A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally, consists of a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states, though some modern theorists hold that contemporary tribes can only be understood in terms of their relationship to states. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population.
The term is often loosely used to refer to any non-Western or indigenous society. A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions Many anthropologists use the term to refer to societies organized largely on the basis of kinship, especially corporate descent groups (see clan and lineage). Kinship is a relationship between any entities that share a genealogical origin through either biological cultural or historical descent A clan is a group of People united by Kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor Kinship is a relationship between any entities that share a genealogical origin through either biological cultural or historical descent
Considerable debate takes place over how best to characterize tribes. Some of this debate stems from perceived differences between pre-state tribes and contemporary tribes; some of this debate reflects more general controversy over cultural evolution and colonialism. Sociocultural evolution(ism is an umbrella term for theories of cultural evolution and Social evolution, describing how Cultures and societies See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism In the popular imagination, tribes reflect a way of life that predates, and is more "natural", than that in modern states. Nature, in the broadest sense is equivalent to the natural world, physical universe, material world or material universe. Tribes also privilege primordial social ties, are clearly bounded, homogeneous, parochial, and stable. Thus, many believed that tribes organize links between families (including clans and lineages), and provide them with a social and ideological basis for solidarity that is in some way more limited than that of an "ethnic group" or of a "nation". A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered Anthropological and ethnohistorical research has challenged all of these notions. Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of Ethnohistory is the study of ethnographic cultures and indigenous customs by examining historical records.
In his 1972 study, The Notion of Tribe, Morton Fried provided numerous examples of tribes, the members of which spoke different languages and practised different rituals, or that shared languages and rituals with members of other tribes. Morton Herbert Fried ( March 21, 1923 in Bronx New York - December 17, 1986 in Leonia New Jersey) was a distinguished Professor Similarly, he provided examples of tribes where people followed different political leaders, or followed the same leaders as members of other tribes. He concluded that tribes in general are characterized by fluid boundaries and heterogeneity, are not parochial, and are dynamic.
Archaeologists continue to explore the development of pre-state tribes. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos Current research suggests that tribal structures constituted one type of adaptation to situations providing plentiful yet unpredictable resources. Such structures proved flexible enough to co-ordinate production and distribution of food in times of scarcity, without limiting or constraining people during times of surplus.
Fried, however, proposed that most contemporary tribes do not have their origin in pre-state tribes, but rather in pre-state bands. A band society is the simplest form of human Society. A band generally consists of a small kin group no larger than an Extended family or Clan. Such "secondary" tribes, he suggested, actually came about as modern products of state expansion. Bands comprise small, mobile, and fluid social formations with weak leadership, that do not generate surpluses, pay no taxes and support no standing army. The word leadership can refer to Those entities that perform one or more acts of leading An army (from Latin Armata "act of arming" via Old French armée) in the broadest sense is the land-based Armed forces Fried argued that secondary tribes develop in one of two ways. First, states could set them up as means to extend administrative and economic influence in their hinterland, where direct political control costs too much.
States would encourage (or require) people on their frontiers to form more clearly bounded and centralized polities, because such polities could begin producing surpluses and taxes, and would have a leadership responsive to the needs of neighboring states (the so-called "scheduled" tribes of the United States or of British India provide good examples of this). Second, bands could form "secondary" tribes as a means to defend themselves against state expansion. Members of bands would form more clearly bounded and centralized polities, because such polities could begin producing surpluses that could support a standing army that could fight against states, and they would have a leadership that could coordinate economic production and military activities.