A trauma center is a hospital equipped to provide comprehensive emergency medical services to patients suffering traumatic injuries 24 hours a day, 365 days per year. A hospital is an institution for Health care providing treatment by specialised staff and equipment and often but not always providing for Emergency medical services (abbreviated to the initialism "EMS" in many countries are a branch of Emergency services dedicated to providing out-of-hospital Treatment of physical trauma is described here and in First aid. Trauma centers were established as the medical establishment realized that such injuries often require immediate and complex treatment, including surgery, to save the patient. Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē, via chirurgiae meaning "hand work" is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental
In order to qualify as a trauma center, a hospital must have a number of facilities, including a high-quality intensive-care ward and an operating room staffed around the clock. A trauma service is led by a team of trauma surgeons, including such specialists such as neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons. Trauma surgeons are physicians (MBBS MBChB MB MD or (DO who have completed residency training in general surgery and fellowship training in trauma or surgical critical Neurosurgery is the surgical discipline focused on treating those central, Peripheral nervous system and spinal column diseases amenable to surgical Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics (also spelled orthopaedics) is the branch of Surgery concerned with injuries to or conditions involving the
The operation of a trauma center is extremely expensive. Some areas are under-served by trauma centers because of this expense (for example, Harborview Medical Center in Seattle serves the states of Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Alaska). Harborview Medical Center, located on Seattle 's First Hill, is a public hospital in King County Washington and is managed by the University of Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The State of Idaho ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States of America. Montana ( is a state in the Western United States. One-third of the state in the western part contains numerous mountain ranges (approximately 77 named of the northern Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent In Florida, Orlando Regional Medical Center, built to serve five counties, serves more than twenty. Orlando Regional Medical Center (ORMC a 581-bed hospital in downtown Orlando specializes in trauma critical care emergency care cardiology orthopedics and neurosciences
As there is no way to schedule emergency services, the traffic of a trauma center can vary widely. Different methods have been developed for dealing with this. Halifax Health in Daytona Beach, Florida will soon deploy a "pod system," allowing the trauma center to act as several, small Emergency Departments. Halifax Health is the system of hospitals and professional centers spread across the Volusia and Flagler counties of the US state of Florida
A trauma center will often have a helipad for receiving patients that are airlifted to the hospital. The word helipad is a portmanteau meaning helicopter landing pad, a landing area for Helicopters Though helicopters can usually land anywhere flat a fabricated In many cases, persons injured in remote areas and brought to a trauma center by helicopter can receive faster and better care than a person injured in a city and taken to a hospital by ground ambulance. History Since 400 AD Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. An ambulance is a Vehicle for transporting sick or injured people to from or between places of treatment for an Illness or Injury.
The concept of a trauma center was developed at the University of Maryland, Baltimore in the 1960s and 1970s by heart surgeon and shock researcher R Adams Cowley, who founded what became the Shock Trauma Center in Baltimore, Maryland in 1961 . University of Maryland Baltimore, (also known as UMB) was founded in 1807 R Adams Cowley ( July 25, 1917 &ndash October 27, 1991) was an American Physician considered a pioneer in Emergency R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center (also known simply as Shock Trauma or Shocktrauma) is a Trauma center in Baltimore Maryland. Cook County Hospital in Chicago, Illinois claims to be the first trauma center (opened in 1966) in the United States. The John H Stroger Jr Hospital of Cook County (formerly Cook County Hospital and also known as the New Cook County Hospital) is a public urban teaching hospital Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States.  Dr. David R Boyd interned at Cook County Hospital from 1963-1964 before being drafted into the United States Army. The John H Stroger Jr Hospital of Cook County (formerly Cook County Hospital and also known as the New Cook County Hospital) is a public urban teaching hospital The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. Upon his release from the Army, Dr. Boyd became the first shock-trauma fellow at the Shock Trauma Center from 1967-1968. Dr. Boyd returned to Cook County Hospital, where he went on to serve as resident director of the Cook County Trauma Unit. 
In the United States, trauma centers are ranked by the American College of Surgeons (ACS), from level I (comprehensive service) to level III (limited-care). The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The American College of Surgeons is an educational association of Surgeons created in 1913 The different levels refer to the kinds of resources available in a trauma center and the number of patients admitted yearly. These are categories that define national standards for trauma care in hospitals. Level I and level II assignments are also given adult and or pediatric designations. For the 2008 British film by Noel Clarke see Adulthood (film. Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics) is the branch of Medicine that deals with the medical care of Infants Children and Adolescents  Additionally, some states have their own trauma center rankings separate from the ACS. These levels may range from level I to level IV.
A level I trauma center provides the highest level of surgical care to trauma patients. Treatment of physical trauma is described here and in First aid. It has a full range of specialists and equipment available 24 hours a day and admits a minimum required annual volume of severely injured patients. A level I trauma center is required to have a certain number of surgeons and anesthesiologists on duty 24 hours a day at the hospital, an education program, preventive and outreach programs. Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē, via chirurgiae meaning "hand work" is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental An anaesthetist ( English) or anesthesiologist ( US English) also "anaesthesiologist" is a medical doctor trained to administer Key elements include 24-hour in-house coverage by general surgeons and prompt availability of care in varying specialties such as orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, anesthesiology, emergency medicine, radiology, internal medicine, oral and maxillofacial surgery, and critical care, which are needed to adequately respond and care for various forms of trauma that a patient may suffer. Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics (also spelled orthopaedics) is the branch of Surgery concerned with injuries to or conditions involving the Neurosurgery is the surgical discipline focused on treating those central, Peripheral nervous system and spinal column diseases amenable to surgical Anesthesia, or anaesthesia (see spelling differences; from Greek grc αν- an-, "without" and grc αἲσθησις Emergency Medicine is a speciality of Medicine that focuses on the Diagnosis and treatment of acute illnesses and injuries that require immediate medical attention Radiology is the medical specialty directing Medical imaging technologies to diagnose and treat diseases Internal medicine is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis management and nonsurgical treatment of unusual or serious diseases Additionally, a Level I center has a program of research, is a leader in trauma education and injury prevention, and is a referral resource for communities in nearby regions.
Level I trauma center hospitals in most states in the U. S. (New York, and Pennsylvania among others are notable exceptions) are designated by the American College of Surgeons (ACS) for a period of three years. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern The American College of Surgeons is an educational association of Surgeons created in 1913 Pennsylvania has its own rankings system, based on the criteria of the Commonwealth's Trauma Foundation.
The ACS does not officially designate hospitals as regional trauma centers, however. Numerous U. S. hospitals that are not listed on the organization's trauma roster nevertheless refer to their emergency or trauma units as "level I trauma centers. " The ACS describes that responsibility as "a geopolitical process by which empowered entities, government or otherwise, are authorized to designate. " The ACS's self-appointed mission is limited to confirming and reporting on any given hospital's ability to comply with the ACS standard of care known as Resources for Optimal Care of the Injured Patient.
A level II trauma center works in collaboration with a Level I center. It provides comprehensive trauma care and supplements the clinical expertise of a level I institution. It provides 24-hour availability of all essential specialties, personnel, and equipment. Minimum volume requirements may depend on local conditions. These institutions are not required to have an ongoing program of research or a surgical residency program.
A level III trauma center does not have the full availability of specialists, but does have resources for emergency resuscitation, surgery, and intensive care of most trauma patients. A level III center has transfer agreements with level I or level II trauma centers that provide back-up resources for the care of exceptionally severe injuries.