This article is part of the series:
753 BC – 509 BC
|Constitution of the Kingdom|
|Titles and Honours|
|Precedent and Law|
Other countries · Atlas
Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2–3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The Roman Kingdom ( Latin: Regnum Romanum) was the monarchical Government of the city of Rome Events and trends 756 BC — Founding of Cyzicus. 755 BC — Ashur-nirari V succeeds Ashur-Dan III as king of Assyria The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Year 27 BC was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Year 27 BC was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Events By place Western Roman Empire September 4 — Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire The Principate is the first period of the Roman Empire, extending from the beginning of the reign of Caesar Augustus to the Crisis of the Third Century, The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern The Dominate was the ' despotic ' latter phase of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse The Roman Constitution or Mos maiorum (Latin for "custom of the ancestors" was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly The Constitution of the Roman Kingdom or Mos maiorum (Latin for "customs of the ancestors" was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles The Constitution of the Roman Republic or Mos maiorum (Latin for "customs of the ancestors" was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles The Constitution of the Roman Empire or Mos maiorum (Latin for "customs of the ancestors" was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed The Constitution of the Late Roman Empire or Mos maiorum (Latin for "customs of the ancestors" was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles The History of the Roman Constitution is a study of Ancient Rome that traces the progression of Roman political development from the founding of the city of Rome The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. The Roman Assemblies were institutions in Ancient Rome. They functioned as the machinery of the Roman legislative branch and thus (theoretically at least passed all legislation The Roman Magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected Political office of the Roman Republic and the Empire. Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before Quaestors were originally appointed by the Consuls to investigate criminal acts and determine if the consul needed to take public action A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office Aedile ( Aedilis, from aedes aedis "temple" "building" was an office of the Roman Republic. A Censor was a magistrate of high rank in the ancient Roman Republic. A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the Dictator was a Political office of the Roman Republic. The dictator was above the three branches of government in the Constitution of the Roman Republic The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases is a historical position of varying importance in several European nations The Tribuni militum consulari potestate, or Consular Tribunes were Tribunes elected with Consular power during the Conflict of the Orders The King of Rome ( Latin: rex regis) was the Chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom. The term triumvirate (from Latin, "of three men" is commonly used to describe a political regime dominated by three powerful individuals Decemviri (singular decemvir) is a Latin term meaning "Ten Men" which designates any such commission in the Roman Republic (cf The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was a general in the Roman army, equivalent to a modern general officer Dux (plural duces) is Latin for leader (from the verb ducere, 'to lead' and could refer to anyone who commanded troops such Officium (plural officia) is a Latin word with various meanings in Ancient Rome, including "service" "(sense of duty" "courtesy" Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: "make in front" i Vicarius is a Latin word meaning substitute or deputy. It is the root and origin of the English word " Vicar " and Cognate to the Persian The Vigintisexviri (sing vigintisexvir) was a college ( collegium) of minor magistrates ( magistratus minores) in the Roman Republic The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant with special tasks of attending and guarding Magister militum ( Latin for "Master of the Soldiers" was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of The Latin word Imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the first member by precedence of the Roman Senate. The Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the Ancient Roman College of Pontiffs. Augustus (plural augusti) Latin for "majestic" "the increaser" or "venerable" was an Ancient Roman Caesar (plural Caesars Latin: Caesar (plural Caesares is a Title of imperial character Tetrarchy ( Greek: "leadership of four " can be applied to any system of government where power is divided between four individuals Roman law is the legal system of Ancient Rome. As used in the West the term commonly refers to legal developments prior to the Roman/Byzantine state's adopting Imperium in a broad sense translates as power. In Ancient Rome the concept applied to People, and meant something like "power The mos maiorum (lit ways of the ancestors) were the ancestral Traditions an unwritten code of Laws and conduct of the Collegiality is the relationship between colleagues Definition of collegiality Colleagues are those explicitly united in a common Purpose and respecting Citizenship in the time of Ancient Rome was a privileged status afforded to certain individuals with respect to laws property and governance Auctoritas is a Latin word and is the origin of English " Authority " The cursus honorum ( Latin: "course of honors" or "honors race" was the sequential order of Public offices held by aspiring Information on politics by country is available for every Country, including both De jure and De facto independent Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The Roman Magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial It derived originally from the representatives of the tribes (tribus) into which the Roman people were divided for military and voting purposes. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC
The magistracy of Tribune of the Plebeians or Tribune of the people (Latin tribunus plebis) was established in 494 BC, about fifteen years after the traditional foundation of the Roman Republic in 509 BC. Events By place Persian empire Having successfully captured several of the revolting Greek city-states the The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the The plebeians of Rome seceded from the city as a group until the patricians agreed to establish an office that would have sacrosanctity (sacrosanctitas), the right to be legally protected from any physical harm, and the right of help (ius auxiliandi), the right to rescue any plebeian from the hands of a patrician magistrate. Plebs were the general body of landowners of Roman Citizens in Ancient Rome. Secessio plebis ( withdrawal of the commoners, or Secession of the Plebs) was an informal exercise of power by Rome's Plebeian citizens similar to a general Later, the tribunes acquired a far more formidable power, the right of intercession (ius intercessionis), to veto any act or proposal of any magistrate, including another tribune of the people (veto is Latin for "I forbid"). A veto, Latin for "I forbid" is used to Denote that a certain party has the right to stop unilaterally a certain piece of Legislation. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. As the chief representative of the Roman plebeians, the tribune's house was required to be open to all at all times, day or night.
The ten tribunes of the plebeians were elected by the Concilium Plebis, each to a term of one year. The Plebeian Council ( Latin: concilium plebis) was the principal popular assembly of the ancient Roman Republic. Under the popular principle of Rotation in office, an incumbent tribune was ineligible for reelection. Rotation in office, or term limits dates back to the American Revolution and prior to that to the democracies and republics of antiquity 
The tribune also had the power to exercise capital punishment against any person who interfered in the performance of his duties (the favourite threat of the tribune was therefore to have someone thrown from the Tarpeian Rock). Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. The Tarpeian Rock ( rupes Tarpeia) was a steep cliff of the southern summit of the Capitoline Hill, overlooking the Roman Forum in Ancient Rome The tribune's sacrosanctity was enforced by a solemn pledge of the plebeians to kill any person who harmed a tribune during his term of office. The tribune was the only magistrate that was able to convene the Concilium Plebis and acted as its president, which also gave him the exclusive right to propose legislation before it. Also, the tribune could summon the Senate and lay proposals before it. The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. The tribune's power, however, was only in effect while he was within Rome. His ability to veto did not affect provincial governors, and his right to sacrosanctity and to help only extended to a mile outside the walls of Rome. In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin provincia, pl provinciae) was the basic and until the Tetrarchy (circa A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the In about 450 BC the number of tribunes was raised to ten. Events By place Greece Athenian General Cimon sails to Cyprus with two hundred Triremes of the
Tribunes were required to be plebeians, and until 421 BC this was the only office open to them. Events By place Greece Nicias, the leader of the aristocratic and peace party in Athens and Pleistoanax, King of In the late Republic the patrician politician Clodius arranged for his adoption by a plebeian branch of his family, and successfully ran for the tribunate. The term " patrician " originally referred to a group of elite families in Ancient Rome, including both their natural and Publius Clodius Pulcher (born around 92 BC died January 18, 52 BC was a Roman Politician of the Populares cause chiefly remembered for his
When Lucius Cornelius Sulla was dictator he severely curtailed the tribunes of the plebeians by invalidating their power of veto and making it illegal for them to bring laws before the Concilium Plebis without the Senate's consent. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix ( Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX (c Dictator was a Political office of the Roman Republic. The dictator was above the three branches of government in the Constitution of the Roman Republic Afterwards, the tribune was restored to its former power during the consulship of Crassus and Pompey. Marcus Licinius Crassus ( Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS (ca Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation
Throughout the Republic and its fall, powerful individuals used the tribunes for their personal glory and gain. Clodius and Milo were both tribunes who used violence in the courts and government in order to achieve the needs and requests of Pompey and Caesar. Titus Annius Milo Papianus was a Roman political agitator the son of Gaius Papius Celsus, but adopted by his maternal grandfather Titus Annius Luscus. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation When the Senate refused to grant Caesar's veterans lands and a further governorship of Gaul, he turned to the tribunes with his demands and got them. Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western
Because it was legally impossible for a patrician to be a tribune of the plebeians, the first Roman emperor, Caesar Augustus, was offered instead all of the powers of the tribunate without actually holding the office (tribunitia potestas). The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was This formed one of the two main constitutional bases of Augustus' authority (the other was imperium proconsulare maius). Imperium in a broad sense translates as power. In Ancient Rome the concept applied to People, and meant something like "power It gave him the authority to convene the Senate. Also, he was sacrosanct, had the authority to veto (ius intercessionis), and could exercise capital punishment in the course of the performance of his duties.
Most emperors' reigns were dated by their assumption of tribunitia potestas, though some emperors, such as Tiberius, Titus, Trajan, Marcus Aurelius etc, had already received it during their predecessor's reign. Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (or Tiberius I) born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16 42 BC – March 16 AD 37) was the second Roman Titus Flavius Vespasianus, commonly known as Titus ( December 30 39 &ndash September 13 81) was a Roman Emperor who Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, commonly known as Trajan ( September 18 53 &ndash August 9 117) was a Roman Emperor who Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (often referred to as "the wise" ( April 26, 121 – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor Marcus Agrippa and Drusus II, though never emperors, also received tribunitia potestas. Agrippa redirects here For other uses of the name see Agrippa (disambiguation. Nero Claudius Drusus, later Drusus Julius Caesar (his adoptive name (13 BC- September 14 23) was the only child of Roman Emperor Tiberius
By extension from the technical Roman governmental usage, some modern politicians have been called "tribunes of the people. A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person "
Each year the Tribal Assembly elected 24 young men in their late twenties with senatorial ambitions to serve as Tribunes of the Soldiers' (tribunes militium). The Roman Assemblies were institutions in Ancient Rome. They functioned as the machinery of the Roman legislative branch and thus (theoretically at least passed all legislation The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. These 24 were distributed six to each of the consuls' four legions as the legions' commanding officers. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire For other uses see Legion The Roman Legion (from Latin legio "military levy Conscription," An officer is a member of an armed force who holds a position of authority
All middle-ranking officers of the legions were also titled tribunes, though they were unelected and junior to the tribunum militi. Messala, the villain in the 1880 novel Ben-Hur by Lew Wallace and its 1959 film, was a military tribune. Year 1880 ( MDCCCLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Ben-Hur A Tale of the Christ is a novel by Lew Wallace published on November 12, 1880 by Harper & Brothers. Lewis "Lew" Wallace ( April 10, 1827 February 15, 1905) was a lawyer governor Union general in the American Civil The year 1959 ( MCMLIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Ben-Hur (or Benhur is a 1959 Movie directed by William Wyler, and is the third film version of Lew Wallace 's novel Ben-Hur A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking
The duties of the tribunes of the treasury (tribuni aerarii) are somewhat shrouded in mystery. Originally they seem to have been tax collectors, but this power was slowly lost to other officials. By the end of the Republic it was a class of people slightly below the equites in wealth. In 70 B. C. the makeup of Roman juries was reformed, and 1/3 of all members were to be tribunes of the treasury.
Tribunal: a raised platform in front of the HQ used for addressing the troops or administering justice.
The "Tribunat", the French word for tribunate, derived from the Latin term tribunatus, meaning the office or term of a Roman tribunus (see above), was a collective organ of the young revolutionary French Republic composed of members styled tribun (the French for tribune), which, despite the apparent reference to one of ancient Rome's prestigious magistratures, never held any real political power as an assembly, its individual members no role at all.
It was instituted by Napoleon I Bonaparte's constitution of the revolutionary year VIII "in order to moderate the other powers" by discussing every legislative project and sending its orateurs ("orators", i. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. e. spokesmen) to defend or attack them in the Corps législatif. The Corps législatif was a part of the French legislature during the French Revolution and beyond Its 100 members were designated by the Senate from the list of citizens from 25 years up, and annually one fifth was renewed for a five-year term.
When it opposed the first parts of Bonaparte's proposed penal code, he made the Senate nominate 20 new members at once to replace the 20 first opponents to his politic; they accepted the historically important reform of penal law. As the Tribunate opposed new despotic projects, he got the Senate in year X to allow itself to dissolve the Tribunat. In XIII it was further downsized to 50 members. On August 16, 1807 it was abolished and never revived.