representation for In Sri Lanka the Speaker of the Parliament is the individual who chairs the country's legislative body the Parliament of Sri Lanka. The Leader of the Opposition in the Sri Lanka is the politician who leads main opposition This article lists political parties in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka has a Two-party system, which means that there are two dominant political parties with During the Donoughmore period of political experimentation (1931-48 several Sri Lanka leftist parties were formed For the current elections in the Eastern Province see Sri Lanka Eastern Provincial Council elections 2008 The Provinces of Sri Lanka (පළාත have existed since 1987 following several decades of increasing demand for a decentralization of the Government of Sri Lanka The provinces of Sri Lanka are divided into 25 Districts ( Sinhala: දිස්ත්රික්ක sing |||} The districts of Sri Lanka are divided into administrative sub-units known as divisional secretariats. The Sri Lankan Civil War is an Ongoing conflict on the Island -nation of Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka traditionally follows a nonaligned foreign policy but has been seeking closer relations with the United States since December 1977 Information on politics by country is available for every Country, including both De jure and De facto independent India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country These measures were intended primarily to undermine the Left electorally. 
In 1952 Prime Minister Senanayake died from a riding accident and his son Dudley became Prime Minister. This irked long standing UNP stalwart S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike, a Buddhist nationalist leader known for his cente-left views. Solomon West Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike ( January 8, 1899 – September 26, 1959) was the fourth Prime Minister (1956-1959 of Bandaranaike quit the party to found the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) as a balancing force between the UNP and Marxist parties. The Sri Lanka Freedom Party is one of the major political parties in Sri Lanka. By this time there was growing disaffection with the UNP particularly because of its support of minority religious groups, most notably Catholics, to the consternation of the predominantly Buddhist Sinhalese. Bandaranaike was able to take advantage and lead the SLFP to victory in the 1956 elections. Soon afterwards he passed the controversial Sinhala Only Act, which led to communal clashes in 1958. The Sinhala Only Act (formally the Official Language Act) was a law passed in the Sri Lankan parliament in 1956 An attempt at a language compromise with the Tamil Federal Party was thwarted when the UNP organised a 'March on Kandy'.
In 1962 the UNP was accused of instigating a failed coup d'état carried out by right wing elements in the army with civilian collaborators like Douglas Liyanage. The UNP again came to power in 1965 under Dudley Senanayake, but it lost in a 1970 landslide to the SLFP, which had formed an electoral alliance with Marxist parties known as the United Front. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
A bitter leadership battle soon developed between Dudley Senanayake and the more conservative J. R. Jayewardene, a strong supporter of free market policies and a pro-American foreign policy. Junius Richard Jayewardene ( September 17 1906 &ndash November 1 1996) famously abbreviated in Sri Lanka as JR, was the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For the latter, he was called “Yankee Dickey. ” After Dudley’s death in 1973, Jayewardene became leader of the UNP and started reorganizing the party at the grass roots level.
General disaffection with the economic policies of the United Front coalition and its brutal crackdown against a 1971 Maoist insurrection by the JVP brought the UNP to power in 1977. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. The Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna ( Sinhala janatā vimukti peramuṇa, "People's Liberation Front" is a nationalist Marxist Political The party won an unprecedented five-sixths of the seats in parliament - one of the most lopsided victories ever in a democratic election and out of proportion to the actual number of votes it received. Jayewardene opened up the economy and revolutionized the entire outlook of the country. He introduced a new constitution (which incidentally first called the country a 'Democratic Socialist' republic) which made the presidency an executive post with sweeping powers, and shifted from the premiership to the presidency in 1978. In 1979, President Jayawardene introduced the controversial Prevention of Terrorism Act to quell a low-key armed insurrection in the Northern Province by separatist Tamil rebels.
On the economic front, free-market policies initially destroyed the nascent electronic and motor spares industries, as well as the long-established tea macinery industry, leading to the loss of about 100,000 manufacturing jobs. Free-trade zones were established in order to generate employment, but unemployment was primarily reduced by sending menial workers to the Middle East. A free trade zone ( FTZ) or export processing zone ( EPZ) is one or more special areas of a country where some normal Trade barriers such as The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The government undertook massive development work to promote hydroelectricity and agriculture. However, rising unprecedented inflation generally made public frustrated with the government, leading to a series of Opposition-led strikes, culminating in a General strike in 1980 which was crushed by the police and armed members of the UNP’s trade union wing. A general strike is a Strike action by a critical mass of the labour force in a city region or country In 1982 the government held a referendum to extend parliament's life amid widespread vote-rigging and voter intimidation. Meanwhile, separatist Tamil rebels in the north and eastern provinces were leading an insurgency for a separate state for Tamils. In July 1983, members of the government organised a pogrom against Tamils in all parts of the country after a rebel attack in Jaffna which killed 13 soldiers of Rajarata Rifles. A pogrom is a form of Riot directed against a particular group whether ethnic religious or other and characterized by destruction of their Homes Businesses Jaffna or Yazhpanam (யாழ்ப்பாணம் in Tamil meaning யாழ்= The government used the riots as an excuse to ban several opposition parties including the Communist Party of Sri Lanka, the Nava Sama Samaja Party and the Marxist nationalist JVP which had heavy influence on university campuses. The Communist Party of Sri Lanka is a Communist Political party in Sri Lanka. The Nava Sama Samaja Pakshaya ( New Social Equality Party) is a Trotskyist Political party in Sri Lanka. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects (see Black July)
The Tamil rebel groups were allegedly trained and armed by India, angry with Jayewardene's pro-American policy. Black July is the commonly used name for the Pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23 1983. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The JVP began an intense attack on government forces in hope of a socialist revolution, but this turned out to be an utter failure. The government allegedly used death squads to crush the insurrection. In the due process over 40,000 civilians were “disappeared” by the armed forces and death squads and many torture chambers sprung up to interrogate JVP activists. Many abducted youth were summarily executed. The intensive offensive crushed the rebels. JVP leader Rohana Wijeweera was captured and later executed by the armed forces in custody. Patabendi Don Nandasiri Wijeweera or Rohana Wijeweera ( 14 July 1943 &ndash 13 November 1989) was a Sri Lankan Marxist Meanwhile Jayewardene signed an Indo-Sri Lankan pact with Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, which later resulted in Gandhi's assassination. Rajiv Gandhi राजीव गांधी (raːdʒiːv gaːnd̪ʰiː born in Bombay, (20 August 1944 – 21 May 1991 the elder son of Indira and Feroze
Jayewardene retired in 1988 and was succeeded by Prime Minister Ranasinghe Premadasa, a populist leader from the lower class known for his anti-Indian sentiment. Ranasinghe Premadasa ( June 23, 1924 - May 1, 1993) was the 3rd President of Sri Lanka from January 2, 1989 He initiated many housing projects and poverty alleviation programs that made him popular among grassroots level. In 1993 Premadasa was assassinated by separatist LTTE suicide cadres while proceeding in a May Day rally. May Day occurs on May 1 and refers to any of several Public holidays In many countries May Day is synonymous with International Workers' Day, or Labour By this time the people were longing for a change due to allegations of inefficiency and corruption against the UNP government. In the 1994 election, the SLFP gained control of parliament after 17 years of unbroken UNP rule. While in opposition many of UNP stalwarts were killed by an LTTE suicide terrorist attack during an election rally which saw the assassination of Gamini Dissanayake, the UNP's presidential candidate. Lionel Gamini Dissanayake ( March 20, 1942 - October 24, 1994) was a prominent Sri Lankan Politician and a former presidential This paved the way for an easy victory for Chandrika Kumaratunga of the SLFP. Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga (born 29 June 1945) was the fifth President (and fourth to hold the office as Executive president) of Party leadership passed to Jayewardene's nephew, Ranil Wickremasinghe, a relatively young politician with pro-west views and penchant for neo-liberal economic policies.
By 2001 country was facing the worst economic downturn since independence, with rising inflation and an acute power crisis. The GDP was shrinking by 2. 5%. The SLFP government fell on a no-confidence motion by the opposition, which prompted President Kumaratunga to call for early elections. Wickaramasinghe managed to secure the support of former government big wigs most notabaly former Kumaratunga confidants, Prof. G. L. Peris, and S. B. Dissanayake who would later become important members in the party. The UNP easily came to power in the 2001 election in a platform of peace with LTTE and economic resurgence, and won all but one district in the country. Wickremasinghe became the Prime Minister for the second time following the election and began a "cooperative" government with President Kumaratunga. Within two months into his premiership Wickramasinghe signed a pivotal ceasefire agreement with the LTTE. The agreement was followed by intense peace negotiations towards a final solution to the ethnic conflict.
The UNP government maintained strict fiscal discipline and market-friendly policies, which led to a resurgence in the economy leading to large scale investments and rapid economic growth. The government created key economic institutions such as the Board of Investment, the Ministry for Small and Rural Enterprises, and the Information Communication Technology Agency. All this led to unprecedented economic growth reaching almost 6% at the end of 2003; inflation too was at an all time low of less than 2%. Many local and foreign experts believed that Sri Lanka at current pace would reach double digit economic growth within a few years.
Unfortunately for Wickramasinghe and the UNP government, constant cease-fire breaches by the LTTE, including the constant stream of assassinations of military spies paved the way for nationalistic factions such as the JVP and its other cover organizations such as the Patriotic National Movement (Deesha Hithaishi Jathika Viyaparaya) to organize protests. They tried to convince the public that Wickramasinghe was giving too much away to the LTTE. Hardline Sinhalese Buddhist organizations such as the Sihala Urumaya (Sinhalese Heritage) criticized the government on the same lines and also for allegedly pandering to western evangelistic Christian organizations and thereby encouraging proselytizing and endangering Buddhism. Evangelism is the Christian practice of proselytisation. The intention of most evangelism is to effect Eternal salvation to those who do not follow the The Sihala Urumaya would later rename themselves as Jathika Hela Urumaya (National Sinhalese Heritage) and put forward Buddhist Monks to contest in elections. The Jathika Hela Urumaya (often approximated in English as National Heritage Party) is a Political party in Sri Lanka which is led by Buddhist
In late 2003 the President took over the National Lotteries Board. The UNP blocked this move by surrounding the government press so that the gazette could not be printed. As a retaliatory move the President then took over the ministries of Mass Communications, Defence, and the Ministry of Internal Affairs, while Prime Minister Wickramasinghe was in visiting George W. Bush in Washington DC. Kumaratunga and her confidants launched a massive media attack on their nominal partners, branding Wickramasinghe as a traitor and accusing the UNP government of "selling" national heritage sites to foreigners.
Early in 2004, the SLFP and JVP formed the United People's Freedom Alliance (UPFA), signalling the beginning of the end for the UNP government. The United People's Freedom Alliance is a political alliance in Sri Lanka. In February 2004, within 24 hours of a well rehearsed speech for national unity, Kumaratunga dissolved parliament.
In the subsequent election on 2 April 2004, the UNP was defeated by the UPFA. Parliamentary elections were held in Sri Lanka on 2 April 2004. Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Wickramasinghe remained as leader of the UNP.
In the presidential election of 17 November, its candidate, Ranil Wickremesinghe, came second with 48. Presidential elections in Sri Lanka were held on 17 November 2005. Events 284 - Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers Ranil Shriyan Wickramasinghe, MP (born March 24, 1949) is a Sri Lankan politician and current 43% of the vote. So it resulted in a defeat and a win for the UPFA candidate Mahinda Rajapakse. Percy Mahinda Rajapaksa (commonly known as Mahinda Rajapaksa, Sinhala මහින්ද රාජපක්ෂ; maˈhində ˈraːjəˌpakʂə born November It is widely believed that if not for the boycott of the polls in the North and parts of the East, allegedly due to LTTE intimidation, Wickramsinghe would have won. It has been apparent however that Ranil Wickramasinghe, although winning the support of the minority communities (Tamils and Muslims); he was unable to gain the trust of the bulk of the majority Sinhalese community.
Presently Wickramasinghe faces significant pressure to step down as the Leader of the UNP.
In early 2007, 18 senior members of the UNP joined President Mahinda Rajapakse's ruling coalition. All of them were given ministerial positions. This resulted in a state of political unrest, as the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed between the President and the UNP leader in late 2006 was read as no longer valid. This incident, generally recorded in the press as 'crossovers', also resulted in a state where a number of senior government ministers expressed concern over the 'jumbo cabinet' of ministers. On Friday 9 February 2007, the president sacked three ministers for their remarks against the new political configuration. Events 474 - Zeno crowned as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.