|Archaeological Site of Troy*|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Criteria||ii, iii, vi|
|Region†||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||1998 (22nd Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.|
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
Troy (Greek: Τροία, Troia, also Ίλιον, Ilion; Latin: Trōia, Īlium,; Hittite: Wilusa or Truwisa) is a legendary city and center of the Trojan War, as described in the Epic Cycle, and especially in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex As of 2008 there are a total of 878 World Heritage Sites located in 145 "State Parties" Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. Asia Minor, Cyprus, all of the Aegean Islands, the Canaries A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Hittite or Nesili is the Extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern A legend ( Latin, legenda, "things to be read" is a Narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy stole Helen from her The Epic Cycle (Επικός Κύκλος was a collection of Ancient Greek Epic poems that related the story of the Trojan War, which includes the The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the Trojan refers to the inhabitants and culture of Troy.
Today it is the name of an archaeological site, the traditional location of Homeric Troy, Turkish Truva, in Hisarlık in Anatolia, close to the seacoast in what is now Çanakkale province in northwest Turkey, southwest of the Dardanelles under Mount Ida. Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Hisarlik ( Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses" is the modern name for the site of ancient Troy, also known as Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Çanakkale is a province of Turkey, located in the northwestern part of the country Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches See also [[Hellespont]] The Dardanelles ( Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı Greek: Δαρδανέλλια Dardanellia) formerly Mount Ida, Turkish Kazdağı (pronounced, with a meaning of "Goose Mountain" Kaz Dağları, or Karataş Tepesi, is a mountain in
A new city of Ilium was founded on the site in the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus. The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was It flourished until the establishment of Constantinople and declined gradually during the Byzantine era. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS
In the 1870s the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann excavated the area. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos Heinrich Schliemann (ˈʃliːman ( January 6 1822 in Neubukow Mecklenburg-Schwerin - December 26 1890, Naples) was a German Later excavations revealed several cities built in succession to each other. One of the earlier cities (Troy VII) is often identified with Homeric Troy. Troy VII, in the mound at Hisarlik, is an archaeological layer of Troy spanning late Hittite Empire to Neo-Hittite times (ca While such an identity is disputed, the site has been successfully identified with the city called Wilusa in Hittite texts; Ilion (which goes back to earlier Wilion with a digamma) is thought to be the Greek rendition of that name. Wilusa (URU Wi-lu-ša) was a city of the late Bronze Age Assuwa confederation of western Anatolia Hittite or Nesili is the Extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern Digamma (uppercase Ϝ, lowercase ϝ) is an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet, used primarily as a Greek numeral.
The archaeological site of Troy was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1998. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex
Details concerning Troy were transmitted to the historical Greeks entirely through the written Epic Cycle, of which Homer's Iliad is the familiar part. The Epic Cycle (Επικός Κύκλος was a collection of Ancient Greek Epic poems that related the story of the Trojan War, which includes the The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient Other epic material, such as Cypria was known in Antiquity but is lost to us. The Cypria ( Ancient Greek: Kypria; Latin form Cypria) is an epic of ancient Greek literature that was quite Further ancient material is only known to us in much later literary recensions, such as the fourth century CE Posthomerica of Quintus of Smyrna. Quintus Smyrnaeus (or Quintus of Smyrna, also known as Kointos of Smyrna) ( Κόιντος Σμυρναίος) was a Greek epic Aside from this mass of material, modern philologists have laboured to tease out the few discernible threads of the earlier legendary material that preceded Homer, from which he worked.
According to Greek mythology the Trojans were the citizens of the ancient municipality of Troy in the Troad region of Anatolia. Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance Troas or The Troad is the historical name of the Biga peninsula ( modern Turkish: Biga Yarımadası) in the northwestern part of Anatolia Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Troy is presented anachronistically in legend as if it were part of the Greek culture of City states. A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. Since the entire state comprised more than the city of Troy itself, anyone from its jurisdiction, which was mainly the Troad, might be termed "Trojan" in ancient literature.  An alternative classical Greek and Latin term was "Teucrians", a name taken from an ethnicity of the south Troad. The Tjekker or Tjeker were one of the Sea Peoples who raided Egypt and the Levant during the 13th and 12th centuries BCE Troy was known for its riches gained from port trade with east and west, fancy clothes, iron production, and massive defensive walls. See also List of cities with defensive walls A defensive wall is a Fortification used to defend a city or settlement from potential aggressors The major language spoken there and the derivative cultures remain uncertain. Legend for the most part ignores language and makes the presumption that Trojans had no problem understanding Greek.
The Trojan royal kinship, in Greek eyes, traced its descent from the Pleiad Electra and Zeus, the parents of Dardanus. The Pleiad Electra /ɪˈlɛktrə/ of Greek mythology was one of the seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione. Zeus (zjuːs in Greek: nominative: Zeús /zdeús/ genitive: Diós; Modern Greek /'zefs/ in Greek mythology In Greek mythology, Dardanus ( Greek: Δάρδανος English translation: "burned up" from the verb δαρδάπτω ( dardapto According to Greek myths, Dardanus was originally from Arcadia but according to Roman myths, he was originally from Italy, having crossed over to Asia Minor from the island of Samothrace, where he met King Teucer. Arcadia or Arkadía ( Greek Αρκαδία is a region of Greece in the Peloponnesus. Samothrace (Σαμοθράκη is an island municipality in Greece, in the northern Aegean Sea. This article is about King Teucer son of Scamander and Idaea, for Teucer son of King Telamon of Salamis, see Teucer. Teucer was himself also a coloniser from Attica, and treated Dardanus with respect. Attica (Αττική Attikí;) is a periphery (subdivision in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece Eventually Dardanus married Teucer's daughters, and founded Dardania (later ruled by Aeneas). Dardania in Greek mythology is the name of a City founded on Mount Ida by Dardanus from which also the region and the people took their name This article is about the Roman hero For other uses see Aeneas (disambiguation. Upon Dardanus' death, the Kingdom was passed to his grandson Tros, who called the people Trojans and the land Troad, after himself. TROS (originally an acronym for Televisie Radio Omroep Stichting) is a Dutch television and radio organisation part of the Netherlands Public Broadcasting. Ilus, son of Tros, founded the city of Ilium (Troy) that he called after himself. Ilus is the name of several mythological persons associated directly or indirectly with Troy. Zeus gave Ilus the Palladium. In Greek and Roman mythology, a palladium or palladion was an image of great antiquity on which the safety of a city was said to depend Poseidon and Apollo built the walls and fortifications around Troy for Laomedon, son of Ilus the younger. In Greek mythology, Poseidon ( Greek:; Latin: Neptūnus) was the god of the Sea and as "Earth-Shaker" In Greek mythology, Laomedon was a Trojan king son of Ilus, brother of Ganymedes and father of Priam, Astyoche When Laomedon refused to pay, Poseidon flooded the land and demanded the sacrifice of Hesione to a sea monster. In Greek mythology, the most prominent Hesione was a Trojan princess daughter of King Laomedon of Troy, sister of Priam and second Sea monsters are sea-dwelling mythical or legendary creatures, often believed to be of immense size Pestilence came and the sea monster snatched away the people of the plain.
In Sardis a self-identified Heracleid dynasty ruled for 505 years until the time of Candaules. Sardis, also Sardes ( Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda) modern Sart in Candaules (Κανδαύλης also known as Myrsilos (Μυρσίλος was a king of the ancient Kingdom of Lydia from 735 BC to 718 BC. The dynasty's founding myth legitimizes their rule by asserting that one generation before the Trojan War, Heracles captured Troy and killed Laomedon and his sons, except for young Priam. A founding myth (Greek aition) is the etiological myth that explains the origins of a Ritual or the founding of a city group belief philosophy discipline In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy stole Helen from her In Greek mythology, Heracles or Herakles ("glory of Hera " or In Greek mythology, Priam ( Greek Πρίαμος Priamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War and youngest son Priam later became king. During his reign, the Mycenaean Greeks invaded and captured Troy in the Trojan War (traditionally dated to 1193–1183 BC). Mycenaean Greece is a cultural period of ancient Greece taking its name from the archaeological site of Mycenae in northeastern Argolis, in the Peloponnese The Ionians, Cimmerians, Phrygians, Milesians of Sinope and Lydians moved into Asia Minor. Geography Physical Ionia was of small extent not exceeding 90 geographical miles in length from north to south with a breadth varying from 40 to 55 miles but to this In antiquity Phrygia (Φρυγία was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turkey. Miletus (mī lē' təs ( Ancient Greek: Μίλητος literally Transliterated Milētos, Latin Miletus) was an Ancient Sinop ( Greek: Σινώπη /Sinope is a city with a population of 47000 on İnce Burun ( İnceburun, Cape Ince) by its Defining Lydia Aside from a legend related by Herodotus, who states that the name Lydia came from king Lydus at the time of the fall of Troy The Persians invaded in 546 BC. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia
Several far-flung tribes claimed descent from the Trojans: the Paeonians, the Elymi of Egesta, and the west Libyan Maxyes. For the ancient Balkan region and tribe see Paionia. The peony or paeony ( Paeonia) is the only genus in the The Elymians ( Greek Elymoi, Latin Elymi) were an ancient people who inhabited the western part of Sicily during the Bronze Segesta (Seggesta was the political center of the Elymian people The Trojan ships transformed into naiads, who rejoiced to see the wreckage of Odysseus' ship. In Greek mythology, the Naiads or Naiades (Ναϊάδες from the Greek νάειν "to flow" and νἃμα "running water" grc-Latn Odysseus or la Ulysses ( Greek grc-Latn Odysseus; Latin: la Ulixes or more commonly Ulysses) oʊˈdɪsiəs
Some famous Trojans are: Dardanus (founder of Troy), Laomedon, Ganymede, Priam and his children (including Paris, Hector, Cassandra and Troilus), Tithonus, Corythus, Aeneas and Brutus. In Greek mythology, Dardanus ( Greek: Δάρδανος English translation: "burned up" from the verb δαρδάπτω ( dardapto In Greek mythology, Laomedon was a Trojan king son of Ilus, brother of Ganymedes and father of Priam, Astyoche Ganymede most often refers to Ganymede (mythology, a Trojan prince in Greek mythology taken by Zeus to Mount Olympus Ganymede (moon, In Greek mythology, Priam ( Greek Πρίαμος Priamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War and youngest son See List of King Priam's children Paris ( Greek:; also known as Alexander or Alexandros, c In Greek mythology, Hectōr ( "holding fast" or Hektōr, is a Trojan prince and one of the greatest fighters in the In Greek mythology, Cassandra ( Greek: Κασσάνδρα "she who entangles men" (also known as Alexandra) was the daughter of King Troilus (also Troilos, Troylus) ( Ancient Greek: Τρωίλος Troïlos Latin: Troilus is a legendary character associated with the story In Greek mythology, Tithonus or Tithonos was the lover of Eos, Titan of the dawn Corythus is the name of six mortal men in Greek mythology Corythus, son of Paris and Oenone. This article is about the Roman hero For other uses see Aeneas (disambiguation. Brutus ( Brut, Brute, Welsh Bryttys) a legendary descendant of the Trojan hero Aeneas, was known in medieval British legend Kapys, Boukolion and Aisakos were Trojan princes who had naiad wives. In Greek mythology, Capys was a name attributed to three individuals A son of Assaracus and Aigesta or Themiste or Clytodora List of King Priam's children Aesacus or Aisakos, in Greek mythology, was a son of King Priam of Troy. In Greek mythology, the Naiads or Naiades (Ναϊάδες from the Greek νάειν "to flow" and νἃμα "running water" Some of the Trojan allies were the Lycians, the Ethiopians led by Memnon, and the Amazons, led by their Queen Hippolyta. "Sidyma" redirects here For the Moth Genus named thus see Sidyma (moth. In Greek mythology, Memnon was an Ethiopian king and son of Tithonus and Eos. The Amazons (in Greek, grc Ἀμαζόνες are a nation of all-female warriors in Classical and Greek mythology, who were possibly historical In Greek mythology, Hippolyta or Hippolyte (Ἱππολύτη is the Amazonian queen who possessed a magical Girdle she was given by her father The Aisepid nymphs were the naiads of the Trojan River Aisepos. In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of mythological entities in human female form In Greek mythology, the Naiads or Naiades (Ναϊάδες from the Greek νάειν "to flow" and νἃμα "running water" In Greek mythology, Aesepus was the son of the naiad Abarbarea and Bucolion. Pegsis was the naiad of the River Granicus near Troy. "Granicus" redirects here For the American rock band of the same name see Granicus (band. "Helen of Troy" was born not in Troy, but in Sparta, of which she was queen until she eloped with Paris to Troy. This article is about the mythological figure Helen of Troy For other uses see Helen (disambiguation and Helen of Troy (disambiguation. The city of Sparta ( Doric Σπάρτα Attic Σπάρτη
Mount Ida in Asia Minor is where Ganymede was abducted by Zeus, where Anchises was seduced by Aphrodite, where Aphrodite gave birth to Aeneas, where Paris lived as a shepherd, where the nymphs lived, where the "Judgement of Paris" took place, where the Greek gods watched the Trojan War, where Hera distracted Zeus with her seductions long enough to permit the Achaeans, aided by Poseidon, to hold the Trojans off their ships, and where Aeneas and his followers rested and waited until the Greeks set out for Greece. Mount Ida, Turkish Kazdağı (pronounced, with a meaning of "Goose Mountain" Kaz Dağları, or Karataş Tepesi, is a mountain in In Greek mythology, Anchises was a son of Capys and Themiste (daughter of Ilus son of Tros or Hieromneme, a Naiad. This article is about the Roman hero For other uses see Aeneas (disambiguation. The Judgement of Paris is a story from Greek mythology, which was one of the events that led up to the Trojan War and (in slightly later versions of the story to In the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology, Hera (ˈhɪərə or /ˈhɛrə/ Greek) or Here ( in Ionic and Homer This article is about the Roman hero For other uses see Aeneas (disambiguation. The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Buthrotos (or Buthrotum) was a city in Epirus where Helenus, the Trojan seer, built a replica of Troy. Butrint ( Albanian: Butrint or Butrinti) is an Ancient Greek city and an archeological site in Sarandë, Albania Epirus (from Ionic Greek Ήπειρος - Ēpeiros, Doric Greek: Ἅπειρος - Apeiros, in Albanian Helenus was a Trojan soldier and prophet in the Trojan War. In Greek mythology, Helenus was the son of King Priam and Queen Aeneas landed there and Helenus foretold his future.
Ancient Greek historians placed the Trojan War variously in the 12th, 13th or 14th century BC: Eratosthenes to 1184 BC, Herodotus to 1250 BC, Douris to 1334 BC. Eratosthenes of Cyrene ( Greek; 276 BC - 194 BC was a Greek Mathematician, Poet, athlete, Geographer and Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash
In the Iliad, the Achaeans set up their camp near the mouth of the river Scamander (presumably modern Karamenderes), where they had beached their ships. In Greek mythology, Scamander ( Skamandros) was a river god son of Oceanus and Tethys according to Hesiod. Karamenderes is the modern name of the river Scamander, along the lower course of which according to the Iliad, the battles of the Trojan War were fought The city of Troy itself stood on a hill, across the plain of Scamander, where the battles of the Trojan War took place. The site of the ancient city today is some 15 kilometers from the coast, but the ancient mouths of alleged Scamander, some 3,000 years ago, were some 5 kilometers further inland, pouring into a bay that has since been filled with alluvial material. Alluvium (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against" is Soil or Sediments deposited by a river or other running Recent geological findings have permitted the reconstruction of how the original Trojan coastline would have looked, and the results largely confirm the accuracy of the Homeric geography of Troy. 
Besides the Iliad, there are references to Troy in the other major work attributed to Homer, the Odyssey, as well as in other ancient Greek literature. The Odyssey ( Greek: Ὀδύσσεια or Odússeia) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. The Homeric legend of Troy was elaborated by the Roman poet Virgil in his work the Aeneid. Publius Vergilius Maro ( October 15, 70 BCE &ndash September 21, 19 BCE later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or For the group of nine Ancient Egyptian deities see Ennead. The Aeneid (əˈniːɪd in The Greeks and Romans took for a fact the historicity of the Trojan War, and in the identity of Homeric Troy with the site in Anatolia. Alexander the Great, for example, visited the site in 334 BC and made sacrifices at the alleged tombs of the Homeric heroes Achilles and Patroclus. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' "Achilleus" redirects here For the emperor with this name see Achilleus (emperor. In Greek mythology, as recorded in the Iliad by Homer, Patroclus, or Patroklos (Gr
In November 2001, geologists John C. Kraft from the University of Delaware and John V. The University of Delaware ( UD) is the largest University in the U Luce from Trinity College, Dublin presented the results of investigations, begun in 1977, into the geology of the region. Trinity College Dublin ( TCD; Irish Coláiste na Tríonóide Baile Átha Cliath; Latin: Collegium Sacrosanctae et Individuae Trinitatis Reginae Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit They compared the present geology with the landscapes and coastal features described in the Iliad and other classical sources, notably Strabo's Geographia, and concluded that there is a regular consistency between the location of Schliemann's Troy and other locations such as the Greek camp, the geological evidence, descriptions of the topography and accounts of the battle in the Iliad. Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. Topography ( topo-, "place" and graphia, "writing" is the study of Earth 's Surface features or those of Planets Further work by John Kraft and others was published in 2003. 
After the 1995 find of a Luwian biconvex seal at Troy VII, there has been a heated discussion over the language that was spoken in Homeric Troy. The language spoken by the Trojans in the Iliad is Homeric Greek. Frank Starke of the University of Tübingen recently demonstrated that the name of Priam is connected to the Luwian compound Priimuua, which means 'exceptionally courageous'. Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen ( German: Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, sometimes called the "Eberhardina Carolina" is a public university In Greek mythology, Priam ( Greek Πρίαμος Priamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War and youngest son Luwian (sometimes spelled Luvian) is an extinct language of the Anatolian branch of the  'The certainty is growing that Wilusa/Troy belonged to the greater Luwian-speaking community', although it is not entirely clear whether Luwian was primarily the official language or in daily colloquial use. 
The layers of ruins in the citadel at Hisarlik are numbered Troy I – Troy IX, with various subdivisions:
The archaeological site of Troy was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1998. This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex
The first city was founded in the 3rd millennium BC. During the Bronze Age, the site seems to have been a flourishing mercantile city, since its location allowed for complete control of the Dardanelles, through which every merchant ship from the Aegean Sea heading for the Black Sea had to pass. See also [[Hellespont]] The Dardanelles ( Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı Greek: Δαρδανέλλια Dardanellia) formerly Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey
Troy VI was destroyed around 1300 BC, probably by an earthquake. An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth 's crust that creates Seismic waves Earthquakes are recorded with a Seismometer Only a single arrowhead was found in this layer, and no remains of bodies.
Troy VIIa, which has been dated to the mid- to late-13th century BC, is the most often-cited candidate for the Troy of Homer. Troy VII, in the mound at Hisarlik, is an archaeological layer of Troy spanning late Hittite Empire to Neo-Hittite times (ca It appears to have been destroyed by war. 
The last city on this site, Hellenistic Ilium, was founded by Romans during the reign of the emperor Augustus and was an important trading city until the establishment of Constantinople in the fourth century as the eastern capital of the Roman Empire. This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial In Byzantine times the city declined gradually, and eventually disappeared.
Beneath part of the Roman city, the ruins of which cover a much larger area than the citadel excavated by Schliemann, recent excavations have found traces of an additional Bronze-Age settlement area (of lower status than the adjoining citadel) defended by a ditch.
With the rise of modern critical history, Troy and the Trojan War were consigned to the realms of legend. However, the true location of ancient Troy had from classical times remained the subject of interest and speculation, so when in 1822 the Scottish journalist Charles Maclaren reviewed the available material and published A dissertation on the topography of the plain of Troy he was able to identify with confidence the position of the acropolis of Augustus's New Ilium in north-western Anatolia. Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean Charles Maclaren ( 7 October 1782 &ndash 10 September 1866) was a Scottish editor born in Ormiston, Haddingtonshire, the Acropolis (Gr akros akron edge extremity + polis city pl acropoleis In 1866 Frank Calvert, the brother of the United States' consular agent in the region, made extensive surveys and published in scholarly journals his identification of the hill of New Ilium (which was on farmland owned by his family) as the site of ancient Troy. Frank Calvert (1828 &ndash 1908 was an English expatriate who was a consular official in the eastern Mediterranean region and an amateur Archaeologist Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire The hill, near the town of Chanak, was known to the Turks as Hisarlik. Çanakkale (ʧɑˈnɑkːɑle is a town and seaport in Turkey, in Çanakkale Province, on the southern (Asian coast of the Dardanelles (or 
In 1868 the German, self-taught archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann visited Calvert and secured permission to excavate Hisarlik. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos Heinrich Schliemann (ˈʃliːman ( January 6 1822 in Neubukow Mecklenburg-Schwerin - December 26 1890, Naples) was a German In the 1870s (in two campaigns, 1871–73 and 1878/9) he excavated the hill and discovered the ruins of a series of ancient cities dating from the Bronze Age to the Roman period. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for Schliemann declared one of these cities—at first Troy I, later Troy II—to be the city of Troy, and this identification was widely accepted at that time. Schliemann's finds at Hisarlik have become known as Priam's Treasure. Priam’s Treasure is a cache of Gold and other artifacts discovered by classical Archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann. They were acquired from him by the Berlin museums, but significant doubts about their authenticity persist.
After Schliemann, the site was further excavated under the direction of Wilhelm Dörpfeld (1893/4) and later Carl Blegen (1932-8). Wilhelm Dörpfeld (or Doerpfeld) ( 26 December 1853 &ndash 25 April 1940) was a German Architect, best known Carl William Blegen ( January 27, 1887, Minneapolis, Minnesota – August 24, 1971 Athens, Greece) These excavations have shown that there were at least nine cities built one on top of each other at this site.
In 1988 excavations were resumed by a team of the University of Tübingen and the University of Cincinnati under the direction of Professor Manfred Korfmann. Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen ( German: Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, sometimes called the "Eberhardina Carolina" is a public university The University of Cincinnati is a Coeducational public Research university in Cincinnati, Ohio. Manfred O Korfmann ( April 26, 1942 in Cologne &mdash August 11, 2005, in Ofterdingen, Baden-Württemberg) Possible evidence of a battle was found in the form of arrowheads found in layers dated to the early 12th century BC. The question of Troy's status in the Bronze Age world has been the subject of a sometimes acerbic debate between Korfmann and the Tübingen historian Frank Kolb in 2001/2002. Frank Kolb (born February 27, 1945 in Rheinbach, North Rhine-Westphalia) is a German professor of Ancient history at the
In August 2003 following a magnetic imaging survey of the fields below the fort, a deep ditch was located and excavated among the ruins of a later Greek and Roman city. Remains found in the ditch were dated to the late Bronze Age, the alleged time of Homeric Troy. It is claimed by Korfmann that the ditch may have once marked the outer defences of a much larger city than had previously been suspected.
In summer 2006 the excavations continued under the direction of Korfmann's colleague Ernst Pernicka, with a new digging permit. 
In the 1920s the Swiss scholar Emil Forrer claimed that placenames found in Hittite texts — Wilusa and Taruisa — should be identified with Ilium and Troia respectively. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Hittite or Nesili is the Extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern He further noted that the name of Alaksandus, king of Wilusa, mentioned in one of the Hittite texts is quite similar to the name of Prince Alexandros or Paris, of Troy.
An unnamed Hittite king wrote a letter to the king of the Ahhiyawa, treating him as an equal and implying that Miletus (Millawanda) was controlled by the Ahhiyawa, and also referring to an earlier "Wilusa episode" involving hostility on the part of the Ahhiyawa. The Hittites were an ancient Anatolian people who spoke a language of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family and established Miletus (mī lē' təs ( Ancient Greek: Μίλητος literally Transliterated Milētos, Latin Miletus) was an Ancient This people has been identified with the Homeric Greeks (Achaeans). The Hittite king was long held to be Mursili II (ca 1321-1296), but since the 1980s his son Hattusili III (1265-1240) is commonly preferred, although Mursili's other son Muwatalli (ca 1296-1272) is still considered a possibility. Mursili II (also spelled Mursilis II) was a king of the Hittite Empire (New kingdom ca Hattusili III ( Hittite: "from Hattusa" was a king of the Hittite empire (New Kingdom or Late Empire ca Muwatalli II ( m NIRGÁL) was a king of the New kingdom of the Hittite empire (ca
An Egyptian inscription at Deir al-Madinah records a victory of Ramesses III over Sea Peoples, including some named Tursha (spelled [twrš3] in Egyptian script). Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now Deir el-Madinah (دير المدينة is an Ancient Egyptian village which was home to the artisans who built the Temples and Tombs ordered by the Usimare Ramses III (also written Ramesses and Rameses) was the second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty and is considered to be the last great The Sea Peoples is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders of the second millennium BC who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political These are probably the same as the earlier Teresh (found written as [trš. w]) of the Merneptah Stele, commemorating Merneptah’s victory in a Libyan campaign at about 1220 BC. The Merneptah Stele (also known as the Israel Stele or Victory Stele of Merneptah) is the reverse of a large granite stele originally erected by the Merneptah (or Merenptah) was the fourth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. Although this may be too early for the Trojan War, some scholars have connected the name to the city mentioned in Hittite records as Taruisas, or Troy. In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy stole Helen from her 
These identifications were rejected by many scholars as being improbable or at least unprovable. Trevor Bryce in 1998 championed them in his book The Kingdom of the Hittites, citing a recovered piece of the so-called Manapa-Tarhunda letter, which refers to the kingdom of Wilusa as beyond the land of the Seha (known in classical times as the Caicus) river, and near the land of Lazpa (Lesbos Island). The Manapa-Tarhunta letter (CTH 191 KUB 195 + KBo 1979 is a Hittite letter discovered in the 1980s Bakırçay (ancient name Caicus, also Caecus; Καϊκός Transliterated as Kaïkos; formerly Astraeus) is the ancient name of Lesbos (Λέσβος also transliterated Lesvos, Midilli is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea.
Recent evidence adds weight to the theory that Wilusa is identical to archaeological Troy. Hittite texts mention a water tunnel at Wilusa, and a water tunnel excavated by Korfmann, previously thought to be Roman, has been dated to around 2600 BC. Water tunnels are used to deliver water by using a below ground channel The identifications of Wilusa with archaeological Troy and of the Achaeans with the Ahhiyawa remain controversial, but gained enough popularity during the 1990s to be considered a majority opinion.
The nation T-R-S is mentioned as one of the "Peoples of the Sea" in ancient Egyption inscriptions. The Sea Peoples is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders of the second millennium BC who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political
The language of Trojans is unknown, although several Trojan names may be identified as Luvian. The language spoken by the Trojans in the Iliad is Homeric Greek. The status of the so-called Trojan script is still disputable. Trojan script is a series of signs of unknown origin found on vessels from Troy excavated by Heinrich Schliemann 's expedition
Such was the fame of the Epic Cycle in Roman and medieval times that it was built upon to provide a starting point for various founding myths of national origins. In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy stole Helen from her The Epic Cycle (Επικός Κύκλος was a collection of Ancient Greek Epic poems that related the story of the Trojan War, which includes the A founding myth (Greek aition) is the etiological myth that explains the origins of a Ritual or the founding of a city group belief philosophy discipline The progenitor of all of them is undoubtedly that promulgated by Virgil in the Aeneid, tracing the ancestry of the founders of Rome, more specifically the Julio-Claudian dynasty, to the Trojan prince Aeneas. Publius Vergilius Maro ( October 15, 70 BCE &ndash September 21, 19 BCE later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or For the group of nine Ancient Egyptian deities see Ennead. The Aeneid (əˈniːɪd in Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus (Octavian Tiberius, Caligula (Gaius Claudius, and The heroes of Troy, both those noted in the epic texts or those purpose-invented, continued to perform the role of founder for the nations of Early Medieval Europe.  Denys Hay noted the widespread adoption of Trojan forebears as an authentication of national status, in Europe: the Emergence of an Idea (Edinburgh 1957). The Roman de Troie was common cultural ground for European governing classes, for whom a Trojan pedigree was gloriously ancient, and it established the successor-kingdoms of which they were direct heirs as equals of the Romans. Benoît de Sainte-Maure (died 1173 was a 12th century French Poet, from either Sainte-Maure near Poitiers or Sainte-More near Tours France A Trojan pedigree justified the occupation of parts of Rome's erstwhile territories (Huppert 1965).
The Franks filled the lacunae of their legendary origins with Trojan and pseudo-Trojan names; in Fredegar's seventh-century chronicle of Frankish history, Priam appears as the first king of the Franks. The Chronicle of Fredegar is a Chronicle that recounts the events of Frankish Gaul from 584 to around 641  The Trojan origin of Franks and France was such an established article of faith that in 1714 the learned Nicolas Fréret was Bastilled for showing through historical criticism that the Franks had been Germanic, a sore point counter to Valois and Bourbon propaganda. Nicolas Fréret was a (1688-1749 French scholar He was born at Paris on 15 February 1688 The Bastille was a Fortress - Prison in Paris, known formally as Bastille Saint-Antoine —Number 232 Rue Saint-Antoine—best known today 
Similarly Geoffrey of Monmouth traces the legendary Kings of the Britons to a supposed descendant of Aeneas called Brutus. Geoffrey of Monmouth ( Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c The following list of legendary kings of Britain derives predominantly from Geoffrey of Monmouth 's circa 1136 work Historia Regum Britanniae ("the This article is about the Roman hero For other uses see Aeneas (disambiguation. Brutus ( Brut, Brute, Welsh Bryttys) a legendary descendant of the Trojan hero Aeneas, was known in medieval British legend Snorri Sturluson, in the Prologue to his Prose Edda, converts several half-remembered characters from Troy into characters from Norse mythology, and refers to them having made a journey across Europe towards Scandinavia, setting up kingdoms as they went. Snorri Sturluson (1178 – September 23, 1241) was an Icelandic historian poet and politician The Prose Edda, also known as the Younger Edda, Snorri's Edda ( Snorra Edda) or simply Edda, is an Norse mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and Legends of the Scandinavian peoples including those who settled on Iceland Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well
Today there is a Turkish town called Truva in the vicinity of the archaeological site, but this town has grown up recently to service the tourist trade. The archaeological site is officially called Troia by the Turkish government and appears as such on many maps.
A large number of tourists visit the site each year, mostly coming from Istanbul by bus or by ferry via Çanakkale, the nearest major town about 50 km to the north-east. Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey Çanakkale (ʧɑˈnɑkːɑle is a town and seaport in Turkey, in Çanakkale Province, on the southern (Asian coast of the Dardanelles (or The visitor sees a highly commercialised site, with a large wooden horse built as a playground for children, then shops and a museum. The archaeological site itself is, as a recent writer said, "a ruin of a ruin," because the site has been frequently excavated, and because Schliemann's archaeological methods were very destructive: in his conviction that the city of Priam would be found in the earliest layers, he demolished many interesting structures from later eras, including all of the house walls from Troy II. For many years also the site was unguarded and was thoroughly looted. However what remains, particularly if put into context by one of the knowledgeable professional guides to the site, is an illuminating insight into civilizations of the Bronze Age, if not to the legends.