Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are nanoscale, less than 100 nanometres. The nanoscopic scale usually refers to structures with a Length scale applicible to Nanotechnology, usually cited as 1-100 Nanometers The nanoscopic scale A nanometre ( American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) ( Greek: νάνος nanos dwarf; μετρώ metrό count) is a Clusters of UFPs can be seen with the naked eye. But, electron microscopy and special physical lab conditions allow scientists to observe UFP morphology. UFPs are both manufactured and naturally occurring (hot volcanic lava, smoke, ocean spray). Some UFPs have characteristics similar to gas or liquid and are useful in powders or lubricants. Others are byproducts, rather than intentionally fabricated nanostructures, as are fine particles. A nanostructure is an object of intermediate size between Molecular and Microscopic ( micrometer -sized Structures In describing nanostructures Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas  Some airborn UFPs (emissions) from printer toner, combustion engines and automobile traffic are considered pollutants and have begun to be studied as such . , along with larger particulate matter. Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas Intentionally manufactured UFPs have many applications, from medical and nanotech research to consumer products.
Regulation and legislation
As the nanotechnology industry has grown, nanoparticles have brought UFPs more public and regulatory attention. Nanotechnology, sometimes shortened to nanotech, refers to a field of Applied science whose theme is the control of matter on an Atomic and Molecular In Nanotechnology, a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit in terms of its transport and properties UFP risk assessment research is still in the very early stages. And debate increases about whether to regulate UFPs and how to research and manage the health risks they may pose. As of March 19, 2008, the EPA does not yet regulate or research ultrafine particles, but has drafted a Nanomaterial Research Strategy, open for independent, external peer review beginning February 7, 2008 (Panel review on April 11, 2008).  There is also debate about how the European Union (EU) should regulate UFPs. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in 
- ^ [http://es.epa.gov/ncer/nano/research/particle_index.html Nanotechnology: Ultrafine Particle Research] EPA National Center for Environmental Research. A nanostructure is an object of intermediate size between Molecular and Microscopic ( micrometer -sized Structures In describing nanostructures Retrieved on 2008-3-19.
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- ^ "Nanotoxicology: An Emerging Discipline Evolving from Studies of Ultrafine Particles" (July 2005). A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document. Environmental Health Perspectives 113 (7): 823-839. Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP is a peer-reviewed journal of the United States' National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, published monthly doi:10.1289/ehp.7339
- ^ Savic, Radoslav; et al. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document. (25 April 2003). "Micellar Nanocontainers Distribute to Defined Cytoplasmic Organelles". Science 300 (5619): 615-618. Science is the Academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the world's most prestigious Scientific doi:10.1126/science.1078192
- ^ How Ultrafine Particles In Air Pollution May Cause Heart Disease Science Daily, January 22, 2008. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document. Retrieved on 2008-3-19.
- ^ [http://es.epa.gov/ncer/nano/publications/nano_fed_reg_021308.pdf Retrieved on 2008-3-19.
- ^ [http://www.fni.no/doc&pdf/JBS-JW-IEA-2007.PDF Is EU Enlargement Bad for Environmental Policy? Confronting Gloomy Expectations with Evidence] Fridtjof Nansen Institute. Retrieved on 2008-3-19.
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