A traditional tribal chief is the leader of a tribe, or the head of a tribal form of self-government. The word leadership can refer to Those entities that perform one or more acts of leading A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally consists of a Social group existing before the development of or outside of States Many anthropologists use
The notion of a "tribal chief" is rather vague and arbitrary; neither chief nor tribe is clearly defined, so in many cases other designations are used for the same institution, such as petty ruler or even headman (in a very small but autonomous community, e. g. in the jungle). In some cases they merely lead a traditional consultative entity within a larger polity, in other cases tribal autonomy comes closer to statehood. A chieftain is a leader of a tribe.
There are many variations on it, but the most common types are the chairman of a council (usually of 'elders') and/or a (broader) popular assembly in 'parliamentary' cultures, the war chief (can be an alternative or additional post in war time), the hereditary chief, the politically dominant medicineman ('theocratic' cultures). The term Elder (or its equivalent in another language is used in several different countries and organizations to indicate a position of authority A popular assembly is a localized citizen gathering to address issues of importance to the community " Medicine man " is an English term used to describe Native American spiritual figures such individuals are often viewed by scholars concerned with these Theocracy is a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler
The term is usually distinct from chiefs at still lower levels, such as village headman (geographically defined) or clan chief (an essentially genealogical notion), as the notion 'tribal' rather requires an ethno-cultural identity (racial, linguistic, religious etc. for a list of the Scottish Chiefs and their clan see Scottish clans. ) as well as some political (representative, legislative, executive and/or judicial) expression.
Adivasi in Sanskrit refers to indigenous people who are living from ages. Ādivāsīs (in Devanagari script: आदिवासी literally "original inhabitants" comprise a substantial indigenous minority of the population (Adi meaning first and vasi meaning habitant. ) These tribes do have "Chiefs" and they are referred by various names. The north eastern states of India with a large tribal population is a valid case study, with tribal chiefs enjoying a lot of power and status in the region. See also Rigvedic tribes. The Indo-Aryan tribes mentioned in the Rigveda are described as semi- Nomadic pastoralists subdivided into temporary settlements ( vish, viś and headed
The Solomon Islands have a Local Court Act which empowers chiefs to deal with crimes in their communities. The Solomon Islands is a country in Melanesia, east of Papua New Guinea, consisting of nearly one thousand islands
In Scotland, the Lord Lyon decides who is the rightful chief of each clan. Scottish clans (from Scottish Gaelic clann, "children" give a sense of identity and shared descent to people in Scotland and to their relations for a list of the Scottish Chiefs and their clan see Scottish clans. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. The Lord Lyon King of Arms, the head of Lyon Court, is the most junior of the Great Officers of State in Scotland and is the Scottish official with responsibility However, the role of clan chief is now largely ceremonial, and has little power. for a list of the Scottish Chiefs and their clan see Scottish clans.
Generally, a tribe or nation are considered to be part of an ethnic group, usually sharing cultural values. Geronimo ( Chiricahua: Goyaałé, "one who yawns" often spelled Goyathlay or Goyahkla in English ( June 16 1829 Chiricahua (also Chiricahua Apaches, Chiricagui, Apaches de Chiricahui, Chiricahues, Chilicague, Chilecagez, A personal and cultural value is a Relative ethic value, an assumption upon which implementation can be extrapolated For example, the forest-dwelling Chippewa historically built dwellings from the bark of trees, as opposed to the Great Plains-dwelling tribes, who would not have access to trees, except by trade, for example for lodgepoles. A forest is an area with a high density of Trees There are many definitions of a forest based on various criteria The Ojibwa or Chippewa (also Ojibwe, Ojibway, Chippeway) is the largest group of Native Americans - First Nations The Great Plains are the broad expanse of Prairie and Steppe which lie east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada Lodgepole Pine ( Pinus contorta) is a common Tree in western North America. Thus the tribes of the Great Plains might typically dwell in skin-covered tipis rather than bark lodges. A tipi' (also teepee, tepee) is a conical Tent originally made of animal skins or birch bark and popularized by the Native Americans But some Plains tribes built their lodges of earth, as for example the Pawnee; the Pueblo people built their dwellings of stone and earth; some Puebloans were matrilineal. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 The Pawnee (also Paneassa, Pari, Pariki) are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the Platte, Loup and The Pueblo people are a Native American people in the Southwestern United States. Matrilineality is a system in which lineage is traced through the mother and maternal ancestors
A chief might be considered to hold political power, say by oratory or by example. But on the North American continent, it was historically possible to evade the political power of another by migration. The Mingos, for example, were Iroquois who migrated further west to the sparsely populated Ohio Country during the 18th century. The Mingo are an Iroquois group of Native Americans that migrated west to the Ohio Country in the mid-eighteenth century The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains Two Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois, Hiawatha and the Great Peacemaker, formulated a constitution for the Iroquois Confederation. Hiawatha (also known as Ayenwatha or Haiëñ'wa'tha; Onondaga) who lived (depending on the version of the story in the 1100s 1400s or 1500s he The Great Peacemaker, sometimes referred to as Deganawida or "Dekanawida" (although as a mark of respect some Iroquois avoid referring to him by this name The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse
The tribes were pacified by units of the US Army in the nineteenth century, and were also subject to forced schooling in the decades afterward. Thus it is uncommon for today's tribes to have a purely Native American cultural background, and today Native Americans are simply another ethnicity of the secular American people. Since education is respected, some like Peter McDonald, a Navajo, left their jobs in the mainstream US economy to become chairman of the tribal council. Peter McDonald was first elected tribal council chairman of the Navajo nation in 1970
Not all tribal leaders need be men; Wilma Mankiller (1945- ) was a well-known Chief of the Cherokee Nation. Wilma Pearl Mankiller (born November 18, 1945 in Tahlequah Oklahoma) was the first female Chief of the Cherokee Nation. The Cherokee (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ a-ni-yv-wi-ya, in the Cherokee language) are a people native to North America, who at the time of European contact Also, though the seat of power might be the chief, they were not free to wield power without the consent of a council of elders. For example: Cherokee men were not permitted to go to war without the consent of the council of women.
Historically the US government treated tribes as seats of political power, and made treaties with the tribes as legal entities. But frequently the territority of the tribes fell under the authority of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) as reservations held in trust for the tribes. History Although the bureau which was called the Office of Indian Affairs was formed in 1824 similar agencies had existed in the U Citizenship was formerly considered a tribal matter. For example, it was not until 1924 that the Pueblo people were granted US citizenship, and it was not until 1948 that the Puebloans were granted the right to vote in state elections in New Mexico. The Pueblo people are a Native American people in the Southwestern United States. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. In Wisconsin, the Menominee Nation has its own county Menominee County, Wisconsin with special car license plates; 87% of the county's population is Native American. Some placenames use other spellings see also Menomonee and Menomonie. Menominee County is a county in the US state of Wisconsin. As of 2000 the population was 4562
Secular (mainstream) Americans often find pride and comfort in realizing that at least part of their ethnic ancestry is Native American, although the connection is usually only sentimental and not economic or cultural. Thus there is some political power in one's ability to claim a Native American connection (as in the Black Seminole). The Black Seminoles are descendants of free Africans and some Runaway slaves who escaped from coastal South Carolina and Georgia into the Florida wilderness
Since the Nations were sovereign, with Treaty rights with the Federal government, the Wisconsin tribes innovated Indian gaming (1988), that is, on-reservation gambling casinos, a 14 billion dollar industry, nationwide. Indian Gaming enterprises comprise Gambling businesses operated on Indian reservations or tribal land which have limited Sovereignty and therefore the ability This has been imitated in many of the respective states which still have Native American tribes. The money to be made has engendered some political scandal. For example, the Tigua tribe, which fled their ancestral lands in New Mexico during the Pueblo revolt of 1680, and who then settled on land in El Paso County, Texas has paid 4.2 million dollars in political contributions in Texas for a low probable return to the tribe because of the Jack Abramoff publicity. El Paso County is the westernmost County in the US state of Texas. Jack Abramoff (born February 28 1959 is a former Lobbyist, and a businessman who was a central figure in a series of high-profile political scandals.
Many of the tribes use professional management for their money. Thus the Mescalero Apache have renovated their Inn of the Mountain Gods to include gambling as well as the previous tourism, lodging, and skiing in the older Inn, as of 2005. Mescalero (or Mescalero Apache) is a Native American tribe of Southern Athabaskan heritage currently living on the Mescalero Apache Indian Reservation
The Navajo nation defeated bids to open casinos in 1994, but by 2004, the Shiprock casino was a fait accompli. Shiprock, ( Tsé Bit'a'í, "rock with wings" or "winged rock" is a rock formation rising nearly above the high-desert plain on the Navajo Nation Here are some examples of French words and phrases used by English speakers.
See also: Economy of the Iroquois
There are distinct differences between the modern day "Chair" of a sovereign Indian Nation's governing body and the role of "Chief". The economy of the Iroquois originally focused on communal production and combined elements of both Horticulture and Hunter-gatherer systems Generally speaking, while each is organized in its own distinct way, there are loose similarities to the British system blending ceremony and government. The individual who "chairs" the governing body is akin to Prime Minister and the "Chief" is more akin to a monarch or spiritual leader.
Many Native American tribes in the United States have formed a leadership council, often called the "Tribal Council", and have a leader of the council who generally carries the title of "Chair" (Chairman, Chairperson, Chairwoman). Native American tribe means any Indigenous peoples in the United States tribe band nation or other organized group or community extant or historical Some simply appoint a "spokesperson" for the Tribal Council. Generally the leadership position is either elected by popular vote of the tribal membership or appointed/elected from among his/her elected tribal council peers in a more parliamentary type of approach. Many of today's tribal chairs are women.
All too often non-Native Americans naively refer to the individual who chairs the governmental organization as "Chief", incorrectly. Presumably many are familiar with the mystic of a "Chief" as he is often portrayed on film or in literature. That individual is recognized because of birthright or perhaps some spiritual circumstance.
Many Tribes do still recognize the rightful "Chief" as part of ceremonial and culture events in a way somewhat similar to the role of, or difference to, a modern-day British monarch.
There are over 100 tribal governments in the United States.
Many minority ethnic groups in many countries have founded semi-autonomous regions in their part of the country such as the Kurds in Iraq. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Also, weak governments in Africa usually have no control over far-flung regions with ethnic minorities. During the 600 BC to 200 BC Period, there were many tribes in India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Tribal Chief, also known as Raja in those times, lead the tribe and was generally the oldest and wisest in the tribe.
In Gaelic Ireland, up to its destruction in the 16th Century, hundreds of families such as the Cunninghams, O'Neills, MacCarthys and O'Flahertys, organised as clans like tribes, were ruled by tribal chiefs of the name or taoisigh (a title later adopted for the prime minister of the Republic of Ireland), titled according to their surname as The O'Neill, The O'Flaherty etc. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Cunningham is a Family name. Notable people with the family name include Abe Cunningham, American drummer Alan Cunningham, British O'Flaherty is a major Irish Clan, originally called the Muintir Mhurchadha of which the name Ua Flaithbertaig became the name of its ruling dynasty For the Scottish form of Chief of the Name see Scottish clan chief. The Taoiseach (ˈtiːʃəx in English t̪ˠiːʃʲəx (plural Taoisigh ( or) in Irish) also referred to as An Taoiseach ( t̪ˠiːʃʲəx is the the Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. This system came to an end at the end of the 16th century.
The following lists are doubtlessly quite incomplete
^ The Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois has an exhibit on the Pawnee earth lodge. An Orkoiyot is the supreme chief of the Nandi people of Kenya. Iroijlaplap is the Title given to the Paramount chiefs in the Marshall Islands. Ratu is a title used by Fijians of chiefly rank An equivalent title Adi (andi is used by females of chiefly rank The Field Museum of Natural History is located in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. The Pawnee (also Paneassa, Pari, Pariki) are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the Platte, Loup and
^ The Field Museum has exhibits with artifacts, dress, tools and pottery of the Pueblo people, the Northwest tribes, the Plains tribes and the Woodland tribes, especially those of the Midwest. The Field Museum of Natural History is located in Chicago, Illinois, USA. The Pueblo people are a Native American people in the Southwestern United States. The Pacific Northwest is a region in the northwest of North America (the term refers to the land not the ocean The Plains Indians are the Indigenous peoples who live on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America.