A trip hammer (alt. helve hammer) is a massive power hammer, usually raised by a cam and then released to fall under the force of gravity. A hammer is a tool meant to deliver an impact to an object The most common uses are for driving nails fitting parts and breaking up objects A cam is a projecting part of a rotating Wheel or shaft that strikes a Lever at one or more points on its circular path Gravitation is a natural Phenomenon by which objects with Mass attract one another Historically, trip hammers were often powered by a water wheel, known to be used in China as long ago as the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD), and in medieval Europe by the 12th century. A water wheel is a means of extracting power from the flow (or fall of water otherwise known as Hydropower. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. Events By place Carthage Accused of treason by the Carthaginians after being defeated by the Romans at the Battle of the Events By Place Roman Empire The Goths invade Asia Minor and the Balkans. During the Industrial Revolution multiple hammers were powered via a set of line shafts, pulleys and belts from a centrally located power supply. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the The line shaft was the Power transmission system at the heart of the Industrial Revolution.
In ancient China, the trip hammer evolved out of the use of the pestle and mortar, which in turn gave rise to the treadle-operated tilt-hammer (Pinyin: dui; Wade-Giles: tui). Song Yingxing ( Traditional Chinese:宋應星 Simplified Chinese:宋应星 Wade Giles: Sung Ying-Hsing; 1587-1666 AD was a Chinese A pestle and mortar is a Tool used to crush grind and mix substances Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Wade-Giles (ˌweɪdˈʤaɪlz) sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system (phonetic notation and Transcription) for the Mandarin  The latter was a simple device employing a lever and fulcrum (operated by pressure applied by the weight of one's foot to one end), which featured a series of catches or lugs on the main revolving shaft as well.  This device enabled the labor of pounding, often in the decorticating and polishing of grain, and avoided manual use of pounding with hand and arm. Although historians assert that its origins may span as far back as the Zhou Dynasty (1050 BC–221 BC), the earliest texts to describe the device are the Ji Jiu Pian dictionary of 40 BC, Yang Xiong's text known as the Fang Yen of 15 BC, as well as the Xin Lun written by Huan Tan about 20 AD (during the usurpation of Wang Mang). The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. Events By place Carthage The Carthaginian general Hasdrubal is murdered by a Celtic assassin while campaigning to increase Huan Tan 桓譚 (c 43 BC &ndash 28 AD) Huan was a close associate of the court astronomer and mathematician Liu Xin (d Wang Mang ( (45 BC&ndashOctober 6 23 Courtesy name Jujun (巨君 was a Han Dynasty official who seized the throne from the Liu family  The latter book states that the legendary mythological king known as Fu Xi was the one responsible for the pestle and mortar (which evolved into the tilt-hammer and then trip hammer device). In Chinese mythology Fu Xi or Fu Hsi ( aka Paoxi ( mid 2800s BCE was the first of the mythical Three Sovereigns (三皇 sānhuáng of ancient China Although the author speaks of the mythological Fu Xi, a passage of his writing gives hint that the waterwheel and trip-hammer were in widespread use by the 1st century AD in China (for Chinese metallurgy with water-power, see Du Shi)(Wade-Giles spelling):
Fu Hsi invented the pestle and mortar, which is so useful, and later on it was cleverly improved in such a way that the whole weight of the body could be used for treading on the tilt-hammer (tui), thus increasing the efficiency ten times. Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their Du Shi ( d 38 was a Chinese governmental Prefect of Nanyang in 31 AD and a mechanical Engineer of the Eastern Han Dynasty in Ancient Afterwards the power of animals—donkeys, mules, oxen, and horses—was applied by means of machinery, and water-power too used for pounding, so that the benefit was increased a hundredfold. 
With his description, it is seen that the out-of-date Chinese term for pestle and mortar (dui, tui) would soon be replaced with the Chinese term for the water-powered trip-hammer (Pinyin: shui dui; Wade-Giles: shui tui).  The Han Dynasty scholar and poet Ma Rong (79–166 AD) mentioned in one of his poems of hammers 'pounding in the water-echoing caves'. Ma Rong ( 79–166 Courtesy name Jichang (季长 was a commentaror of the Han Dynasty. Year 79 was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar.  As described in the Hou Han Shu, in 129 AD the official Yu Xu gave a report to Emperor Shun of Han that trip hammers were being exported from Han China to the Western Qiang people by way of canals through the Qilian Mountains. The Book of the Later Han ( is one of the official Chinese Historical works which was compiled by Fan Ye in the 5th century, using Family background Then-Prince Bao was born to Emperor An and his Concubine Consort Li in 115 apparently shortly after Emperor An had created his The Qilian Mountains ( also Nan Shan 南山 "southern mountains" viz  In his Rou Xing Lun, the government official Kong Rong (153–208 AD) remarked that the invention of the trip hammer was an excellent example of a product created by intelligent men during his own age (comparing the relative achievements of the sages of old). Kong Rong (153 &ndash 208 was a bureaucrat poet and minor warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of China. For the area code see Area code 208. Events By Place Roman Empire Roman emperor Septimius Severus  During the 3rd century AD, the high government official and engineer Du Yu established the use of combined trip hammer batteries (lian zhi dui), which employed several shafts that were arranged to work off one large waterwheel. Du Yu (222 - 285 was an officer serving under the Jin Dynasty in the later stages of the Three Kingdoms Period in China.  In Chinese texts of the 4th century, there are written accounts of men possessing and operating hundreds of trip hammer machines, such as the venerable mathematician Wang Rong (died 306 AD), Deng Yu (died 326 AD), and Shi Chong (died 300 AD), responsible for the operation of hundreds of trip hammers in over thirty governmental districts throughout China.  There are numerous references to trip hammers during the Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD) and Song Dynasty (960–1279), and there are Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) references that report the use of trip hammers in papermills of Fujian Province. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by Events By Place Asia The Sui Dynasty ends and the Tang Dynasty begins in China. Events By Place Asia Oleg leads the Kievan Rus' in a campaign against Constantinople (see Rus'-Byzantine The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Events By Place Europe Edgar the Peaceable is crowned King of England. The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led A paper mill is a Factory devoted to making Paper from wood pulp and other ingredients using a Fourdrinier Machine or similar apparatus This article is about the People's Republic of China province 
Although Chinese trip hammers in China were sometimes powered by the more efficient vertical-set waterwheel, the Chinese often employed the horizontal-set waterwheel in operating trip hammers, along with recumbent hammers.  The recumbent hammer was found in Chinese illustrations by 1313 AD, with the publishing of Wang Zhen's Nong Shu book on ancient and contemporary (medieval) metallurgy in China. This article is about Wang Zhen agronomist and inventor For other historical figures with this name see Wang Zhen (disambiguation.  There were also illustrations of trip hammers in an encyclopedia of 1637, written by Song Yingxing (1587-1666). An encyclopedia (or '''encyclopædia''') is a comprehensive written Compendium that contains Information on either all branches of Knowledge Song Yingxing ( Traditional Chinese:宋應星 Simplified Chinese:宋应星 Wade Giles: Sung Ying-Hsing; 1587-1666 AD was a Chinese 
The first known water-powered and mechanised trip hammers in Europe were found by the 12th century. Their use was described in medieval written sources of Styria (in modern-day Austria), written in 1135 and another in 1175 AD. Styria (Steiermark is a state or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich  Both texts mentioned the use of vertical stamp mills for ore-crushing. A stamp mill (or stamp battery) is a type of mill that crushes material by pounding rather than grinding either for further processing or for extraction of metallic ores  Medieval French sources of the years 1116 and 1249 both record the use of mechanised trip hammers used in the forging of wrought iron. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. QtubIronPillarJPG|thumb|right| Iron pillar at Delhi India containing 98% wrought iron]] Wrought iron is commercially pure Iron.  Like most ancient and medieval Chinese trip hammers of before and of their contemporary age, medieval European trip hammers by the 15th century were most often in the shape of the vertical pestle stamp-mill, although they employed more frequent use of the vertical waterwheel than earlier Chinese versions (which often used the horizontal waterwheel).  The well-known Renaissance artist and inventor Leonardo de Vinci often sketched trip hammers for use in forges and even file-cutting machinery, those of the vertical pestle stamp-mill type. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer  The oldest depicted European illustration of a martinet forge-hammer is perhaps the Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus of Olaus Magnus, dated to 1565 AD. The martinet is a punitive device traditionally used in France and other parts of Europe. The Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus was a monumental work by Olaus Magnus on the Nordic countries, printed in Rome 1555. Olaus Magnus ( Olaus Magni or Olaus Magni Gothus) was a Swedish Ecclesiastic and Writer, who did pioneering work for the interest of  In this woodcut image, there is the scene of three martinets and a waterwheel working wood and leather bellows of the Osmund bloomery furnace. A bloomery is a type of Furnace once widely used for Smelting Iron from its oxides.  Although illustrated in China beforehand in the early 14th century, the recumbrent hammer was first depicted in artwork of Europe by the 17th century, in an illustration by Sandrart and Zonca (dated 1621 AD). 
Trip hammers were of three kinds. All require artificial power to lift them:
The choice of which kind should be used in a particular context may depend on the strain that its operation imposed on the helve. This was normally of wood until the 19th century. Surviving nosehelves and those in pictures appear to be of cast iron. This was replaced by James Nasmyth's steam-powered drop hammer (invented in 1839 and patented in 1842. This article is about the Scottish Engineer. For the Inventor of Basketball, see James Naismith. Year 1839 ( MDCCCXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common A patent is a set of Exclusive rights granted by a State to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an Year 1842 ( MDCCCXLII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common However the forge had become less important following the improvements to the rolling mill that went along with the adoption of puddling from the end of the 18th century. A rolling mill is a Machine or Factory for shaping Metal by passing it between a pair of Work rolls. Puddling was an Industrial Revolution means of making iron and Steel. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system