|Language extinction:||October 1992 when Tevfik Esenç died|
|Language family:||North Caucasian (disputed)|
|Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Manyas is a town and district of Balıkesir Province in the Marmara region of Turkey. Balıkesir is a province in midwestern Turkey, having coastlines on both the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean. According to some definitions an extinct language is a Language which no longer has any speakers, whereas a dead language is a language which is no longer spoken Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Tevfik Esenç (1904 &ndash October 7, 1992) was a Circassian exile in Turkey and the last known speaker of the Ubykh language. List of language familiesA language family is a group of Languages related by descent from a common ancestor called the Proto-language of that family North Caucasian languages (sometimes called simply Caucasic as opposed to Kartvelian, and to avoid confusion with the concept of " Caucasian race " The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called Pontic, Circassian, or Abkhaz-Adyghe, are a group of languages spoken in the Caucasus region ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages ISO 639 -3 (ISO 639-32007 is an international standard for Language codes The standard describes three‐letter codes for identifying languages In Computing, Unicode is an Industry standard allowing Computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in most of the world's|
Ubykh or Ubyx is a language of the Northwestern Caucasian group, spoken by the Ubykh people up until the early 1990s. A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called Pontic, Circassian, or Abkhaz-Adyghe, are a group of languages spoken in the Caucasus region Ubykh people are a group who spoke the Northwest Caucasian Ubykh language, until other local languages displaced it and its last speaker finally died in
The word is derived from /wəbəx/, its name in the Abdzakh Adyghe (Circassian) language. Adyghe language (ady адыгaбзэ adygabze, adəgăbză) is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation It is known in linguistic literature by many names: variants of Ubykh, such as Ubikh, Ubıh (Turkish) and Oubykh (French); and Pekhi (from Ubykh /tʷaχə/) and its Germanicised variant Päkhy. Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages.
Ubykh is distinguished by the following features, some of which are shared with other Northwest Caucasian languages:
See Ubykh phonology for information on the phonetics of Ubykh. Ubykh, a North-West Caucasian language has the largest consonant inventory of all documented languages which do not use clicks and also has the most disproportional ratio of
Ubykh is agglutinative and polysynthetic: /ʃəkʲʼaajəfanamət/ we shall not be able to go back, /awqʼaqʼajtʼba/ if you had said it. Polysynthetic languages are highly Synthetic languages ie languages in which words are composed of many Morphemes Definition The degree of Ubykh is often extremely concise in its word forms.
The boundaries between nouns and verbs in Ubykh is somewhat blurred. Any noun can be used as the root of a stative verb (/məzə/ child, /səməzəjtʼ/ I was a child), and many verb roots can become nouns simply by the use of noun affixes (/qʼa/ to say, /səqʼa/ my speech, what I say). 
The noun system in Ubykh is quite simple. Ubykh has three noun cases (the oblique-ergative case may be two homophonous cases with differing function, thus presenting four cases in total):
The instrumental (-/awn(ə)/ by means of, by using) was also treated as a case in Dumézil (1975). An instrumental is a Musical composition or recording without Lyrics or any other sort of Vocal music; all of the Music is produced by Another pair of postpositions, -/laaq/ to(wards) and -/ʁaafa/ for, have been noted as synthetic datives (/aχʲəlaaq astʷadaw/ I will send it to the prince), but their status as cases is also best discounted. In Grammar, a preposition is a Part of speech that introduces a prepositional phrase.
Nouns do not distinguish grammatical gender. In Linguistics, grammatical genders, sometimes also called Noun classes are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words every noun must belong The definite article is /a/- the: /atət/ the man. There is no indefinite article directly equivalent to the English a or an, but /za/-(root)-/gʷara/ (literally one-(root)-certain) translates French un and Turkish bir: /zanaynʃʷgʷara/ a certain young man.
Number is only marked on the noun in the ergative case, with -/na/. A number is an Abstract object, tokens of which are Symbols used in Counting and measuring. The number marking of the absolutive argument is either by suppletive verb roots (e. In Linguistics and Etymology, suppletion is traditionally understood as the use of one word as the inflected form of another word when the two words g. /akʷən blas/ he is in the car vs /akʷən blaʒʷa/ they are in the car) or by verb suffixes: /akʲʼan/ he goes, /akʲʼaan/ they go. Interestingly, the second person plural prefix /ɕʷ/- triggers this plural suffix regardless of whether that prefix represents the ergative, the absolutive or the oblique argument:
Note that in this last sentence, the plurality of it (/a/-) is obscured; the meaning can be either I give it to you all or I gave them to you all.
Adjectives, in most cases, are simply suffixed to the noun: /tʃəbʒəja/ pepper with /pɬə/ red becomes /tʃəbʒəjapɬə/ red pepper. In Grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a Noun or Pronoun, giving more information about the Adjectives do not decline. In Linguistics, declension (or declination) is the occurrence of Inflection in Nouns Pronouns and Adjectives indicating
Postpositions are rare; most locative semantic functions, as well as some non-local ones, are provided with preverbal elements: /asχʲawtxqʼa/ you wrote it for me. In Grammar, a preposition is a Part of speech that introduces a prepositional phrase. Semantics is the study of meaning in communication The word derives from Greek σημαντικός ( semantikos) "significant" from Although not widely accepted in Linguistics, the term preverb is used in Caucasian (including all three families Northwest Caucasian, However, there are a few postpositions: /səʁʷa səgʲaatɕʼ/ like me; /aχʲəlaaq/ near the prince.
(Dumézil 1975 passim) A past-present-future distinction of verb tense exists (the suffixes -/qʼa/ and -/awt/ represent past and future) and an imperfective aspect suffix is also found (-/jtʼ/, which can combine with tense suffixes). The past tense is a Verb tense expressing action activity state or being in the past of the current moment (in an Absolute tense system or prior Present Tense is the first Sagittarius album released in 1968 by Columbia Records. In Grammar, the future tense is a verb form that marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet but expected to happen in the future (in an Absolute tense The imperfective aspect is a Grammatical aspect. It refers to an action that is viewed from a particular viewpoint as ongoing habitual repeated or generally containing internal In Linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a Verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof in the described event or state Dynamic and stative verbs are contrasted, as in Arabic, and verbs have several nominal forms. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language In Linguistics, “gerund” is a term used to refer to various non-finite verb forms in various languages As applied to English, Morphological causatives are not uncommon. A causative form in Linguistics, is an expression of an agent causing or forcing a patient to perform an action (or to be in a certain condition The conjunctions and and but are usually given with verb suffixes, but there is also a free particle for each:
Pronominal benefactives are also part of the verbal complex, marked with the preverb /χʲa/-, but a benefactive cannot normally appear on a verb that has three agreement prefixes already. The benefactive case ( abbreviated BEN) is a case used where English would use "for" "for the benefit of"
Gender only appears as part of the second person paradigm, and then only at the speaker's discretion. Gender comprises a range of differences between men and women extending from the biological to the social Grammatical person, in Linguistics, is deictic reference to a participant in an event such as the speaker the Addressee, or others The feminine second person index is /χa/-, which behaves like other pronominal prefixes: /wəsχʲantʷən/ he gives (it) to you (normal; gender-neutral) for me, but compare /χasχʲantʷən/ he gives (it) to you (feminine) for me.
Questions may be marked grammatically, using verb suffixes or prefixes:
Other types of questions, involving the pronouns where and what, may also be marked only in the verbal complex: /maawkʲʼanəj/ where are you going?, /saawqʼaqʼajtʼəj/ what had you said?
Many local, prepositional, and other functions are provided by preverbal elements providing a large series of applicatives, and it is in this that Ubykh is hideously complex. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States In Linguistics, an auxiliary (also called helping verb, helper verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary) is a Verb functioning A question may be either a linguistic expression used to make a request for Information, or else the request itself made by such an expression Although not widely accepted in Linguistics, the term preverb is used in Caucasian (including all three families Northwest Caucasian, The applicative voice is a Grammatical voice which promotes an oblique argument of a Verb to the (core patient argument and indicates the oblique Two main types of preverbal elements exist in Ubykh: determinants and preverbs. The number of preverbs is limited, and mainly show location and direction. Direction is the information contained in the relative position of one point with respect to another point without the Distance information The number of determinants is also limited, but the class is more open; some determinant prefixes include /tʃa/- with regard to a horse and /ɬa/- with regard to the foot or base of an object. In Linguistics, an open class (or open word class) is a Word class that accepts the addition of new items through such processes as compounding
For simple locations, there are a number of possibilities that can be encoded with preverbs, including (but not limited to):
There is also a separate directional preverb meaning towards the speaker: j-, which occupies a separate slot in the verbal complex. However, preverbs can have meanings that would take up entire phrases in English. The preverb /jtɕʷʼaa/- signifies on the earth or in the earth, for instance: /ʁadja ajtɕʷʼaanaaɬqʼa/ they buried his body (lit. they put his body in the earth). Even more narrowly, the preverb /faa/- signifies that an action is done out of, into or with regard to a fire: /amdʒan zatʃətʃaqʲa faastχʷən/ I take a brand out of the fire.
Ubykh syllables have a strong tendency to be CV, although VC and CVC also exist. A syllable ( Greek:) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds Consonant clusters are not as large as in Abzhui Abkhaz or in Georgian, rarely being larger than two terms. In Linguistics, a consonant cluster (or consonant blend) is a group of Consonants which have no intervening Vowel. Abkhaz is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken mainly in Abkhazia and Turkey by the Abkhaz people. Georgian (ka ქართული ენა kartuli ena) is the Official language of Georgia, a country in the Caucasus. Three-term clusters exist in two words - /ndʁa/ sun and /psta/ to swell up, but the latter is a loan from Adyghe, and the former more often pronounced /nədʁa/ when it appears alone. Compounding plays a large part in Ubykh and, indeed, in all Northwest Caucasian semantics. In Linguistics, a compound is a Lexeme (less precisely a Word) that consists of more than one stem. Semantics is the study of meaning in communication The word derives from Greek σημαντικός ( semantikos) "significant" from There is no verb to love, for instance; one says I love you as /tʂʼanə wəzbjan/ I see you well.
Reduplication occurs in some roots, often those with onomatopoeic values (/χˁaχˁa/ to curry(comb) from /χˁa/ to scrape; /kʼərkʼər/, to cluck like a chicken (a loan from Adyghe); /warqwarq/, to croak like a frog). Reduplication, in Linguistics, is a morphological Process by which the root or stem of a Word, or part of it is repeated Onomatopoeia (also spelled onomatopœia, from Greek: ονοματοποιΐα is a Word or a grouping of words that imitates the sound it is describing
Roots and affixes can be as small as one phoneme. The word /wantʷaan/ they give you to him, for instance, contains six phonemes, and each is a separate morpheme:
However, some words may be as long as seven syllables (although these are usually compounds): /ʂəqʷʼawəɕaɬaadətʃa/ staircase. A syllable ( Greek:) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds
As with all other languages, Ubykh is replete with idioms. An idiom is a Phrase whose meaning cannot be deduced from the literal Definition, but refers instead to a figurative meaning that is known only The word /ntʷa/ door, for instance, is an idiom meaning either magistrate, court or government. However, idiomatic constructions are even more common in Ubykh than in most other languages; the representation of abstract ideas with series of concrete elements is a characteristic of the Northwest Caucasian family. I love you translates literally as I see you well; you please me is literally you cut my heart. The term /wərəs/ Russian, a Turkish loan, has come to be a slang term meaning infidel, non-Muslim or enemy (see section History).
The majority of loanwords in Ubykh are derived from either Adyghe or Turkish, with smaller numbers from Persian, Abkhaz and the South Caucasian languages. Abkhaz is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken mainly in Abkhazia and Turkey by the Abkhaz people. The South Caucasian languages (also known as Ibero-Caucasian or Kartvelian) are spoken primarily in Georgia, with smaller groups of speakers in Turkey Towards the end of Ubykh's life, a large influx of Adyghe words was noted; Vogt (1963) notes a few hundred examples. The phonemes /g/ /k/ /kʼ/ were borrowed from Turkish and Adyghe. /ɬʼ/ also appears to be an Adyghe loan, although at a greater time depth. It is possible, too, that /ɣ/ is a loan from Adyghe, since most of the few words with this phoneme are obvious Adyghe loans: /paaɣa/ proud, /ɣa/ testis.
Many loanwords have Ubykh equivalents, but were dwindling in usage under the influence of Turkish, Circassian and Russian equivalents:
Some words, usually much older ones, are borrowed from less influential stock: Colarusso (1994) sees /χˁʷa/ pig as a borrowing from a proto-Semitic *huka, and /agʲarə/ slave from an Iranian root. The Semitic languages are a Language family whose living representatives are spoken by more than 467 million people across much of the Middle East, The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family and its subfamily Indo-Iranian.
In the scheme of Northwest Caucasian evolution, despite its parallels with Abkhaz, Ubykh forms a separate third branch of the family. It has fossilised palatal class markers where all other Northwest Caucasian languages preserve traces of an original labial class: the Ubykh word for heart, /gʲə/, corresponds to the reflex /gʷə/ in Abkhaz, Abaza, Kabardian and Adyghe. Ubykh also possesses groups of pharyngealised consonants otherwise found in the Northwest Caucasian family only in some dialects of Abkhaz and Abaza. All other NWC languages possess true pharyngeal consonants, but Ubykh is the only language to use pharyngealisation as a feature of secondary articulation.
With regard to the other languages of the family, Ubykh is closer to Abkhaz than to any other member, but shares many features with Adyghe due to geographic and cultural influence; many Ubykh speakers were bilingual in Ubykh and Adyghe.
While not many dialects of Ubykh existed, one divergent dialect of Ubykh has been noted (in Dumézil 1965:266-269). A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of Grammatically, it is similar to standard Ubykh, but has a very different sound system, which had collapsed into just 62-odd phonemes:
Ubykh was spoken in the eastern coast of the Black Sea around Sochi until 1864, when the Ubykhs were driven out of the region by the Russians. The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey Sochi (Сочи ˈsotɕɪ is a Russian Resort city, situated in Krasnodar Krai just north of the southern Russian border Year 1864 ( MDCCCLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending They eventually came to settle in Turkey, founding the villages of Hacı Osman, Kırkpınar, Masukiye and Hacı Yakup. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Hacı Osman köyü is a small village in Manyas district of Balıkesir Province, Turkey. Turkish and Circassian eventually became the preferred languages for everyday communication, and many words from these languages entered Ubykh in that period. Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages.
The Ubykh language died out on October 7, 1992, when its last fluent speaker (Tevfik Esenç) died in his sleep. According to some definitions an extinct language is a Language which no longer has any speakers, whereas a dead language is a language which is no longer spoken Events 3761 BC - The epoch (origin of the modern Hebrew calendar ( Proleptic Julian calendar) Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Tevfik Esenç (1904 &ndash October 7, 1992) was a Circassian exile in Turkey and the last known speaker of the Ubykh language. Fortunately, before that time thousands of pages of material and many audio recordings had been collected and collated by a number of linguists, including Georges Charachidzé, Georges Dumézil, Hans Vogt and George Hewitt, with the help of some of its last speakers, particularly Tevfik Esenç and Huseyin Kozan. Georges Dumézil ( March 4, 1898 – October 11, 1986) was a French comparative Philologist best known for his analysis of Sovereignty Hans Vogt ( June 1, 1903 – September 25, 1986) was a Norwegian linguist specialized in the Caucasian languages, especially Ubykh was never written by its speech community, but a few phrases were transcribed by Evliya Celebi in his Seyahatname, and a substantial portion of the oral literature, along with some cycles of the Nart saga, was transcribed. A written language is the representation of a Language by means of a Writing system. Evliya Çelebi (اوليا چلبي the son of the imperial goldsmith Derviş Mehmed Zılli ( March 25 (? 1611 &ndash 1682 was the most famous Ottoman Seyâhatnâme (سياحت نامه is a Persian term also used in Ottoman Turkish, which means Book of travels, denoting a literary form and tradition Nart Podlaskie VoivodeshipThe Nart sagas are a series of tales originating from the North Caucasus. Tevfik Esenç also eventually learned to write Ubykh in the transcription that Dumézil devised.
Julius von Mészáros, a Hungarian linguist, visited Turkey in 1930 and took down some notes on Ubykh. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Year 1930 ( MCMXXX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. His work Die Päkhy-Sprache was extensive and accurate to the extent allowed by his transcription system (which could not represent all the phonemes of Ubykh), and marked the foundation of Ubykh linguistics. Die Päkhy-Sprache is the title of a treatise on the Ubykh language, written by Gyula Mészáros and published in 1934 by the University of Chicago
The Frenchman Georges Dumézil also visited Turkey in 1930 to record some Ubykh, and would eventually become the most celebrated Ubykh linguist of all time. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Georges Dumézil ( March 4, 1898 – October 11, 1986) was a French comparative Philologist best known for his analysis of Sovereignty He published a collection of Ubykh folktales in the late 1950s, and the language soon attracted the attention of linguists for its small number (two) of phonemic vowels. The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive Hans Vogt, a Norwegian, produced a monumental dictionary that, in spite of its many errors (later corrected by Dumézil), is still one of the masterpieces and essential tools of Ubykh linguistics. Hans Vogt ( June 1, 1903 – September 25, 1986) was a Norwegian linguist specialized in the Caucasian languages, especially Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional A dictionary is a book of alphabetically listed Words in a specific language with definitions etymologies pronunciations and other information or a book of alphabetically
Later in the 1960s and into the early 1970s, Dumézil published a series of papers on Ubykh etymology in particular and Northwest Caucasian etymology in general. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. Etymology is the study of the History of Words &mdash when they entered a language from what source and how their form and meaning have changed over time Dumézil's book Le Verbe Oubykh (1975), a comprehensive account of the verbal and nominal morphology of the language, is another cornerstone of Ubykh linguistics. Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Since the 1980s, Ubykh linguistics has slowed drastically. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields No other major treatises have been published; however, the Dutch linguist Rieks Smeets is currently trying to compile a new Ubykh dictionary based on Vogt's 1963 book, and a similar project is also underway in Australia. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Ubykh themselves have shown interest in relearning their language.
People who have published literature on Ubykh include
All examples from Dumézil 1968. See external link below for audio.
/faaχʲa tʼqʷʼa. kʷabʒa kʲʼaʁə. n a. za. χʲa. ʃə. na. n a. mʁʲa. n gʲə. kʲa. qʼa. n. /
once two. man friend. ADV they. In Grammar an adverbial is a word (an Adverb) or a group of words (an adverbial Phrase or an adverbial Clause) that modifies or tells us something each-other. BEN. The benefactive case ( abbreviated BEN) is a case used where English would use "for" "for the benefit of" become. PL. Plural is a Grammatical number, typically referring to more than one of the Referent in the real world ADV the. road. OBL on. An oblique case (casus generalis in Linguistics is a Noun case of Synthetic languages that is used generally when a Noun is the object enter(PL). past. PL
Once, two men set out together on the road.
/a. f. awtə. nə mʁʲawəf a. χʷad(a). awtə. n a. kʲa. na. n, a. za. n fatɕʼ. aala ɕʷəbˁ(a). aala χʷada. qʼa,/
they. eat. FUT. In Grammar, the future tense is a verb form that marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet but expected to happen in the future (in an Absolute tense ADV provisions they. buy. FUT. ADV they. enter(PL). PL. ADV the. one. ERG cheese. The ergative case is the Grammatical case that identifies the subject of a Transitive verb in Ergative-absolutive languages In such languages and bread. and buy. PAST
They went to buy some provisions for the journey; the one bought cheese and bread,
/ajdə. χə. n. gʲə ɕʷəbˁ(a). aala ps(a). aala χʷada. n a. j. nə. w. qʼa. /
other. of. ERG. and bread. and fish. and buy. ADV it. hither. he. bring. past
and the other bought bread and fish.
/a. mʁʲa. n gʲə. kʲa. na. gʲə,/
the. road. OBL on. enter(PL). PL. GER
While they were on the road,
/wa. In Linguistics, “gerund” is a term used to refer to various non-finite verb forms in various languages As applied to English, fatɕʼ. də. χʷada. qʼajtʼ. ə ʁa. kʲʼaʁ. ʁaafa "ɕʷəʁʷaɬa psa jada ɕʷ. f. aa. n;"/
that. cheese. REL. A relative clause is a Subordinate clause that modifies a Noun. buy. PLUP. The pluperfect tense (from Latin plus quam perfectum more than perfect also called past perfect in English, is a Perfective GER his. friend. towards you-all fish much you-all. eat. PL. PRES
the one who had bought the cheese asked the other, "You people eat a lot of fish;"
/"saaba wana. Present Tense is the first Sagittarius album released in 1968 by Columbia Records. n. gʲaafə psa ɕʷ. f. aa. nə. j?" qʼa. n ʁ(a). aa. dzʁa. qʼa. /
why that. OBL. as-much-as fish you-all. eat. PL. PRES. QU say. A question may be either a linguistic expression used to make a request for Information, or else the request itself made by such an expression ADV him. to. ask. past
"why do you eat fish as much as that?"
/"psa wə. fə. ba wə. tɕʼa jada ʃ. awt,"/
fish you. eat. if your. knowledge much become. FUT
"If you eat fish, you get smarter,"
/"wana. ʁaafa ʃəʁʷaɬa psa jada ʃ. fə. n," qʼa. qʼa. /
that. for we fish much we. eat. PRES say. PAST
"so we eat a lot of fish," he answered.