|Part of the common law series|
|Assault · Battery · False imprisonment|
|Intentional infliction of|
emotional distress (IIED)
|Consent · Necessity · Self defense|
|Trespass · Conversion|
|Detinue · Replevin · Trover|
|Defamation · Invasion of privacy|
|Breach of confidence · Abuse of process|
|Alienation of affections|
|Fraud · Tortious interference|
|Conspiracy · Restraint of trade|
|Public nuisance · Rylands v. Fletcher|
|Duty of care · Standard of care|
|Proximate cause · Res ipsa loquitur|
|Calculus of negligence|
|Rescue doctrine · Duty to rescue|
|Specific kinds of negligence|
|Negligent infliction of|
emotional distress (NIED)
|In employment · Entrustment|
|Duty to visitors|
|Trespassers · Licensees · Invitees|
|Strict liability torts|
|Product liability · Ultrahazardous activity|
|Liability, defences, remedies|
|Comparative and contributory negligence|
|Last clear chance · Eggshell skull|
|Vicarious liability · Volenti non fit injuria|
|Ex turpi causa non oritur actio|
|Damages · Injunction|
|Contract law · Property law|
|Wills and trusts|
|Criminal law · Evidence|
In the law of torts, property, and criminal law a trespasser is a person who is trespassing on a property, that is, without the permission of the owner. Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive Jurassic Park Trespasser (also known as Trespasser) is a Computer game, which was released in 1998 for Microsoft Windows after much hype Tort law is the name given to a body of law that creates and provides remedies for civil wrongs that do not arise out of Contractual duties Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive An intentional tort is a category of Torts that describes a civil wrong resulting from an intentional act on the part of the Tortfeasor. For other uses of the term "Assault" please see Assault (disambiguation. At Common law, battery is the Tort of intentionally (or in Australia, negligently and voluntarily bringing about an unconsented harmful or offensive False imprisonment is a Tort, and possibly a Crime, wherein a person is intentionally confined without legal authority Intentional infliction of emotional distress ( IIED) is a Tort claim of recent origin for intentional conduct that results in extreme emotional distress Consent as a term of jurisprudence is a possible defence (an Excuse or justification against civil or criminal liability In Tort common law the defense of necessity gives the state or an individual a privilege to take or use the property of another The right of self-defense (also called alter ego defense, defense of others, defense of a third person) is the right for civilians acting on their Trespass (Fr trespas a crime properly a stepping across from Lat In Law, conversion is an intentional Tort to Personal property (same as Chattel) where defendant's unjustified willful interference with the In Tort law, detinue is an action for the wrongful detention of goods Replevin is an Anglo - French Law term It is the noun form of the verb "replevy" (from Old French "replevir" derived from "plevir" Trover is a form of lawsuit in Common-law countries for recovery of damages for wrongful taking of personal property Privacy law is the area of law concerning the protection and preservation of the Privacy rights of individuals The Tort of breach of confidence, is a Common law tort that protects private information that is conveyed in confidence Abuse of process is a Common law intentional Tort. It is to be distinguished from Malicious prosecution, another type of tort that involves misuse of the Malicious prosecution is a Common law intentional Tort, while like the tort of Abuse of process, its elements include (1 intentionally (and At Common law, alienation of affections is a Tort action brought by a deserted spouse against a third party alleged to be responsible for the failure of the Marriage Economic torts are Torts that provide the Common law rules on liability for the infliction of Pure economic loss, such as interference with economic or business In the broadest sense a fraud is a Deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual Tortious interference, in the Common law of Tort, occurs when a person intentionally damages the Plaintiff 's Contractual or other business relationships A civil conspiracy or Collusion is an agreement between two or more parties to deprive a third party of legal rights or deceive a third party to obtain an illegal objective Restraint of trade is a Common law doctrine relating to the enforceability of contractual restrictions on freedom to conduct business Nuisance (through Fr noisance nuisance from Lat nocere to hurt is a Common law Tort. For the law of Tort, see Nuisance In the English Criminal law, public nuisance is a class of Common law offence Rylands v Fletcher ( 1868) LR 3 HL 330 is a landmark English legal case in which the Court of the Exchequer Chamber first applied the doctrine Negligence (Lat negligentia from negligere to neglect literally "not to pick up" is a legal concept in the Common law legal systems usually used to In tort law, a duty of care is a legal obligation imposed on an individual requiring that they adhere to a reasonable Standard of care while performing any acts For the English law, see Standard of care in English law. In Tort law, the standard of care is the degree of prudence and caution For English law, see Causation in English law In the Law, a proximate cause is an event sufficiently related to a legally recognizable injury Res ipsa loquitur is a legal term from the Latin meaning "the thing itself speaks" but is more often translated "the thing speaks for itself In the United States, the calculus of negligence, or "Hand rule" is a term coined by Judge Learned Hand and describes a process for determining whether The rescue doctrine of the Law of Torts holds that if a Tortfeasor creates a circumstance that places the tort victim in danger the tortfeasor is A duty to rescue is a concept in Tort law that arises in a narrow number of cases describing a circumstance in which a party can be held liable for failing to come The Tort of negligent infliction of emotional distress (NIED is a controversial legal theory and is not accepted in many United States Jurisdictions Negligence in employment encompasses several causes of action in Tort law which arise where an Employer is held liable for Negligence of an Employee Negligent entrustment is a cause of action in Tort law that arises where one party (the entrustor is held liable for Negligence because they negligently provided In Law, malpractice is a type of negligence in which the Misfeasance, Malfeasance or Nonfeasance of a Professional, under a duty This article is about the Common law concept of a licensee see here for information on Licenses A licensee is a term used In the Law of Torts an invitee is a person who is invited to land by the possessor of the land as a member of the public or one who's invited to the land Attractive nuisance redirects here For the album see Attractive Nuisance. Product liability is the area of law in which manufacturers distributors suppliers retailers and others who make products available to the public are held responsible for the injuries An ultrahazardous activity in the Common law of Torts is one that is so inherently dangerous that a person engaged in such an activity can be held Strictly liable In the United States, comparative negligence is a partial defense that reduces the amount of damages that a plaintiff can recover in a negligence-based claim based upon Contributory negligence is a Common law defense to a claim based on negligence an action in Tort. The last clear chance is a doctrine in the Law of Torts that is employed in Contributory negligence jurisdictions The eggshell skull rule (or thin-skull rule) is a Legal doctrine used in both Tort law and Criminal law that holds an individual liable This article is about vicarious liability in private litigation for vicarious liability in criminal law see Vicarious liability (criminal. Volenti non fit injuria ( Latin: "to a willing person no injury is done" or "no injury is done to a person who consents" is a Common law In civil law, especially Contract law, ex turpi causa non oritur actio is the doctrine that an action may not be founded on illegality In Law, damages refers to the money paid or awarded to a Claimant (England Pursuer (Scotland or Plaintiff (US following a successful An injunction is an Equitable remedy in the form of a Court order, whereby a party is required to do or interact with in certain ways all right or to refrain from Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive A contract is an exchange of promises between two or more parties to do or refrain from doing an act which is enforceable in a court of law Property law is the area of Law that governs the various forms of Ownership in Real property (land as distinct from personal or movable possessions In Common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the Testator) regulates the rights of others over his or her Property The law of trusts and estates is generally considered the body of Law which governs the management of personal affairs and the Disposition of Property of The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different Jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential The Law of evidence governs the use of Testimony (eg oral or written statements such as an Affidavit) and exhibits (e Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Tort law is the name given to a body of law that creates and provides remedies for civil wrongs that do not arise out of Contractual duties Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different Jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential Trespass (Fr trespas a crime properly a stepping across from Lat Being present on land as a trespasser thereto creates liability in the trespasser, so long as the trespass is intentional. At the same time, the status of a visitor as a trespasser (as opposed to an invitee or a licensee) defines the legal rights of the visitor if they are injured due to the negligence of the property owner. In the Law of Torts an invitee is a person who is invited to land by the possessor of the land as a member of the public or one who's invited to the land This article is about the Common law concept of a licensee see here for information on Licenses A licensee is a term used Negligence (Lat negligentia from negligere to neglect literally "not to pick up" is a legal concept in the Common law legal systems usually used to
The tort of trespass to land requires an intentional physical invasion of the plaintiff's real property by the defendant. A plaintiff ( Π in Legal shorthand) also known as a claimant or complainant, is the party who initiates a Lawsuit In the Common law, real property (or realty) refers to one of the two main classes of Property, the other class being Personal property (
The intent need not be to commit a trespass, but merely to go to a specific geographic place - if a person walking in a public park errantly leaves the park and enters private property, they are liable for trespass, even though they did not know that they had entered private land. However, a person who ends up on land where they did not intend to go is not liable for trespass. For example, a person walking in a public park who trips and rolls down a hill will not be liable for trespass just because the bottom of the hill is on private land.
The trespasser need not enter the land in person. Throwing any physical object onto the land of another - a rock, a clod of dirt, a bucket of water - is a trespass. Indeed, if A and B are standing next to C's land, and A pushes B onto the land without entering it himself, it is A (and not B, who did not intend to enter that space) who is liable for the trespass to C's land. There must be some physical entry, however. Causing noise, light, odors, or smoke to enter the land of another is not a trespass, but is instead a different tort, nuisance. Nuisance (through Fr noisance nuisance from Lat nocere to hurt is a Common law Tort.
For purposes of determining liability, the landowner's property rights extend above and below the land to as much distance as the landowner can beneficially use. Even a low-flying plane can trespass if it enters this usable space.
A constructive trespass occurs when a person who has permission to be on the land overstays their welcome. A person who stays in a business after its closing time, or who goes to a dinner party but refuses to leave long after the other guests have gone home, is a trespasser despite his initially proper presence. Furthermore, a guest's status as a trespasser arises as soon as he resists the property owner's command for him to leave the property.
With respect to the duties owed to trespassers, there are two types of trespassers to consider. First, there is the undiscovered trespasser, to whom the property owner owes no duty whatsoever. Second, there is the anticipated or discovered trespasser. To those parties, the landowner owes a duty of common humanity (See British Railways Board v. Herrington)—a duty to warn them of deadly conditions on the land which would be hidden to them, but of which the property owner is aware. A duty to warn is a concept that arises in the Law of Torts in a number of circumstances indicating that a party will be held liable for injuries caused A warning sign at the entrance to the land will suffice for this purpose. However, a property owner is under no duty to ascertain hazards on his property, and cannot be held liable for failing to discover a deadly hazard which injures a trespasser.
Furthermore, an adult trespasser who is injured while on a defendant's property cannot sue under a theory of strict liability, even if the landowner was engaged in ultrahazardous activities, such as the keeping of wild animals, or the use of explosives. Strict liability is a Legal doctrine that makes a person responsible for the damage and loss caused by his/her acts and omissions regardless of Culpability (or fault An ultrahazardous activity in the Common law of Torts is one that is so inherently dangerous that a person engaged in such an activity can be held Strictly liable Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants animals and other organisms An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise Energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied Instead, the trespasser must prove that the property owner intentionally or wantoning injured the plaintiff to recover. The exception is a child who is trespassing to play on ultra-hazardous items on the land. Since these trespassers are considered "anticipated" they are excepted under the doctrine of attractive nuisance. Attractive nuisance redirects here For the album see Attractive Nuisance.
A property owner may use reasonable (nondeadly) force to prevent a person from trespassing on his, her or its land, or to expel a trespasser. However, a property owner may not force a trespasser off his land if doing so would expose the trespasser to a risk of serious injury. For example, a trespasser who takes shelter in a stranger's barn during a powerful storm cannot be expelled until the storm is over.