|- Ranked||5th (7. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany The Democrats of the Left ( Democratici di Sinistra, DS was a left-wing Italian political party and part of the Olive Tree electoral coalition The Union ( Italian: L'Unione) was an Italian Centre-left Political party coalition led by Romano Prodi, the In Italy, a Province (in Italian provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between Municipality ( Comune Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of These are ranked lists of the regions of Italy. Population figures are from 2001 6 %)|
|Population (2006 est. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology )|
|- Ranked||9th (6. These are ranked lists of the regions of Italy. Population figures are from 2001 1 %)|
Tuscany (Italian: Toscana) is one of the twenty regions of Italy. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. It has an area of 22,990 km² and a population of about 3. 6 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany
Tuscany is known for its landscapes and its artistic legacy. Six Tuscan localities have been UNESCO protected sites: the historical center of Florence (1982), the historical center of Siena (1995), the square of the Cathedral of Pisa (1987), the historical center of San Gimignano (1990), the historical center of Pienza (1996) and the Val d'Orcia (2004). A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Siena. The Piazza del Duomo ("Cathedral Square" is a wide walled area at the heart of the city of Pisa, Tuscany San Gimignano is a small walled medieval Hill town in the Province of Siena, Tuscany, north-central Italy. Pienza, a town and commune in the Province of Siena, in the Val d'Orcia in Tuscany (central Italy between the towns of Montepulciano and The Val d’Orcia, or Valdorcia, is a region of Tuscany, central Italy, which extends from the hills south of Siena to Monte
Tuscany is a region of Central Italy, bordering Emilia-Romagna to the north, Liguria to the north-west, Tyrrhenian Sea to the west, Umbria and Marche to the east, Lazio to the south-east. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The capital is Bologna. Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions The Tyrrhenian Sea (Mar Tirreno is part of the Mediterranean Sea off of the western coast of Italy. Umbria is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The capital is Perugia. The Marche (plural originally from le marche de Ancona, referring to the March of Ancona) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. For the football club see SS Lazio Lazio ( Latium in Latin) is a regione of central The territory is two thirds hilly and one fourth mountainous. The remainder is constituted of the plains that form the valley of the Arno River.
Tuscany is divided into ten provinces:
The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the late Bronze and Iron Ages parallels that of the early Greeks. The Villanovan culture was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca  The Tuscan area was inhabited by peoples of the so-called Apennine culture in the late second millennium BC (roughly 1350–1150 BC) who had trading relationships with the Minoan and Mycenaean civilisations in the Aegean Sea. The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. Mycenaean Greece is a cultural period of ancient Greece taking its name from the archaeological site of Mycenae in northeastern Argolis, in the Peloponnese Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean.  Following this the Villanovan culture (1100–700 BC) came about which saw Tuscany, and the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms (as was also the case at this time in France and the Aegean after the collapse of Mycenae and Troy). The Villanovan culture was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly A chiefdom is a type of complex society of varying degrees of centralization that is led by an individual known as a chief.  City-states developed in the late Villanovan (again paralleling Greece and the Aegean) before "Orientalization" occurred and the Etruscan civilisation rose. A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. 
The Etruscans were the first major civilization in this region of Italy; large enough to lay down a transport infrastructure, implement agriculture and mining, and produce vivid art. Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to the culture and way of life of a people of ancient Italy Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to the culture and way of life of a people of ancient Italy A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body  The people who formed the civilization lived in the area (called Etruria) well into prehistory. Etruria &mdash usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia &mdash was a region of Central Italy, located in an area  The civilisation grew to fill the area between the rivers Arno and Tiber from the eighth century, reaching their peak during the seventh and sixth centuries BC, and finally ceded all power and territory to the Romans by the first century. The Tiber ( Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest River in Italy, rising in the Apennine mountains The 7th century BC started the first day of 700 BC and ended the last day of 601 BC. The 6th century BC started the first day of 600 BC and ended the last day of 501 BC. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC  Throughout their existence, they lost territory to the surrounding civilisations of Magna Graecia, Carthage and Gaul. Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western  Despite being described as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks, the cultures of Greece, and later Rome, influenced the civilisation to a great extent. The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions One of the reasons for its eventual demise was this increasing lack of cultural distinction, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans. 
Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa, Siena, and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, and ensured peace. Lucca is a city in Tuscany, northern central Italy, situated on the river Serchio in a fertile plain near (but not on the Ligurian Sea Pisa is a city in Tuscany, central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the Arno River on the Ligurian Sea. Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Siena. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany  These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, and the construction of many buildings, both public and private.  The Roman civilization in the West finally collapsed in the fifth century and the region was left by the Goths, and others. The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s In the sixth century, the Longobards arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their Duchy of Tuscia. The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from Lucca is a city in Tuscany, northern central Italy, situated on the river Serchio in a fertile plain near (but not on the Ligurian Sea Tuscia is a historical region of Italy that comprised the southern territories under Etruscan influence 
With pilgrims travelling along the Via Francigena between Rome and France came wealth and development during the mediæval period. The March (or margraviate) of Tuscany or Tuscia was a frontier march in Central Italy, bordering the Papal States to the A pilgrim is one who undertakes a Pilgrimage, literally 'far afield' The Via Francigena is an ancient road between Rome and Canterbury, passing through England, France, Switzerland and Italy Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.  The food and shelter needed by these travellers fuelled the growth of new communities around churches and taverns.  The conflict between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, factions supporting, respectively, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in central and northern Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries, split the Tuscan people. The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting respectively the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in central and northern Italy History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest  These two factors gave rise to several powerful and rich communes in Tuscany: Arezzo, Florence, Lucca, Pisa, and Siena. Communes in Europe in the Middle Ages were sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms among community members of a town or city Arezzo ( Latin Arretium) is a city in central Italy, capital of the province of the same name, located in Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Lucca is a city in Tuscany, northern central Italy, situated on the river Serchio in a fertile plain near (but not on the Ligurian Sea Pisa is a city in Tuscany, central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the Arno River on the Ligurian Sea. Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Siena.  The balance between these communes were ensured by the assets they held; Pisa, a port; Siena, banking; and Lucca, banking and silk.  By the renaissance, however, Florence succeeded in becoming the cultural capital of Tuscany. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere 
Tuscany is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance movement, and its artistic heritage includes architecture, painting and sculpture, collected in dozens of museums in towns and cities across the region. The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e A museum is a "permanent institution in the service of society and of its development open to the public which acquires conserves researches communicates and exhibits the Perhaps the best-known are the Uffizi, the Accademia and the Bargello in Florence. The Uffizi Gallery (Galleria degli Uffizi one of the oldest and most famous Art Museums in the world is housed in the Palazzo degli Uffizi, a The Accademia is best known now as a museum gallery of pre-1800s art in Venice, Italy. For the type of embroidery see Bargello (needlework. The Bargello, also known as the Bargello Palace or Palazzo del Popolo Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Tuscany was the birthplace of Dante Alighieri ("the father of the Italian language"), Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Botticelli. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all
In the 1400s, the rulers of Florence, the Medicis, annexed surrounding lands to create modern-day Tuscany. The War of Polish Succession in the 1730s, however, ended in the transfer of Tuscany from the Medicis to Francis, the Hapsburg Duke of Lorraine, who would become Holy Roman Emperor. The War of the Polish Succession ( 1733 - 1738) was sparked by a Polish Civil war over the succession to Augustus II, King of Poland The rulers of Lorraine have held different posts under different governments over different regions The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire by Napoleon, Tuscany was inherited by the successor to the Holy Roman Empire, namely, the Austrian Empire. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in With the Italian Wars of Independence in the 1850s, Tuscany was transferred from Austria to the newly unified nation of Italy.
Tuscany is known for its wines (most famous of which are Chianti, Brunello di Montalcino, and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano), and has 120 protected nature reserves. Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice Chianti is a famous Red wine of Italy, which takes its name from a traditional region of Tuscany where it is produced Brunello di Montalcino ( brew NEL lo de mon tal CHEE no) is a red Italian wine produced in the Vineyards surrounding the town of Montalcino located Vino Nobile di Montepulciano is a red Wine with Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita status produced in the Vineyards surrounding the town of nature reserve ( natural reserve, nature preserve, natural preserve) is a Protected area of importance for Wildlife, flora Other agricultural products include Chianina cattle (origin of the famous "Fiorentina" steak) and the production of olive oil, principally in Lucca and the surrounding hills. Chianina (pronounced key-a-NEE-na) is an Italian beef breed of Cattle. Lucca is a city in Tuscany, northern central Italy, situated on the river Serchio in a fertile plain near (but not on the Ligurian Sea The industry comprises factories producing Piaggio cars, motorcycles, scooters and aeroplanes, the texile industrial district of Prato, the petrochemical plants of Leghorn and the steel factories of Piombino. Piaggio based in Pontedera, Italy encompasses seven brands producing scooters and motorcycles "Leghorn" redirects here For the breed of chicken see Leghorn chicken.
Tourism is the economic backbone of the so-called "Cities of Art" (Florence, Lucca, Pisa, Siena, San Gimignano), as well as on the coast and in the isles (Elba). Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Lucca is a city in Tuscany, northern central Italy, situated on the river Serchio in a fertile plain near (but not on the Ligurian Sea Pisa is a city in Tuscany, central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the Arno River on the Ligurian Sea. Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Siena. San Gimignano is a small walled medieval Hill town in the Province of Siena, Tuscany, north-central Italy. Elba (Ilva is an island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino. Marble is quarried in the Alpi Apuane (Carrara, Versilia and Massa), in Garfagnana and in Lunigiana. Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of Carrara is a City in the Province of Massa-Carrara ( Tuscany, Italy) famous for the white or blue-gray Marble quarried there Versilia is the name given to an area on the northern coast of Tuscany, in Italy, within the Province of Lucca. Massa is a town and comune in Tuscany, Italy, the administrative centre of the Province of Massa-Carrara. Garfagnana is an historical region of Italy, today part of the province of Lucca in the Apennines in northwest Tuscany, but before the unification of Italy Lunigiana is an historical territory of Italy, which today falls within the provinces of La Spezia and Massa Carrara.
Tuscany is a stronghold of the center-left coalition The Union, forming with Emilia-Romagna, Umbria and Marche the famous Italian political "Red Quadrilateral". The Union ( Italian: L'Unione) was an Italian Centre-left Political party coalition led by Romano Prodi, the Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The capital is Bologna. Umbria is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The capital is Perugia. The Marche (plural originally from le marche de Ancona, referring to the March of Ancona) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. At the April 2006 elections, Tuscany gave more than 61% of its votes to Romano Prodi. In the Italian general election 2006 for the renewal of the two Chambers of the Parliament of Italy held on April 9 and April 10, 2006 (born 9 August 1939 is an Italian politician and statesman He served as President of the Council of Ministers (prime minister of Italy twice from 17 May
In the '80s and '90s the region attracted an intense influx of immigrants, in particular from China and Northern Africa. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National There is also a significant community of British and Americans. As of 2006, the Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated that 215,490 foreign-born immigrants live in Tuscany, equal to 5. 9% of the total regional population.
Towns of Tuscany with a population of 50,000 or more:
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