|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Inscription||1984 (8th Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.|
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
Tyre (Arabic صور Ṣūr, Phoenician Ṣur, Hebrew צור Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew צר Ṣōr, Akkadian Ṣurru, Greek Τύρος Týros, Turkish: Sur) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex As of 2008 there are a total of 878 World Heritage Sites located in 145 "State Parties" Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region then called Pūt in Ancient Egyptian Canaan in Phoenician, Hebrew, and Tiberian Hebrew is an extinct (yet very well documented Oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. South Governorate (الجنوب transliterated: Al-Janub) is one of the governorates of Lebanon. Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية There were approximately 117,000 inhabitants in 2003, however, the government of Lebanon has released only rough estimates of population numbers since 1932, so an accurate statistical accounting is not possible.  Tyre juts out from the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and it is located about 80 km (50 mi) south of Beirut. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States Beirut (بيروت Bayrūt) is the Capital and Largest city of Lebanon with a population of over 2 The name of the city means "rock" . In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere The adjective for Tyre is Tyrian, and the inhabitants are Tyrians.
Tyre is an ancient Phoenician city and the legendary birthplace of Europa and Elissa (Dido). Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun Europa ( Greek Εὐρώπη was a Phoenician woman of high lineage in Greek mythology, from whom the name of the Continent Europe Dido was according to Greek and Roman sources the founder and first Queen of Carthage (in modern-day Tunisia) Today it is the fourth largest city in Lebanon  and houses one of the nation's major ports known locally in French as Soûr. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Tyre is a popular destination for tourists. The city has many ancient sites, including its Roman Hippodrome which was added to UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 1979 (Resolution 459). A Hippodrome (Gr from hippos, horse and dromos, race course was a course provided by the Greeks for Horse racing and Chariot racing United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) 
"The location of the city of Tyre is not in doubt, for it exists to this day on the same spot and is known as Sur. For the sports arena in Philadelphia (Pennsylvania see Palestra. "  Tyre originally consisted of two distinct urban centers, one on an island and the other on the adjacent coast (approximately 30 stadia apart or 3. Stadia can refer to The plural of Stadium. Stadia rod, a surveyors instrument 5 miles according to Strabo in his Geography xvi, 2), before Alexander the Great connected the island to the coast during his siege of the city. Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' One was a heavily fortified island city amidst the sea (with defensive walls 150 feet high and the latter, originally called Ushu (later, Palaetyrus, by the Greeks) was actually more like a line of suburbs than any one city and was used primarily as a source of water and timber for the main island city. Ushu, (and Amarna letters Usu) is the name of the ancient mainland city that supplied Tyre Lebanon with water supplies and burial grounds  Josephus even records them fighting against each other , although most of the time they supported one another due to the island city’s wealth from maritime trade and the mainland area’s source of timber, water and burial grounds. Josephus (AD 37 – c 100 also known as Yosef Ben Matityahu (Joseph son of Matthias and after he became a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus
Tyre was founded around 2750 BC according to Herodotus and it appears on monuments as early as 1300 BC. The 28th century BC is a Century which lasted from the year 2800 BC to 2701 BC Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash Philo of Byblos (in Eusebius) quotes the antiquarian authority Sanchuniathon as stating that it was first occupied by one Hypsuranius. The more famous Philo of Alexandria (20 BCE-40 CE was an educated Hellenized Jewish philosopher Sanchuniathon is the purported Phoenician author of three lost works originally in the Phoenician language, surviving only in partial paraphrase and summary of a Sanchuniathon's work is said to be dedicated to "Abibalus king of Berytus" -- possibly the Abibaal who was king of Tyre. 
Amarna letters Tyre, of 1350 BC has a body of letters-(9, detailed) from the mayor: Abi-Milku written to Akenaten. The Amarna letters (sometimes "Amarna correspondence" or "Amarna tablets" are an archive of correspondence on Clay tablets mostly diplomatic Abi-Milku was the only mayor/ruler of Tyre Lebanon -(called Surru in the letters during the 1350 - 1335 BC Amarna letters Akhenaten (often alt: Akhnaten, or rarely Ikhnaton) (In English ˌɑkəˡnɑtən or approximately "AHK-en-AHT-en" his royal name Amenhotep The subject is often water, wood, and the Habiru overtaking the countryside, of the mainland, and how it affected the island-city. Habiru (Ha biru or Apiru or prw (Egyptianwas the name given by various Sumerian Egyptian, Akkadian Hittite, Mitanni
The commerce of the ancient world was gathered into the warehouses of Tyre. "Tyrian merchants were the first who ventured to navigate the Mediterranean waters; and they founded their colonies on the coasts and neighbouring islands of the Aegean Sea, in Greece, on the northern coast of Africa, at Carthage and other places, in Sicily and Corsica, in Spain at Tartessus, and even beyond the pillars of Hercules at Gadeira (Cádiz)" In the time of King David (c. This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Corsica (Corse Corsican and Italian: Corsica) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Tartessos (also Tartessus) was a harbor city and its surrounding culture on the south coast of the The Pillars of Hercules was the phrase that was applied in Antiquity to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar. Cádiz ( Spanish:) is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the province of the same name, a province which is one of eight David, Arabic: داوود or داود dawud, "beloved" was the second king of the united Kingdom of Israel according to the Hebrew Bible 1000 BC), a friendly alliance was entered into between the Kingdoms of Israel and Tyre, which was ruled by Hiram I. Judea is a term used for the mountainous southern part of the historic Land of Israel. The city of Tyre was particularly known for the production of a rare and extraordinarily expensive sort of purple dye, produced from the murex shellfish, known as Tyrian purple. Purple is a general term for the range of shades of Color occurring between Red and Blue. A dye can generally be described as a Colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied Murex is a Genus of medium to large sized Predatory tropical sea Snails These are carnivorous marine Gastropod This color was, in many cultures of ancient times, reserved for the use of royalty, or at least nobility.
It was often attacked by Egypt, besieged by Shalmaneser V, who was assisted by the Phoenicians of the mainland, for five years, and by Nebuchadnezzar (586–573 BC) for thirteen years, without success, although a compromise peace was made in which Tyre paid tribute to the Babylonians. Shalmaneser V ( Akkadian: akk Šulmanu-ašarid) was King of Assyria from 727 to 722 BC Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun Nebuchadrezzar II, more often called Nebuchadnezzar (c 630-562 BC was a ruler of Babylon in the Chaldean Dynasty, who reigned c Events and trends 589 BC — Apries succeeds Psammetichus II as king of Egypt. Events and trends 579 BC — Servius Tullius succeeds the assassinated Lucius Tarquinius Priscus as the sixth King of Rome. A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or as was often case in historical contexts of submission It later fell under the power of the Persians. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia
In 332 BC, the city was conquered by Alexander the Great, after a siege of seven months in which he built the causeway from the mainland to the island, but it continued to maintain much of its commercial importance until the Christian era. Events By place Persian Empire The Persian King Darius III twice sends Alexander letters of friendship Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' In 332 BC, Alexander the Great set out to conquer Tyre, a strategic coastal base in the war between the Greeks and the Persians. In modern usage a causeway is a road or railway elevated by a bank usually across a broad Body of water or Wetland. The presence of the causeway affected water currents nearby, causing sediment to build up, making the connection permanent.
In 315 BC, Alexander's former general Antigonus begins his own siege of Tyre , taking the city a year later . Events By place Macedonian Empire Antigonus claims authority over most of Asia seizes the treasury at Susa and enters Babylon Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed" (382 BC - 301 BC son of Philip from Elimeia, was a Macedonian nobleman general and Satrap
In 126 BC, Tyre regained its independence (from the Seleucids) and was allowed to keep much of its independence when the area became a Roman province in 64 BC . The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i
A congregation was founded here soon after the death of Saint Stephen, and Paul of Tarsus, on his return from his third missionary journey, spent a week in conversation with the disciples there. Paul the apostle (שאול התרסי Šaʾul HaTarsi, meaning " Saul of Tarsus " Σαούλ Saul and Σαῦλος Saulos and According to Irenaeus of Lyons in Adversus Haereses, the female companion of Simon Magus came from here. Saint Irenaeus (Greek Ειρηναίος (2nd century AD - c 202 was Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, Roman Empire (now Lyons France On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis ( commonly called Against Heresies (Latin Adversus haereses,) is a five-volume work Simon Magus ( Greek Σίμων ό μάγος also known as Simon the Sorcerer and Simon of Gitta, is the name used by early Christian writers
It was captured in 1124 after the First Crusade and was one of the most important cities of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of conquering the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land and freeing This article is about the Christian kingdom For the history of the city see History of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian It was part of the royal domain, although there were also autonomous trading colonies there for the Italian merchant cities. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The city was the site of the archbishop of Tyre, a suffragan of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem; its archbishops often acceded to the Patriarchate. The Archbishop of Tyre was one of the major suffragans of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem during the Crusades and was established to serve the Catholic members of The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is the title given to the Latin Rite Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem The most notable of the Latin archbishops was the historian William of Tyre. This article is about the Archbishop/historian from the 1100s
After the reconquest of Acre by King Richard on July 12th, 1191, the seat of the kingdom moved there, but coronations were held in Tyre. In the 13th century, Tyre was separated from the royal domain as a separate crusader lordship. The Crusader state of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, created in 1099, was divided into a number of smaller seigneuries In 1291, it was retaken by the Mameluks which then was followed by Ottoman rule before the modern state of Lebanon was declared in 1920. Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar
Tyre was badly damaged in the late 1970s (Operation Litani) and early 1980s (1982 Lebanon War) during the war between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). The Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict adopted at The Hague ( Netherlands) on May 14, 1954 Background See also Israel-Lebanon conflict Though it took the form of an Israeli military incursion into Southern Lebanon, Operation Litani was grounded The 1982 Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון Milhemet Levanon) (الإجتياح Al-Ijtīāḥ, "the invasion" called by Israel the Operation Peace For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The Palestine Liberation Organization ( PLO) (منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a political and paramilitary The city was used as a base by the PLO, and was nearly destroyed by Israeli artillery.  After Israel's 1982 invasion of southern Lebanon, the city was the site of an Israeli military post. In late 1982, and again on November 1983, buildings housing Israeli headquarters were destroyed by bombs, causing dozens of deaths in both cases and known in Israel as the First and Second Tyre Catastrophes. The 1983 explosion, by a suicide truck, happened only 10 days after similar car bombs exploded in the US Marines and French paratroop barracks in Beirut. A car bomb is an explosive device placed in a car or other Vehicle and then detonated. The Beirut barracks bombing was a major incident on October 23, 1983, during the Lebanese Civil War. Beirut (بيروت Bayrūt) is the Capital and Largest city of Lebanon with a population of over 2 Israel and the US blame Iran and Hezbollah for all explosions, but they have denied any involvement. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Hezbollah (حزب الله, literally " party of God " is a Shi'a Islamic political and Paramilitary organisation
During the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict, several rocket-launching sites used by Hezbollah to attack Israel were located in rural areas around the city. Background See also Israel-Lebanon conflict The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO had engaged in cross-border attacks from Southern Lebanon Hezbollah (حزب الله, literally " party of God " is a Shi'a Islamic political and Paramilitary organisation  At least one village near the city was bombed by Israel, as well as several sites within the city, causing civilian deaths, and adding to the food shortage problem inside Tyre.  Israeli naval commandos also raided Hezbollah targets within the city. Shayetet 13 (שייטת 13 lit Flotilla 13 is the Israel Defense Forces naval Special forces unit 
Today, Tyre is a predominantly Shi'a Muslim city with a small but noticeable Christian community. The Amal Movement and Hezbollah are the most popular parties, representing all of the Shi'a seats in the city as of the 2005 elections.
Tyre was also referred to many times by the poet Tibullus in the three books of poetry entitled Tibullus: Elegies. Albius Tibullus (ca 54-19 BC was a Latin Poet and writer of elegies. It is also frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon.
Tyre is also prominently featured in the Shakespeare play, "Pericles, Prince of Tyre. William Shakespeare ( baptised Pericles Prince of Tyre is a play written at least in part by William Shakespeare and included in modern editions of his collected works despite questions "
Tyre In nineteenth century Britain, Tyre was several times taken as an exemplar of the mortality of great power and status - both by John Ruskin in the opening lines of The Stones of Venice, and by Rudyard Kipling's 'Recessional'. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located "Exemplars" directs here For the superpowered comic book team see Exemplars (comics. John Ruskin (8 February 1819 &ndash 20 January 1900 is best known for his work as an Art critic, sage writer, and Social critic, but is remembered The Stones of Venice is John Ruskin 's original three-volume masterpiece on Venetian art and architecture, first published from 1851-53 Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936 was an English Author and poet " Recessional " is a poem by Rudyard Kipling, which he composed on the occasion of Queen Victoria 's Diamond Jubilee in 1897. Oscar Wilde referred to Tyre in his poetry: ". Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900 was an Irish Playwright, Novelist, poet and Author of . . my tyrian galley waits for thee, come down the purple sail is spread. . . " The children's writer E. Nesbit devotes a chapter to Tyre in Five Children and It. Edith Nesbit (married name Edith Bland; 15 August 1858 - 4 May 1924) was an English author and poet whose children's Five Children and It is a children's novel by Edith Nesbit, first published in 1902 it was expanded from a series of stories published in the Strand Magazine
Hiram Abiff, a central figure in the mythology and symbolism of Freemasonry, and the man believed to have been chief architect of the Temple of Solomon, is said to have hailed from Tyre. Hiram Abiff is a character who figures prominently in an allegorical play that is presented during the third degree of Craft Freemasonry. In the Old Testament of the Bible, a man named Hiram, king of Tyre is thought to be the same person.
The Old Testament makes other references to Tyre. In the Book of Ezekiel, Ezekiel is told to prophesy about Tyre's demise. The Book of Ezekiel is a book of the Hebrew Bible (of the Books of the Bible) named after the prophet Ezekiel. According to religious texts Ezekiel ((יְחֶזְקֵאל Yehezkel, jəx The Old Testament also mentions some cultural facts on Tyre during that time.
Main colonnaded street at Al Mina excavation site
Al Mina excavation area - supposed Roman Agora
a typical narrow street in the Christian quarter
The Broken battlements of Tyre are mentioned in Bohemian Grove rituals. Bohemian Grove is a campground located at 20601 Bohemian Avenue in Monte Rio, California, belonging to a private San Francisco -based men's art club known
This entry incorporates text from the public domain Easton's Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897.