Irish Political History series
Ulster loyalism is a militant unionist ideology held mostly by Protestants in Northern Ireland. Unionism in Ireland, is a belief in the desirability of a full constitutional and institutional relationship between Ireland and Great Britain based on the terms and The Agreement, most often referred to as the Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste Belfast Greeance or the Good Friday Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act 1920, (and sometimes called the Fourth Home Rule Act) was an Act The Ulster Covenant was signed by just under half a million of men and women from Ulster, on and before September 28, 1912, in protest against the The Sunningdale Agreement was an attempt to end " The Troubles " in Northern Ireland by forcing unionists to share power with nationalists The Vanguard Unionist Progressive Party (VUPP was a unionist political party which existed in Northern Ireland between 1973 and 1978 The Ulster Democratic Party ( UDP) was a small loyalist Political party in Northern Ireland. See Ulster Progressive Unionist Association, for the political group founded in 1938 The Progressive Unionist Party ( PUP) is a small The Ulster Volunteer Force (more commonly referred to as the UVF) is a Loyalist group in Northern Ireland. The Ulster Defence Association ( UDA) is a loyalist Paramilitary criminal organization in Northern Ireland, outlawed as a Terrorist The Real Ulster Freedom Fighters, otherwise known as the Real UFF (RUFF is a loyalist Paramilitary organisation in Northern Ireland. The Loyalist Volunteer Force ( LVF) is a loyalist Paramilitary group in Northern Ireland which broke away from the Ulster Volunteer The Orange Volunteers ( OV) are a break-away Ulster loyalist Paramilitary group in Northern Ireland. The Red Hand Commandos are a loyalist Paramilitary group closely linked to the Ulster Volunteer Force in Northern Ireland The Red Hand Defenders (RHD is a Northern Irish paramilitary group formed in 1998 and composed largely of Protestant hardliners from loyalist groups observing a cease-fire The Red Branch ( in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology was the name of two of the three royal houses of the king of Ulster, Conchobar mac Nessa The Ulster Young Militants are considered to be the youth wing of the Ulster Defence Association, a loyalist paramilitary group in The Combined Loyalist Military Command was an umbrella body for loyalist Paramilitary groups in Northern Ireland set up in the early 1990s recalling the The Ulster Loyalist Central Co-ordinating Committee ( ULCCC) was set up in 1974 in the aftermath of the Ulster Workers Council Strike, in order to facilitate meetings The Young Citizen Volunteers of Ireland had its first meeting just prior to the signing of the Solemn League and Covenant (Ulster, in Belfast City Hall The Loyalist Association of Workers ( LAW) was a militant Unionist organisation in Northern Ireland that sought to mobilise Trade union members The Peep O'Day Boys was a Protestant faction fighting group in 18th century Ireland, active in the 1780s and '90s and precursor of the Orange Order. Tara was a loyalist movement in Northern Ireland that espoused a brand of evangelical Protestantism. The Ulster Political Research Group is an advisory body connected to the Ulster Defence Association, providing advice to them on political matters Ulster Resistance was a Paramilitary movement established by unionists in Northern Ireland on 10 November 1986 in opposition to the The Ulster Workers Council was a loyalist workers' organisation set up in Northern Ireland in 1974 as a more formalised successor to the Loyalist Association The Twelfth is an annual Protestant celebration on 12 July, originating in Ireland. The Apprentice Boys Of Derry are a Protestant fraternal society with a worldwide membership founded in 1814 The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order or the Orange Lodge, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly The Royal Black Institution, also known as the Royal Black Preceptory or The Imperial Grand Black Chapter Of The British Commonwealth is a Protestant fraternal society The Billy Boys is a loyalist song from Belfast, sung to the tune of " Marching Through Georgia. "Derry's Walls" is a historical song sung in Scotland and Northern Ireland. "God Save the Queen", or "God Save the King", is an anthem used in a number of Commonwealth realms It is the National The Sash (also known as The Sash My Father Wore) is an Ulster ballad commemorating the victory in the Williamite war in Ireland in 1690–1691 over The Coat of Arms of Northern Ireland was granted to the Government of Northern Ireland in 1924 after the Irish Free State had separated from the United The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order or the Orange Lodge, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly "Red Hand" redirects here For the event see Red Hand Day. Northern Ireland has not had its own unique government sanctioned Flag since its government was prorogued in 1972 and abolished The Union Flag, also known as the Union Jack, is the national flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The King was the Head of state of the 1922–1937 Irish Free State. Irish nationalism (Náisiúnachas Éireannach refers to political and sociological movements and sentiment that embodies a love for Irish ancestry, culture and language and Irish republicanism (Poblachtánachas is an ideology based on the Irish nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a single independent Republic Unionism in Ireland, is a belief in the desirability of a full constitutional and institutional relationship between Ireland and Great Britain based on the terms and Unionism in Ireland, is a belief in the desirability of a full constitutional and institutional relationship between Ireland and Great Britain based on the terms and Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Some individuals claim that that Ulster loyalists are working-class unionists willing to use violence in order to achieve their aims. Working class is a term used in academic Sociology and in ordinary conversation to describe depending on context and speaker those employed in specific fields or types  However, others, such as Garrett Fitzgerald, argue that loyalism is simply "loyalty to Ulster not to the Union with Britain and it is mis-described as unionism. Garret FitzGerald (Gearóid Mac Gearailt born 9 February 1926 was the seventh Taoiseach of Ireland, serving two terms in office (July 1981 to February 1982 December "
Unionists support the continuation of Northern Ireland's status as a constituent country of the United Kingdom and oppose any joining with the Republic of Ireland in a united Ireland. Constituent country is a phrase used often by official institutions in contexts in which a country makes up a part of a larger entity or grouping The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. A United Ireland is the term used to refer to a sovereign state encompassing the whole of the island of Ireland. However, whilst some loyalist groups seek to maintain Northern Ireland's position within the UK they are not defined by this aim and some, such as the Ulster Defence Association, have openly supported the idea of Ulster independence. The Ulster Defence Association ( UDA) is a loyalist Paramilitary criminal organization in Northern Ireland, outlawed as a Terrorist Ulster ( Ulaidh ˈkwɪɟɪ ˈʌlˠu / ˈʌlˠi is one of the four provinces of Ireland, in addition to Connacht, Munster and Leinster Unionists also believe in achieving their aims through purely constitutional means, but are willing to use violence to defend the constitutional process. However loyalists support the use of militant methods as the primary means to reject amalgamation with the Republic of Ireland. For the British newspaper and Marxist organization see Militant tendency. Consequently, anti-Unionists and anti-Loyalists frequently use the term loyalist to describe illegal paramilitary organisations. A paramilitary is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force but which are not regarded as having the same status
Upon Irish independence in 1921 — despite a majority of Irish people desiring a united Ireland — six of the nine counties in the province of Ulster were permitted to opt out of the independent Irish Free State (later the Republic of Ireland). The Irish War of Independence (or Tan War, or Anglo-Irish War, Irish: Cogadh na Saoirse) from January 1919 to July 1921 was a guerrilla Ulster ( Ulaidh ˈkwɪɟɪ ˈʌlˠu / ˈʌlˠi is one of the four provinces of Ireland, in addition to Connacht, Munster and Leinster The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. These counties, four out of the six having Protestant majorities, remained a part of the United Kingdom. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The other two Ulster counties also remained part of the UK, despite having narrow Irish nationalist majorities. Irish nationalism (Náisiúnachas Éireannach refers to political and sociological movements and sentiment that embodies a love for Irish ancestry, culture and language and Both unionist and nationalist communities have allowed or encouraged sectarianism among Protestants (associated with unionism) and Roman Catholics (associated with nationalism) to further political aims. Sectarianism is Bigotry, Discrimination, Prejudice or Hatred arising from attaching importance to perceived differences between subdivisions
The difference of opinion between Northern Ireland's Nationalist Catholic population (which mostly supports leaving the UK in favour of uniting with the Republic of Ireland) and its Protestant Unionist population (which mainly supports remaining as part of the United Kingdom) has led to a long-running bloody conflict known as The Troubles. However, the majority of people who live in the region do not support paramilitaries of any ideology.
Bigger parties like the Ulster Unionist or Democratic Unionist parties have actively sought to distance themselves from loyalist paramilitary activity. See Ulster Progressive Unionist Association, for the political group founded in 1938 The Progressive Unionist Party ( PUP) is a small The Ulster Democratic Party ( UDP) was a small loyalist Political party in Northern Ireland. The Ulster Unionist Party ( UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or in a historic sense simply the Unionist Party The Democratic Unionist Party ( DUP) is the larger of the two main unionist political parties in Northern Ireland. However, Ian Paisley and his Democratic Unionist Party have worked alongside loyalist paramilitary groups such as the UDA in the 1974 Ulster Workers Council strikes and the 1977 Loyalist Association of Workers strike. The Loyalist Association of Workers ( LAW) was a militant Unionist organisation in Northern Ireland that sought to mobilise Trade union members