|Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests|
|Temperate coniferous forests|
|Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests|
|Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests|
|Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests|
|Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands|
|Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands|
|Montane grasslands and shrublands|
|Deserts and xeric shrublands|
|Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub|
In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. A biome is a climatically and geographically defined area of ecologically similar climatic conditions such as communities of Plants Animals and Taiga (ˈtaɪgə from Turkic or Mongolian) is a Biome characterized by Coniferous forests Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests temperate deciduous forest) --> are a Temperate and Humid Biome. Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial Biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF also known as tropical moist forests, are a Tropical and Subtropical Forest The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest Biome, also known as tropical dry forest, is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests are a Forest Biome. Tropical and subtropical grasslands savannas and shrublands are a Grassland Biome located in Semi-arid to semi- Humid Climate regions Temperate grasslands Savannas and shrublands is a Biome whose predominant vegetation consists of Grasses and/or Shrubs The Climate Montane grasslands and shrublands is a Biome defined by the World Wildlife Fund. Mediterranean forests woodlands and shrub is a temperate Biome, characterized by hot dry summers and mild and rainy winters Mangroves (generally are Trees and Shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats in the Tropics and Subtropics. The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each Continent and associated Coastal plain, which is covered during interglacial periods such Littoral refers to the coast of an ocean or sea or to the banks of a river lake or estuary "Riparian" redirects here For the legal doctrine see " Riparian water rights. A pond is a body of water smaller than a Lake, both being examples of Terrain features Although the term pond is universally used to describe waterbodies that Coral reefs are Aragonite structures produced by living organisms found in marine waters with little to no nutrients in the water Kelp forests are underwater areas with a high density of Kelp. Drift ice is Sea ice that floats on the surface of the water in cold regions as opposed to Fast ice, which is attached ("fastened" to a shore A hydrothermal vent is a Fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated Water issues A cold seep (sometimes called a cold vent) is an area of the Ocean floor where Hydrogen sulfide, Methane and other Hydrocarbon -rich The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a Body of water such as an Ocean or a Lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface Any water in the sea that is not close to the bottom is in the pelagic zone. The neritic zone, also called the sublittoral zone, is the part of the ocean extending from the low tide mark to the edge of the Continental shelf, with a relatively An endolith or cryptoendolith is an Organism ( Archaeum, Bacterium, Fungus, Lichen, Alga or Amoeba Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the Earth and its lands features inhabitants and phenomena A tree is a perennial Woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or The term "tundra" comes from Kildin Sami tūndâr 'uplands, tundra, treeless mountain tract'. Kildin Sami (also spelled Sámi or Saami; formerly Lappish) is a Sami language spoken by approximately 500 people on the Kola Peninsula There are two types of tundra: Arctic tundra (which also occurs in Antarctica), and alpine tundra. In tundra, the vegetation is composed of dwarf shrubs, sedges and grasses, mosses, and lichens. In the Arctic, the low Tundra vegetation clothes a landscape of wide vistas lit by the low-angle light characteristic of high latitudes The family Cyperaceae, or the sedges, is a taxon of monocot Flowering plants that superficially resemble grasses or rushes Poaceae or Gramineae is a family in the Class Liliopsida of the flowering plants. Mosses are small soft Plants that are typically 1–10  cm (0 Lichens (ˈlaɪkən or /lɪtʃən/ are symbiotic associations of a Fungus (the mycobiont with a photosynthetic partner (the photobiont also known as Scattered trees grow in some tundra. The ecotone (or ecological boundary region) between the tundra and the forest is known as the tree line or timberline. An ecotone is a transition area between two adjacent ecological communities ( Ecosystems. The tree line or timberline is the edge of the habitat at which Trees are capable of growing
Arctic tundra occurs in the far Northern Hemisphere, north of the taiga belt. Northern Hemisphere is the half of a Planet that is North of the Equator —the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball' Taiga (ˈtaɪgə from Turkic or Mongolian) is a Biome characterized by Coniferous forests The word "tundra" usually refers only to the areas where the subsoil is permafrost, or permanently frozen soil. This article is about frozen ground For other meanings see Permafrost (disambiguation. (It may also refer to the treeless plain in general, so that northern Sápmi would be included. ) Permafrost tundra includes vast areas of northern Russia and Canada . Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The polar tundra is home to several peoples who are mostly nomadic reindeer herders, such as the Nganasan and Nenets in the permafrost area (and the Sami in Sápmi). Nomadic people, (from the νομάδες nomádes, "those who let pasture herds" also known as nomads, are communities of people that Nganasans are one of the indigenous peoples of Siberia. They are the northernmost of the Samoyedic peoples living on the Taymyr Peninsula in the Arctic The Nenets people ( Ethnonym in Nenets language: ненэця Russian name ненцы IPA: (plural--> The Sami people are the Indigenous people of northern Europe inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway
The Arctic tundra is a vast area of stark landscape, which is frozen for much of the year. The soil there is frozen from 25-90 cm (9. 8-35. 4 inches) down, and it is impossible for trees to grow. Instead, bare and sometimes rocky land can only support low growing plants such as moss, heath, and lichen. Mosses are small soft Plants that are typically 1–10  cm (0 Lichens (ˈlaɪkən or /lɪtʃən/ are symbiotic associations of a Fungus (the mycobiont with a photosynthetic partner (the photobiont also known as There are two main seasons, winter and summer, in the polar Tundra areas. During the winter it is very cold and dark, with the average temperature around −28 °C (−18. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. 4 °F), sometimes dipping as low as −50 °C (−58. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 0 °F). However, extreme cold temperatures on the tundra do not drop as low as those experienced in taiga areas further south (for example, Russia's and Canada's lowest temperatures were recorded in locations south of the treeline). During the summer, temperatures rise somewhat, and the top layer of the permafrost melts, leaving the ground very soggy. The tundra is covered in marshes, lakes, bogs and streams during the warm months. Generally daytime temperatures during the summer rise to about 12 °C (54 °F) but can often drop to 3 °C (37 °F) or even below freezing. Arctic tundras are sometimes the subject of habitat conservation programs. A habitat (which is Latin for "it inhabits" is an Ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular Species. The conservation movement also known as nature conservation is a political social and to some extent scientific movement that seeks to protect natural resources including In Canada and Russia, many of these areas are protected through a national Biodiversity Action Plan. This article is about a conservation biology topic For other uses of BAP see BAP (disambiguation.
The tundra is a very windy area, with winds often blowing upwards at 48–97 km/h (30-60 miles an hour). However, in terms of precipitation, it is desert-like, with only about 15–25 cm (6–10 inches) falling per year (the summer is typically the season of maximum precipitation). During the summer, the permafrost thaws just enough to let plants grow and reproduce, but because the ground below this is frozen, the water cannot sink any lower, and so the water forms the lakes and marshes found during the summer months. Although precipitation is light, evaporation is also relatively minimal.
The biodiversity of the tundras is low: 1,700 species of vascular plants and only 48 land mammals can be found, although thousands of insects and birds migrate there each year for the marshes. Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. There are also a few fish species such as the flat fish. There are few species with large populations. Notable animals in the Arctic tundra include caribou (reindeer), musk ox, arctic hare, arctic fox, snowy owl, lemmings, and polar bears (only the extreme north). The muskox ( Ovibos moschatus) is an Arctic Mammal of the Bovidae family noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted by males The Arctic Hare ( Lepus arcticus) is a Hare which is largely adapted to polar and mountainous habitats The Arctic Fox ( Vulpes lagopus) also known as the White Fox or Snow Fox, is a small Fox native to cold Arctic regions of the The Snowy Owl ( Bubo scandiacus) is a large Owl of the Typical owl family Strigidae Lemmings are small Rodents usually found in or near the Arctic, in tundra Biomes Together with the Voles and Muskrats they make The polar bear ( Ursus maritimus) is a Bear native to the Arctic Ocean and its surrounding seas 
Due to the harsh climate of the Arctic tundra, regions of this kind have seen little human activity, even though they are sometimes rich in natural resources such as oil and uranium. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the In recent times this has begun to change in Alaska, Russia, and some other parts of the world. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
A severe threat to the tundras, specifically to the permafrost, is global warming. Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the The melting of the permafrost in a given area on human time scales (decades or centuries) could radically change which species can survive there. 
Another concern is that about one third of the world's soil-bound carbon is in taiga and tundra areas. Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Taiga (ˈtaɪgə from Turkic or Mongolian) is a Biome characterized by Coniferous forests When the permafrost melts, it releases carbon in the form of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Greenhouse gases are gaseous constituents of the atmosphere bothnatural and anthropogenic that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of thermal infrared The effect has been observed in Alaska. In the 1970s the tundra was a carbon sink, but today, it is a carbon source. This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. 
Antarctic tundra occurs on Antarctica and on several Antarctic and subantarctic islands, including South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and the Kerguelen Islands. The Péninsule Rallier du Baty is a peninsula of Grande Terre the main island of the Kerguelen archipelago South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands ( SGSSI) is a British overseas territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean. The Kerguelen Islands (in French: commonly Îles Kerguelen or Archipel de Kerguelen but officially Archipel des Kerguelen or Archipel Antarctica is mostly too cold and dry to support vegetation, and most of the continent is covered by ice fields. However, some portions of the continent, particularly the Antarctic Peninsula, have areas of rocky soil that support plant life. The Antarctic Peninsula is the northernmost part of the mainland of Antarctica, and almost the only part of that continent that extends outside the Antarctic Circle The flora presently consists of around 300-400 lichens, 100 mosses, 25 liverworts, and around 700 terrestrial and aquatic algae species, which live on the areas of exposed rock and soil around the shore of the continent. The Marchantiophyta are a division of Bryophyte Plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts. Antarctica's two flowering plant species, the Antarctic hair grass (Deschampsia Antarctica) and Antarctic pearlwort (Colobanthus quitensis), are found on the northern and western parts of the Antarctic Peninsula In contrast with the Arctic tundra, the Antarctic tundra lacks a large mammal fauna, mostly due to its physical isolation from the other continents. Deschampsia antarctica ( Antarctic hair grass) is one of two flowering plants native to Antarctica, the other being Colobanthus quitensis Colobanthus quitensis ( Antarctic pearlwort) is one of the two Flowering plants found in the Antarctic region along with Deschampsia Sea mammals and sea birds, including seals and penguins, inhabit areas near the shore, and some small mammals, like rabbits and cats, have been introduced by humans to some of the subantarctic islands. Pinnipeds ("fin-feet" lit "winged feet" or fin-footed mammals are a widely distributed and diverse group of semi-aquatic marine Mammals comprising Penguins ( order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless Birds living almost Rabbits are small Mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world WikipediaManual of Style (spelling, articles should conform to one overall spelling style of English typically the one most linked to the article topic (if it is geographic
The flora and fauna of Antarctica and the Antarctic Islands (south of 60° south latitude) are protected by the Antarctic Treaty. The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate International relations with respect to 
Tundra also occurs on Tierra del Fuego and southern Argentina. Tierra del Fuego ( Spanish for " Land of Fire " in English tiˈɛərə dɛl ˈfweɪgoʊ] Spanish ˈtjerað̞elˈfweɰo is an Archipelago For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics.  Notable plant and lichen species of this tundra include Neuropogon aurantiaco, Azorella lycopodioides, Marsippospermum reichei, Nardophyllum bryoides, and Bolax gummifera. Azorella t minima Azorella is a Genus of about 70 Species of Flowering plants in the family Araliaceae, native to South America
Alpine tundra is an ecozone that does not contain trees because it has high altitude. An ecozone or biogeographic realm is the largest scale biogeographic division of the earth's surface based on the historic and evolutionary distribution patterns Altitude is the Elevation of a point or object from a known level or datum (plural data Alpine tundra occurs at high enough altitude at any latitude on Earth. Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi ( Φ) gives the location of a place on Earth (or other planetary body north or south of the Alpine tundra also lacks trees, but the lower part does not have permafrost, and alpine soils are generally better drained than permafrost soils. This article is about frozen ground For other meanings see Permafrost (disambiguation. This article is about frozen ground For other meanings see Permafrost (disambiguation. Alpine tundra transitions to subalpine forests below the tree line; stunted forests occurring at the forest-tundra ecotone are known as Krummholz. The tree line or timberline is the edge of the habitat at which Trees are capable of growing An ecotone is a transition area between two adjacent ecological communities ( Ecosystems. Krummholz or Krumholtz formation (from German krumm, "crooked bent twisted" and Holz, "wood" also Knieholz "knee Alpine tundra occurs in an alpine zone.
Alpine tundra does not map directly to specific World Wide Fund for Nature ecoregions. Portions of Montane grasslands and shrublands ecoregions include alpine tundra. Montane grasslands and shrublands is a Biome defined by the World Wildlife Fund.
Because alpine tundra is located in various widely-separated regions of the Earth, there is no animal species common to all areas of alpine tundra. Some animals of alpine tundra environments include the Kea parrot, marmot, Mountain goats, chinchilla, and pika. The Kea ( Nestor notabilis) is a species of Parrot (family Psittacidae) found in forested and alpine regions of the South Island of New Zealand Marmots are members of the Genus Marmota, in the Rodent family Sciuridae (squirrels The Mountain Goat ( Oreamnos americanus) also known as the Rocky Mountain Goat, is a large-hoofed mammal found only in North America. Chinchillas are rabbit-sized Crepuscular Rodents native to the Andes mountains in South America. Pikas are small hamster-like animals with short limbs rounded ears and short tails
Large sections of the Tibetan Plateau include alpine tundra. The Tibetan Plateau, also known as the Qinghai-Tibetan (Qingzang Plateau is a vast elevated Plateau in Central Asia covering most of the Tibet Autonomous
See also: Tree line
Tundra climates ordinarily fit the Köppen climate classification ET, signifying a local climate in which at least one month has an average temperature high enough to melt snow (0°C or 32°F), but no month with an average temperature in excess of (10°C/50°F). The tree line or timberline is the edge of the habitat at which Trees are capable of growing For the climate of the mountains named the Alps, see Climate of the Alps. The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems It was developed by Wladimir Köppen, a German climatologist The cold limit generally meets the EF climates of permanent ice and snows; the warm-summer limit generally corresponds with the poleward or altitudinal limit of trees, where they grade into the subarctic climates designated Dfd and Dwd (extreme winters as in parts of Siberia), Dfc typical in Alaska, Canada, European Russia, and Western Siberia (cold winters with months of freezing), or even Cfc (no month colder than -3°C as in parts of Iceland and southernmost South America). An ice cap is an Ice mass that covers less than 50 000 km² of land area (usually covering a highland area Regions having a subarctic climate (also called boreal climate) are characterized by long usually very cold winters and brief warm summers Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page European Russia refers to the western areas of Russia that lie within Europe, comprising roughly 3960000 km² and spanning across 40% of Europe Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a Tundra climates as a rule are hostile to woody vegetation even where the winters are comparatively mild by polar standards, as in Iceland. Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland (
Despite the potential diversity of climates in the ET category involving precipitation, extreme temperatures, and relative wet and dry seasons, this category is rarely subdivided. Rainfall and snowfall are generally slight due to the limited capacity of the chilly atmosphere to hold water vapor, but as a rule potential evapotranspiration is extremely low, allowing soggy terrain of swamps and bogs even in places that get precipitation typical of deserts of lower and middle latitudes. Evapotranspiration (ET is a term used to describe the sum of Evaporation and Plant Transpiration from the earth's land surface to Atmosphere A desert is a Landscape or region that receives very little precipitation. Scarcity or lushness (by polar standards) of native vegetation of tundra regions depends more upon the severity of the temperatures than upon the scarcity or copiousness of precipitation. The alpine tundra also lacks in precipitation compared to the Arctic tundra.