The United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (UIF, Jabha-yi Muttahid-i Islami-yi Milli bara-yi Nijat-i Afghanistan), also known as the Northern Alliance (term used by the Western media), was a military-political umbrella organization created by the Islamic State of Afghanistan in 1996. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings For the fictional company set in the Resident Evil videogame series see Umbrella Corporation. The Islamic State of Afghanistan was the name given to the nation of Afghanistan during the rule of the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan The organization united various Afghan groups fighting against each other to fight the Taliban instead. The Demographics of Afghanistan are ethnically and linguistically mixed The Taliban ( طالبان, also anglicised as Taleban; translation "students" is a Sunni Islamist, predominately
In late 2001, with assistance from U.S. and UK air support, United States Special Forces, and the British Armed Forces, the UIF succeeded in retaking most of Afghanistan from the Taliban. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located In Military tactics, close air support ( CAS) is defined as air action by fixed or rotary winged aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to Despite fears of a return to the chaos similar to that of the Afghan Civil War (1992-1996), the UIF factions largely accepted the new order.
The mujahideen fighters who had previously defeated the communist government and formed the Islamic State of Afghanistan (ISA) came under attack and in 1996 lost the capital to the Taliban. A Mujahid (Arabic ar مجاهد, literally "struggler" is a Muslim involved in a Jihad, id est fighting in a war or The Islamic State of Afghanistan was the name given to the nation of Afghanistan during the rule of the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan The Taliban ( طالبان, also anglicised as Taleban; translation "students" is a Sunni Islamist, predominately At this juncture the mujahideen resorted to the creation of UIF because Rashid Dostum and other warlords who belonged to various tribes but to no specific political party did not want to recognize the ISA as a legal entity, so the defeated government devised a military strategy to utilize these forces while not offending their political sensibilities. Abdul Rashid Dostum was a former Pro-Soviet fighter during the Soviet Invasion and the current leader of Uzbek-Afghan northern provinces
Although recognised by most foreign nations as the legal government, it only controlled around 30% of Afghanistan. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, President Burhanuddin Rabbani was the national head of the United Islamic Front, however the central government had little power and personnel changes were frequent. President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. Burhanuddin Rabbani ( - Burhânuddîn Rabbânî) (born 1940 an ethnic Tajik, is a former President of Afghanistan. The exception to this was the post of Defence Minister, which was held by Ahmed Shah Massoud and Mohammed Fahim. Ahmad Shah Massoud ( (2 September 1953 &ndash 9 September 2001 was a Tajik Kabul University engineering student turned military leader who played a leading Marshal Mohammad Qasim Fahim ( محمد قسيم فهيم) (born 1957 in Omarz, Afghanistan) is a prominent Military Commander and Politician Before the 9/11 attacks; Russia, the Central Asian nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States, India, Turkey and Iran were giving aid to UIF. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. However Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and the UAE were supporting the Taliban. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi
Three ethnic groups dominated the UIF: the Tajiks, who make up 27% of Afghanistan's population and are the second largest ethnic group, the Hazara and the Uzbeks, who each make up about 9% of the population. Tajik ( - Tādjīk; UniPers: Tâjik; Cyrillic: Тоҷик is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking people of The Hazāra ( are a Persian-speaking people residing in the central region of Afghanistan and northwestern Pakistan. The Uzbeks (Self designation sg O‘zbek, pl O‘zbeklar) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. From the Taliban conquest in 1996 until November 2001 the UIF controlled roughly 30% of Afghanistan's population in provinces such as Badakshan, Kapisa, Takhar and parts of Parwan, Kunar, Nuristan, Laghman, Samangan, Qunduz, Ghor and Bamiyan, all in the north of the country (hence the name 'Northern Alliance'). Badakhshan ( Tajik: Бадахшон is a region comprising parts of northeastern Afghanistan and southeastern Tajikistan. Kapiśa (=Kapisha (کاپيسا is one of the 34 Provinces of Afghanistan. Parwān ( also spelled Parvān) once also the name of an ancient town in the Hindu Kush mountains is today an administrative province in northern Afghanistan Kunar may refer to Kunar Valley, Afghanistan Kunar Province, Afghanistan Kunar River, Afghanistan Nuristān (Pashto نورستان also spelled Nurestān) is a region embedded in the south of Hindu Kush valleys Samangan is a City and capital of Samangan Province in northern Afghanistan. Kunduz ( is one of the Provinces of Afghanistan, centered on the city of Kunduz in Afghanistan, with an area of 8040 km square and a population For the province see Bamyan Province. Bamyan ( is the capital of Bamyan Province and the largest town in Hazarajat, central Throughout the campaign against the Taliban, the Northern Alliance's fortunes fluctuated, but neither side succeeded in gaining a major advantage.
The political leader of the alliance was Burhanuddin Rabbani; however, he was little more than a front man for the military commanders. Ahmed Shah Massoud served as the UIF's Minister of Defence and was by far its most visible and powerful figure. He personally commanded around 10,000 of the UIF's estimated 40,000 troops (Massoud's were also the best trained and best equipped troops within the UIF). Several other important military leaders controlled different factions within the alliance, including Abdul Rashid Dostum, General Mohammed Fahim and Ismail Khan. Ismail Khan (born 1946 an ethnic Tajik from Herat, Afghanistan, was a powerful Mujahedeen commander in the Soviet War in Afghanistan General Dostum had the right to nominate six ministers, including those of defense and foreign affairs, and was the military commander in northern Afghanistan.
On September 13, 2001, it was confirmed that Ahmed Shah Massoud had died following an attack by al-Qaeda assassins posing as Saudi journalists four days earlier on September 9. Events 509 BC - The Temple of Jupiter on Rome 's Capitoline Hill is dedicated on the ides of September Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Al-Qaeda, alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qa`ida or al-Qa`idah, ( Arabic:; ar-Latn ''al-qāʿidah'' Translation: The The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Events 1000 - Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1379 - Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian Mohammed Fahim, the next most senior Tajik commander, succeeded Massoud a few days later. In November and December 2001 the UIF gained control of much of the country, including the capital Kabul. } Kābul ( Persian and Pashto: کابل, IPA:) is the Capital and largest city of Afghanistan, with This was facilitated by extensive bombing of Taliban forces and military infrastructure by the United States during the U.S.-led attack on Afghanistan. The War in Afghanistan, which began on October 7 2001 as the U
The UIF was composed of roughly five of the factions of mujahideen fighters. Iran and Turkey considered there to be seven factions in total. These groups were:
Many members, including much of the leadership, were ethnic Tajiks, Uzbeks and Hazara - ethnic minorities in Afghanistan.
The United Front was extremely influential in the transitional Afghan Government of Hamid Karzai. The Afghan Transitional Administration was established in June and July of 2002. Hamid Karzai ( حامد کرزي, حامد کرزي) (born 24 December 1957) is the current President of Afghanistan, since December Notably, Mohammed Fahim became the Vice President and Minister of Defence, Yunus Qanuni became the Minister of Education and Security Advisor and Dr Abdullah became the Foreign Minister. WikipediaPersondata --> Yunus Qanuni ( يونس قانوني, also transliterated Qanooni and Qanouni) (born 1957 is a politician Dr Abdullah (born 1961 an Afghan politician was the Foreign Minister of Afghanistan. Most foreign observers expected this dominance to continue and for Fahim or Qanuni to be selected as Karzai's Vice President in the 2004 elections. However, Karzai instead selected Ahmad Zia Massoud, younger brother of the former United Front leader Ahmad Shah Massoud. Ahmad Zia Massoud (Born May 1, 1956) is the current first Vice President of Afghanistan in the administration of President Hamid Karzai Karzai easily won the 2004 Presidential election with 55. 4% of the vote, followed by three former leaders of the UIF, Quanuni (16. 3%), Mohaqiq (11. 7%) and Dostum (10%).
The majority of the alliance is now part of the United National Front (Afghanistan) which is led by Rabbani and includes many former leaders of the UIF such as Parliamentary Speaker Yunus Qanuni, Mohammed Fahim, Abdul Rashid Dostum, and Vice President Ahmad Zia Massoud. The Afghanistan National Front is a political party in Afghanistan. The United National Front has positioned itself as a "loyal" opposition to Karzai. A number of former UIF members are however loyal to Karzai, notably Abdul Sayyaf.
Some of the military strength of the UIF has now been absorbed into the Military of Afghanistan, while many of the remaining soldiers were disarmed through a nationwide disarmament program. The Military of Afghanistan is composed of the Afghan National Army, the Afghan National Air Corps (formerly the Afghan Air Force and scattered Disarmament refers to the act of reducing limiting or abolishing Weapons. The existence and strength of the Afghan National Army has significantly reduced the threat of the former UIF elements attempting to use military action against the new NATO-backed government. The Afghan National Army (ANA is a service branch of the Military of Afghanistan currently being trained by the coalition forces to ultimately take the lead in The North Atlantic Treaty Most of the country's senior military personnel are former members of the UIF, including Defense Minister Abdul Rahim Wardak and General Bismillah Khan. The Afghan Ministry of Defense is an organ of the Central Government of Afghanistan, overseeing the entire Military of Afghanistan. Abdul Rahim Wardak is the Defence Minister of Afghanistan. He was appointed by President Hamid Karzai on December 23, 2004. For the Indian shehnai musician see Bismillah Khan General Bismillah Mohammadi Khan (or simply Bismillah Khan) is the Chief of Staff
Much criticism has been leveled against the United Islamic Front for alleged breaches of human rights, by both Afghan and international groups. The influence allied warlords have in their territories where they make their own, often draconian, laws is one factor. Human Rights Watch has released documents alleging internal displacement and executions, widespread rape, arbitrary arrests and "disappearances" targeted against the civilian population. Human Rights Watch is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Human rights.