In the Treaty of Verdun of 843 the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, Charlemagne's grandsons, divided his territories, the Carolingian Empire, into three kingdoms. Verdun (medieval Wirten official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a city and commune Events By Place Europe The Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian Empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Louis the Pious (778 &ndash 20 June 840) also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781 and co-Emperor Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his Carolingian Empire is a historiographical term sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the Carolingian dynasty. Though often presented as the beginning of a devolution or dissolution of Charlemagne's unitary empire, it in fact reflected the continued adherence to the Germanic, and therefore Frankish, idea of a partible or divisible inheritance rather than primogeniture, inheritance by the eldest son. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group Partible inheritance is a general term applied to systems of Inheritance in which property may be apportioned among Heirs It contrasts in particular Primogeniture is the Common law right of the Firstborn son to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings
When Louis the Pious died in 840, the eldest son, Lothair I, claimed overlordship over his brothers' kingdoms and supported the claim of his nephew Pepin II as king of Aquitaine. Lothair I ( German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 &ndash 29 September 855) Pepin II, called the Younger (823 &ndash after 864 in Senlis) was King of Aquitaine from 838 as the successor upon the death of his father Pepin Aquitaine (Aquitània Akitania archaic Guyenne / Guienne (Occitan Guiana) is one of the 26 Regions of France, in the south-western part of After his brothers Louis the German and Charles the Bald defeated his forces at the Battle of Fontenay (841) and sealed their alliance with the Oath of Strasbourg (842), Lothair was willing to negotiate. Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian) (806 &ndash August 28, 876 Charles the Bald ( 13 June 823 – 6 October 877) Holy Roman Emperor (875–877 as Charles II) and King of West Francia Contention over the division of the Carolingian Empire between the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious culminated in the decisive Battle of Fontenay-en-Puisaye The Oaths of Strasbourg ( Modern French: les serments de Strasbourg, Modern German: die Straßburger Eide, Latin Sacramenta Events By Place Europe February 14 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German sign a treaty
Each of the brothers was already established in one kingdom - Lothair in Italy, Louis the German in Bavaria, and Charles the Bald in Aquitaine. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian) (806 &ndash August 28, 876 Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 Charles the Bald ( 13 June 823 – 6 October 877) Holy Roman Emperor (875–877 as Charles II) and King of West Francia Aquitaine (Aquitània Akitania archaic Guyenne / Guienne (Occitan Guiana) is one of the 26 Regions of France, in the south-western part of
Lothair retired Italy to his eldest son Louis II in 844, making him co-Emperor in 850. Louis II the Younger (825 &ndash 12 August 875) was the King of Italy from 844 and then Emperor from 855 until his death Events By Place Asia Emperor Montoku succeeds Emperor Nimmyō as Emperor of Japan. Lothair died in 855, dividing his kingdom into three parts: the territory already held by Louis remained his, the territory of the former Kingdom of Burgundy was granted to his third son Charles of Provence, and the remaining territory to his second son Lothair II, after whom the hitherto nameless territory was called Lotharingia. Events By Place Europe Louis II succeeds Lothar as Western Emperor Burgundy (Bourgogne Burgund is a region historically situated in modern-day France and Switzerland, inhabited in turn by Celts ( Gauls) Charles of Provence (845 &ndash 24 January 863) was the Carolingian King of Provence from 855 until his early death in 863 Lothair II ( 835 - August 8, 869) was the second son of Emperor Lothair I and Ermengarde of Tours. --> Lotharingia or Lorraine was a short-lived kingdom in
Louis II, dissatisfied with having received no additional territory with his father's death, allied with his uncle Louis the German against his brother Lothair and his uncle Charles the Bald in 858. Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian) (806 &ndash August 28, 876 Lothair was reconciled with his brother and uncle shortly after, though Charles was so unpopular he could not raise an army to fight the invasion and fled to Burgundy, he was only saved when the bishops refused to crown Louis the German King. Charles the Bald invaded Charles of Provence's Kingdom of Burgundy in 860, but was repulsed. Charles of Provence (845 &ndash 24 January 863) was the Carolingian King of Provence from 855 until his early death in 863 Lothair II ceded lands to Louis II in 862 for support of a divorce from his wife, which caused repeated conflicts with the Pope and his uncles. Pope Charles of Burgundy died in 863, and his Kingdom was inherited by Louis II.
Lothair II died in 869 with no legitimate heirs, and his Kingdom was divided between Charles the Bald and Louis the German in 870 by the Treaty of Meerssen. The Treaty of Meerssen or Mersen in 870 was an agreement of the division of the Carolingian Empire by the surviving sons of Louis I, Charles Meanwhile, Louis the German was involved with disputes with his three sons. Louis II died in 875, and named Carloman, the eldest son of Louis the German, his heir. Charles the Bald, supported by the Pope, was crowned both King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor. The following year, Louis the German died. Charles tried to annex his realm too, but was defeated decisively at Andernach, and the Kingdom of the eastern Franks was divided between Louis the Younger, Carloman of Bavaria and Charles the Fat. Andernach (pronounced) is a town in the district of Mayen-Koblenz, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany of currently about 30000 inhabitants which are Louis the Younger (835 &ndash 20 January 882) sometimes Louis III, was the second eldest of the three sons of Louis the German and Charles the Fat (Carolus Pinguis 13 June 839 – 13 January 888) was the King of Alemannia from 876 King of Italy from
The division of the Frankish realm by the Treaty of Verdun influenced conflicts in Western Europe as late as the 20th century. The Middle Frankish Kingdom was not a viable entity, and soon fragmented. This made it difficult for a single ruler to reassemble Charlemagne's empire. Only Charles the Fat ever did so, and even then only briefly. Charles the Fat (Carolus Pinguis 13 June 839 – 13 January 888) was the King of Alemannia from 876 King of Italy from In 855 the northern section of this central portion became the fragile entity of Lotharingia, the fragments of which would long be disputed by the more powerful states that evolved out of West Francia, and East Francia, that is France, various Germanic states, and in the 19th and 20th centuries, united Germany. French–German hereditary enmity (Deutsch–französische Erbfeindschaft Esprit de revanche describes the three centuries of hostile relations and Revanchism The collapse of the Middle Frankish Kingdom also compounded the disunity of the Italian Peninsula, which persisted into the 19th century.