|Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ|
(Republica Moldovenească Nistreană)
Приднестрóвская Молдáвская Респýблика
(Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika)
Придністровська Молдавська Республіка
(Pridnistrovs'ka Moldavs'ka Respublika)
Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
|Anthem: Anthem of Transnistria|
|Official languages||Moldovan, Russian, Ukrainian|
|Ethnic groups (2005)||32% Moldovans|
|Government||Internationally unrecognized semi-presidential republic|
|-||President of the Transnistrian Moldovan Republic||Igor Smirnov|
|Autonomous territory of the Republic of Moldova that is de facto independent|
|-||Declaration of Independence||September 2, 1990|
|-||War of Transnistria||March 2 - July 21, 1992|
|-||Total||4,163 km² |
1,607 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||2. The flag of Transnistria is a version of the former Flag of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. The Coat of arms of Transnistria is a remodeled version of the former Moldavian SSR coat of arms that was substituted by the internationally-recognized A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's The Anthem of Transnistria is named We sing the praises of Transnistria (Slăvită să fii Nistrene Слэвитэ сэ фий Нистрене Мы славим Tiraspol (ti'raspol Russian and Ukrainian: Тирáсполь Moldavian Cyrillic: Тираспол is the second largest city in Moldova An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory History and politics Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Ukrainian (in Ukrainian украї́нська мо́ва ukrayins'ka mova,) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. Moldovans, or Moldavians (original name Moldoveni; Молдовень in the Moldovan Cyrillic script, used nowadays only in Transnistria The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. The semi-presidential system is a System of government in which a prime minister and a President are both active participants in the day-to-day administration A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its The President of Transnistria is the highest elected official of Transnistria, a small unrecognized country which declared independence from Moldova in 1990 Igor Nikolaevich Smirnov (Игорь Николáевич Смирнóв (b Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova ( Republica Moldova) is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Romania Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) The War of Transnistria involved armed clashes on a limited scale that broke out between Transnistrian Republican Guard militia and Cossack units supported by the Events 986 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks. 1127 - Assassination of Charles the Good Events 356 BC - Herostratus sets fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) ||}These lists of unrecognized or partially recognized countries give an overview of contemporary geopolitical entities that wish to be recognized as Sovereign Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here areas between 1000 km2 and 10000 km2 The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 35|
|Currency||Transnistrian ruble1 (|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|-||Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Calling code||+373 spec. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The ruble is the official currency of Transnistria. It is divided into 100 kopecks. ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established Eastern European Time ( EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 Time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. Daylight saving time ( DST Eastern European Summer Time ( EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 Time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E +373 5 and +373 2|
|1||Moldovan leu used in the localities under Moldovan control and in the security zone|
|2||.ru and .md sometimes used. The leu ( ISO 4217 code MDL is the Currency of Moldova. Like the Romanian leu, the Moldovan leu (pl|
Transnistria, also known as Trans-Dniester, Transdniestria and Pridnestrovie (full name: Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic), is a breakaway republic within the internationally recognised borders of Moldova. Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova ( Republica Moldova) is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Romania Although not recognised by any state or international organisation and de jure part of Moldova, it is de facto independent and functions like a state. Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences whereby a state acknowledges an act Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising  It is organised as a presidential republic, with its own government, parliament, military, police and postal system. A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature Its authorities have adopted a constitution, flag, a national anthem, and a coat of arms.
Transnistria is located mostly in a strip between the Dniester River and Ukraine. The Dniester (Дністер translit Dnister; Nistru is a river in Eastern Europe. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. After the dissolution of the USSR, Transnistria declared independence leading to the war with Moldova that started in March 1992 and was concluded by the ceasefire of July 1992. The Soviet Union 's collapse into independent nations began early in 1985 The War of Transnistria involved armed clashes on a limited scale that broke out between Transnistrian Republican Guard militia and Cossack units supported by the A ceasefire (or truce) is a temporary stoppage of a War or any Armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees As part of that agreement, a three-party (Russia, Moldova, PMR) Joint Control Commission supervises the security arrangements in the demilitarized zone, comprising 20 localities on both sides of the river. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending For the Joint Control Commission for Georgian-Ossetian Conflict Resolution, see that article The ceasefire has held, however the territory's political status remains unresolved and Transnistria has been de facto independent since that time.
Transnistria is sometimes compared with other post-Soviet frozen conflict zones such as Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia and South Ossetia. The post-Soviet states, also commonly known as former Soviet republics, are the 15 independent nations that split off from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics For the republic see Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakh is a Region in the South Caucasus. Abkhazia (Аҧсны Apsny აფხაზეთი Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti Абха́зия Abhazia) is a De facto South Ossetia ( or; Хуссар Ирыстон Xussar Iryston; Южная Осетия Yuzhnaya Osetiya; სამხრეთი ოსეთი Samxreti 
It is known in English as Transnistria (which is also the name of the region in Romanian), Trans-Dniester or Transdniestria. Although most commonly known in English as Transnistria, the official name is Pridnestrovie. Romanian or Daco-Romanian ( dated: Rumanian or Roumanian; self designation limba română, ˈlimba roˈmɨnə is a Romance Its formal long name is its name in Russian Pridnestróvskaia Moldávskaia Respública (Moldovan: Republica Moldovenească Nistreană, Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet: Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ, Russian: Приднестровская Молдавская Республика, Ukrainian: Придністровська Молдавська Республіка, ПМР, English: Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic), as used by the breakaway Transnistrian authorities. The current Constitution of Transnistria was approved by national Referendum on 24 December, 1995, and signed into law by the President of Transnistria Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages History and politics The Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet is a Cyrillic alphabet derived from the Russian alphabet and developed for the Romanian / Moldovan language Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Ukrainian (in Ukrainian украї́нська мо́ва ukrayins'ka mova,) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States This is abbreviated PMR. The short form of this name is Pridnestrovie (transliteration of the Russian "Приднестровье"). 
Etymologically, all the names come down to similar spelling variants of Transnistria, meaning "beyond the river Dniester", or Pridnestrovie, meaning "by the river Dniester". The Dniester (Дністер translit Dnister; Nistru is a river in Eastern Europe. The Dniester (Дністер translit Dnister; Nistru is a river in Eastern Europe.
In a strict geographical sense, the terms "Transnistria" and "PMR" are not synonymous, since the city of Bendery and three communes from the Căuşeni district situated near Bendery, which are in the security zone, but under PMR administrative control, are situated on the right bank of the Dniester and thus not geographically in Transnistria. Bendery or Bender, also known as Tighina, is a city in Moldova. Bendery or Bender, also known as Tighina, is a city in Moldova. Breakaway authorities show on their maps these, as well as two more villages of the same district but not under their administration, as belonging to Transnistria. On the other hand, nine villages on the left bank (and thus geographically in Transnistria) have remained under the Moldovan control and administration. These villages are shown by the breakaway authorities on their maps as belonging to them.
Some documents of the government of Moldova refer to the region Stînga Nistrului (Unităţile Administrativ-Teritoriale din Stînga Nistrului), which means "Left Bank of the Dniester" ("Administrative-territorial unit of the Left Bank of the Dniester"). Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova ( Republica Moldova) is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Romania
Transnistria is landlocked and borders Bessarabia (i. This is a list of municipalities cities communes and villages in Transnistria. The disputed status of Transnistria arose because of the Transnistrian Unilateral declaration of independence on September 2, 1990, which A landlocked country is commonly defined as one enclosed or nearly enclosed by land Bessarabia ( Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian e. the rest of Moldova, for 411 km) to the West, and Ukraine (for 405 km) to the East. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. It is a narrow valley stretching in the North-South direction along the bank of the Dniester River, which forms a natural boundary along most of the border with (the rest of) Moldova. The Dniester (Дністер translit Dnister; Nistru is a river in Eastern Europe. Tiraspol, the capital and largest city of Transnistria, has 159,163 inhabitants.
The territory of Transnistria is mostly, but not completely coincident with the left (eastern) bank of Moldova (with respect to Dniester). The Dniester (Дністер translit Dnister; Nistru is a river in Eastern Europe. It includes ten cities and towns, and 69 communes, with a totality of 147 localities (counting the unincorporated ones as well). Ten localities on the left bank are controlled by the Moldovan government, as part of the Dubăsari district. They are situated north and south of the city of Dubăsari, which itself is under Transnistrian control. Dubăsari ( Дубоссары, sometimes Dubossary in English) is a city in Transnistria, Moldova, with a population of 28500
On the west bank, the city of Bendery and six villages to its south and south-east, roughly opposite Tiraspol, are controlled by Transnistrian authorities. Bendery or Bender, also known as Tighina, is a city in Moldova.
The ten localities controlled by the Moldovan authorities on the eastern bank, the city of Dubăsari (situated on the eastern bank and controlled by Tiraspol), the seven localities controlled by the Transnistrian authorities on the western bank, as well as two (Varniţa and Copanca) on the same bank under Chişinău control form a security zone. Varniţa may refer to several villages in Romania: Varniţa a village in Şiştarovăţ Commune Arad County Varniţa a The security situation inside it is subject to the Joint Control Commission rulings. For the Joint Control Commission for Georgian-Ossetian Conflict Resolution, see that article
The main transportation route in Transnistria is the road Tiraspol-Dubăsari-Rîbniţa. North and south of Dubăsari it passes through the lands of the villages controlled by the central government (Doroţcaia, Cocieri, Roghi, while Vasilievca is entirely situated east of the road). Doroţcaia is a village from the Republic of Moldova, situated on the eastern bank of the River Dniester. Cocieri is a commune in the Republic of Moldova, located on the eastern bank of the Dniester River, consisting of two villages Cocieri and Vasilievca Molovata Nouă is a commune located in Dubăsari district of the Republic of Moldova, on the eastern bank of the River Dniester. Cocieri is a commune in the Republic of Moldova, located on the eastern bank of the Dniester River, consisting of two villages Cocieri and Vasilievca Conflict erupted on several occasions when the Tiraspol authorities prevented the villagers from reaching their farmland east of the road. 
Transnistrians are able to travel (normally without difficulty) in and out of the territory under PMR control to neighbouring Moldovan-controlled territory, Ukraine, and on to Russia, by road or (when service is not interrupted by political tensions) on two international trains, the year-round Moscow-Chişinău, and the seasonal Saratov-Varna.  International air travellers rely on the airport in Chişinău, the Moldovan capital.
Transnistria is subdivided into five raions (Russian names are listed in parantheses):
and one (two) municipalities:
Transnistria is internationally recognised as being a legal part of the Republic of Moldova, although de facto control is exercised by its internationally unrecognised government which declared independence from Moldova as the Pridnestrovskaia Moldavskaia Respublica or Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR), in 1990 with Tiraspol as its declared capital. Rîbniţa (also spelled Râbniţa, Рыбница Rybnitsa) is a city in Transnistria ( Moldova) and is the seat of the Rîbniţa For the manufactured regenerated fiber see Rayon A raion (or rayon) (райо́н ra'jon rayon раён რაიონი Camenca sub-district is an administrative sub-region of Transnistria. Dubăsari is an administrative sub-district in Transnistria, Moldova, with the capital city at Dubăsari. Grigoriopol sub-district is an administrative sub-district of Transnistria, Moldova. Rîbniţa sub-district (Russian Rybnitsa/Рыбница is an administrative sub-region of Transnistria, Moldova. Slobozia sub-district is an administrative sub-district of Transnistria, Moldova. Bendery or Bender, also known as Tighina, is a city in Moldova. Tiraspol (ti'raspol Russian and Ukrainian: Тирáсполь Moldavian Cyrillic: Тираспол is the second largest city in Moldova The disputed status of Transnistria arose because of the Transnistrian Unilateral declaration of independence on September 2, 1990, which Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova ( Republica Moldova) is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Romania Prior to unification of the territory with Moldova in 1940, Tiraspol was the capital of the Moldavian ASSR, an autonomous republic within Ukrainian SSR, which existed from 1924 to 1940. Moldavian ASSR or Moldovan ASSR (Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Romanian Republica Autonomă Socialistă Sovietică Moldovenească) was an autonomous The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic or the Ukrainian SSR was one of the 15 constituent republics that made up the Former Soviet Union from its
Although exercising no direct control over the territory, the Moldovan government passed the "Law on Basic Provisions of the Special Legal Status of Localities from the Left Bank of the Dniester" on July 22, 2005, which established Transnistria as a separate territorial unit within the Republic of Moldova, which can be given a status of a large autonomy. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Godfrey of Bouillon is elected the first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The law was passed without any prior consultation with the de facto government in Transnistria, which felt that it was a provocation and has since ignored it.
Between 300. 000 and 400. 000 Transnistrians (the majority of the population) acquired Moldovan passports by 2008. No country recognizes passports issued by the Transnistrian government. . . Russia opened a consulate in Tiraspol (against the will of Moldova) and issued about 80,000 passports to Transnistrians by the end of 2006. 
There are unsettled border issues between the PMR and Moldova. The disputed status of Transnistria arose because of the Transnistrian Unilateral declaration of independence on September 2, 1990, which Nine villages from the Dubăsari district, including Cocieri and Doroţcaia which geographically belong to Transnistria, have been under the control of the central government of Moldova after the involvement of local inhabitants on the side of Moldovan forces during the War of Transnistria. Cocieri is a commune in the Republic of Moldova, located on the eastern bank of the Dniester River, consisting of two villages Cocieri and Vasilievca Doroţcaia is a village from the Republic of Moldova, situated on the eastern bank of the River Dniester. Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova ( Republica Moldova) is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Romania The War of Transnistria involved armed clashes on a limited scale that broke out between Transnistrian Republican Guard militia and Cossack units supported by the These villages along with Varniţa and Copanca, near Bendery and Tiraspol, are claimed by the PMR. Varniţa may refer to several villages in Romania: Varniţa a village in Şiştarovăţ Commune Arad County Varniţa a Bendery or Bender, also known as Tighina, is a city in Moldova. One city and six villages on the west bank are controlled by the Transnistrian authorities, but are considered by Moldova as a separate municipality (Bendery and two villages), or part of the Căuşeni district (four villages). Bendery or Bender, also known as Tighina, is a city in Moldova.
Tense situations have periodically surfaced due to these territorial disputes, for example in 2005, when Transnistrian forces entered Vasilievca, in 2006 around Varniţa, and in 2007 in Dubăsari-Cocieri area, when a confrontation between Moldovan and Transnistrian forces occurred, however without any casualties.
Transnistria has a multi-party system and a unicameral parliament named the Supreme Council. A multi-party system is a system in which three or more political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or in coalition Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or Parliamentary chamber The Supreme Council of the Transnistrian Moldovan Republic ( Советулуй Супрем ал Републичий Молдовенешть Нистрене, Sovietul Its legislature has 43 members elected by proportional representation.  The president is elected to a five year term by popular vote. An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office
Igor Smirnov has been the President of Transnistria since the declaration of independence in 1990 and he is currently serving his fourth mandate after being reelected in December 2006. Igor Nikolaevich Smirnov (Игорь Николáевич Смирнóв (b The President of Transnistria is the highest elected official of Transnistria, a small unrecognized country which declared independence from Moldova in 1990 The 2006 presidential election in Transnistria was held on December 10 of that year In the latest parliamentary election in December 2005 the Renewal movement defeated the Republic movement and won an overall majority, its leader Yevgeni Shevchuk becoming speaker of parliament. Renewal or Renovation ( Obnovleniye) a pro-business party is the largest opposition Political party in Transnistria. Republic ( Република Республика Республіка is a Political party in Transnistria. Yevgeni Shevchuk (Евгéний Шевчýк Євген Шевчýк (born June 19 1968 in Rybnitsa, Moldavian SSR, Soviet Union The term speaker is a title often given to the presiding officer of a legislative body 
According to official PMR data, only 15 of the 43 members of its parliament were born in the territory of Transnistria (including 12 in Transnistria proper, and 3 in the Bessarabian area of Bendery-Chiţcani, which is controlled by Transnistria), while 4 others in the rest of Moldova, with the remainder mainly born in Russia or Ukraine. Bendery or Bender, also known as Tighina, is a city in Moldova. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe.  Igor Smirnov, the leader of PMR, arrived in the region in 1987. Most of the MPs who were born elsewhere had moved to the region ten years or more before the conflict erupted.  Despite the fact that Moldovans are around a third of Transnistrian population, no ethnic Moldovans are members in the Transnistrian council of ministers. 
There is disagreement as to whether elections in Transnistria are free and fair. Politics of Transnistria, a De facto independent state situated De jure within the Republic of Moldova in Eastern Europe, takes place  The political regime has been described as one of 'super-presidentialism'. A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature 
Election results are considered suspicious, as in 2001 in one region it was reported that Igor Smirnov collected 103. Igor Nikolaevich Smirnov (Игорь Николáевич Смирнóв (b 6% of the votes.  Nevertheless, some organizations, such as CIS-EMO, have participated and have called them democratic. The CIS Election Monitoring Organization (Миссия наблюдателей от СНГ на выборах is an Election monitoring body that was formed in October
The Narodovlastie party and Power to the People movement faced numerous problems in 2001-2002 and were eventually closed. A city hall or town hall is the chief administrative building of a City or Town 's administration and usually houses the city or Power to the People ( Vlast Narodu) is a Political party in Transnistria. 
A list published by the European Union bans travel to the EU of some members of the PMR leadership. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in 
In 2007 the registration of Social Democratic Party was allowed. This party, led by former separatist leader and member of PMR government Andrey Safonov, is allegedly in favor of a union with Moldova. Andrey Safonov (Aндрéй Сафóнов is a Politician from Transnistria.  In the latest presidential election the registration of opposition candidate Andrey Safonov was delayed until a few days before the vote, so that he had little time to conduct an election campaign. 
In September 2007, the leader of the Transnistrian Communist party, Oleg Horjan, was sentenced at a suspended sentence of 1½ years imprisonment for organising unsanctioned actions of protest. 
According to the Transnistrian referendum, 2006, carried out by the PMR government the population voted overwhelmingly in favour of "independence from Moldova and free association with Russia". The 2006 referendum in Transnistria took place in Transnistria on 17 September 2006. Although the results may not be completely reliable, it is still likely that most Transnistrians support an eventual union with Russia. 
On March 3, 2006, Ukraine introduced new customs regulations on its border with Transnistria. Events 1284 - Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England 1575 - Indian Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Ukraine declared that it would only import goods from Transnistria with documents processed by Moldovan customs offices, as part of the implementation of the joint customs protocol between Ukraine and Moldova on December 30, 2005. Customs is an Authority or agency in a Country responsible for collecting and safeguarding customs duties and for controlling the flow of goods Events 1460 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield. 1816 - The Treaty of St Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Transnistria and Russia termed the act an "economic blockade".
The United States, the European Union and OSCE approved the Ukrainian move, while Russia saw it as a means of political pressure. On March 4, Transnistria responded by blocking the Moldovan and Ukrainian transport at the borders of Transnistria. The Transnistrian block was lifted after two weeks. However, the Moldovan/Ukrainian block remains in place, and holds up progress in status settlement negotiations between the sides.  In the months following the regulations, exports from Transnistria nosedived. Transnistria declared a "humanitarian catastrophe" in the region, while Moldova called it "deliberate misinformation. " Cargos of humanitarian aid were sent from Russia in response. 
A 1,200-strong Russian military contingent is present in Transnistria. The status of this contingent is disputed. The 1992 cease-fire agreement between Moldova and Transnistria established a Russian peace-keeper presence in Transnistria. Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Russian troops stationed in Moldova proper since the time of the USSR were fully withdrawn to Russia by January 1993. On October 21, 1994, Russia and Moldova signed an agreement that committed Russia to the withdrawal of the troops in three years from the date of entry into force of the agreement, this however did not come into effect because the Russian Duma did not ratify it. Events 1512 - Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) The State Duma (Государственная дума (Gosudarstvennaya Duma common abbreviation Госдума (Gosduma in the Russian Federation is the  The Moldovan government took advantage of the negotiations of The Adaptation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), and managed to ensure that a paragraph about the removal of Russian troops from Moldova’s territory was introduced into the text of the OSCE Summit Declaration of Istanbul (1999), through which Russia had committed itself to pulling out its troops from Transnistria by the end of 2002. The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe ( CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey  However, even after 2002, the Russian parliament did not ratify the Istanbul accords. On July 19, 2004, after it finally passed through parliament President Vladimir Putin signed the Law on the ratification of the CFE Treaty in Europe, which were committing Russia to remove the heavy armaments limited by this Treaty. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (; born 7 October 1952 in Leningrad, USSR; now Saint Petersburg, Russia was the second President of Russia  During 2000-2001, although the CFE Treaty was not fully ratified, in order to comply with it, Moscow withdrew 125 pieces of Treaty Limited Equipment (TLE) and 60 railway wagons containing ammunition from the Transnistrian region of Moldova. In 2002, Russia withdrew only 3 military equipment trains (118 railway wagons) and 2 of ammunition (43 wagons) from the Transnistrian region of Moldova, and in 2003, 11 rail convoys transporting military equipment and 31 transporting ammunitions. According to the OSCE Mission to Moldova, of a total of 42,000 tons of ammunitions stored in Transnistria, 1,153 tons (3%) was transported back to Russia in 2001, 2,405 tons (6%) in 2002 and 16,573 tons (39%) in 2003. Andrei Stratan, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Moldova stated in his speech during the 12th OSCE Ministerial Council Meeting in Sofia on December 6-December 7, 2004 that "The presence of Russian troops on the territory of the Republic of Moldova is against the political will of Moldovan constitutional authorities and defies the unanimously recognized international norms and principles, being qualified by Moldovan authorities as a foreign military occupation illegally deployed on the territory of the state". Andrei Stratan is the Deputy Prime Minister Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration of the Republic of Moldova. Sofia (София ˈsɔfija is the Capital and largest city of the Republic of Bulgaria, with a population of 1395568 in the Capital Municipality Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev Events 43 BC - Marcus Tullius Cicero assassinated 1696 - Connecticut Route 108, one of the oldest highways "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again "  As of 2007 however, Russia insists that it has already fulfilled those obligations. It states the remaining troops are serving as peace-keepers authorized under the 1992 ceasefire, are not in violation of the Istanbul accords and will remain until the conflict is fully resolved. 
The area where Transnistria is now located has been inhabited by Indo-European tribes for millennia, being a borderland between Dacia and Scythia. This is the History of Transnistria.See also the History of Europe and the History of present-day nations and states. Dacia, in ancient geography was the land of the Dacians. It was named by the ancient Hellenes ( Greeks) " Getae " In Classical Antiquity, Scythia ( Greek Skuthia) was the area in Eurasia inhabited by the Scythians, from the 8th The Ancient Greek Miletians founded about 600 BC a colony named Tyras, situated on the right bank, in the mouth of the Dniester river (Tyras), on the site of the present day city Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi in Ukraine. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Miletus (mī lē' təs ( Ancient Greek: Μίλητος literally Transliterated Milētos, Latin Miletus) was an Ancient Tyras, a colony of Miletus, probably founded about 600 BC, situated some 10 m from the mouth of the Tyras River ( Dniester) The Dniester (Дністер translit Dnister; Nistru is a river in Eastern Europe. "Akkerman" redirects here For other uses see Akkerman (disambiguation. The city later fell to the Romans. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Early Germanic and Mongolic tribes were present in the area during their invasions of the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
South Slavs were present in Transnistria from the second half of the 6th century. The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans mainly throughout the former Yugoslavia (meaning "Land of In the early Middle Ages, Slavic tribes of Tivertsi and Ulichs populated larger areas, including Transnistria, followed by Turkic nomads such as the Petchenegs and Cumans. Tivertsi, aka Tivertsy, Tiverians ( Тиверцы in Russian, Тиверці in Ukrainian) is a tribe of Early East Slavs The Ulichs (Uglichs ( Уличи (Угличи in Russian, Уличі (Угличі in Ukrainian) were a Tribe of Early The Turkic peoples are Eurasian peoples residing in northern central and western Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family The Pechenegs or Patzinaks ( Turkish: Peçenekler, Hungarian: Besenyő, Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi or Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι/Πατζινακίται Cumans (Кумани Byzantine: Kuman or Cuman, Kunok Turkic: Kumanlar) were a nomadic Turkic people who inhabited a Possibly an early part of Kievan Rus', after the Mongol invasion of Europe in 1241, the territory was briefly under Mongol control (yet probably without any permanent settlements), and later under the Crimean Khanate. Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Русь romanised: Kievskaya Rus', rusʲ also written as Kyivan Rus′ (Ки́ївська Русь or Kievan The Mongol invasions of Europe, under the leadership of Subutai, centered on the destruction of East Slavic principalities such as Kiev and Vladimir The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Qırım Hanlığı|قريم خانلغى Крымское ханство - Krymskoye khanstvo;
From the 15th century, northern Transnistria (current districts of Camenca and Rîbniţa) belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and later to the Kingdom of Poland, which encouraged the migration of peasants into the territory from the neighboring populated areas (from north and from west). Camenca or Kamenka (Кáменка Кам'янка Kamionka is the capital of the Administrative Region of Camenca of Transnistria, Moldova Rîbniţa (also spelled Râbniţa, Рыбница Rybnitsa) is a city in Transnistria ( Moldova) and is the seat of the Rîbniţa The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė old literary Lithuanian Didi Kunigiste Letuvos, Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje Prince of Moldavia Gheorghe Duca (1665-66, 1668-72, 1678-84) built a court at Ţicanova on the east bank of the Dniester, and one at Nimirov on the Southern Bug, last mentioned in Moldavian hands in 1765. Moldavia (Moldova is a geographic and historical region and former Principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between Eastern Carpathians Voivode George Ducas ( Greek: Γεώργιος Δούκας, Romanian: Gheorghe Duca) (d The Dniester (Дністер translit Dnister; Nistru is a river in Eastern Europe. Boh redirects here see also BOH tea. The Western Bug or Buh is another river which flows from Ukraine through Poland   The localities Dubăsari, Raşcov, Vasilcău, as well as four other currently in Ukraine are mentioned in 17th-18th centuries as fairs for the Dniester-Bug region. Dubăsari ( Дубоссары, sometimes Dubossary in English) is a city in Transnistria, Moldova, with a population of 28500 In 1769 a document dated at Bendery mentions the then title of the Mitropolitan of Moldavia as "Mitropolitan of Proilavia, of Tamarova, of Hotin, and of all the borders of the Danube, of the Dniester, and the Han's Ukraine", the latter being a common reference to the then sparsely populated Dniester-Southern Bug-Dniepr area. Bendery or Bender, also known as Tighina, is a city in Moldova. Moldavia (Moldova is a geographic and historical region and former Principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between Eastern Carpathians Brăila (pronunciation in Romanian: /brə'ila/ Браила Ibrail is a city in Muntenia, eastern Romania, a port on the Danube and Khotyn (Хотин see other names) is a City in Chernivtsi Oblast ( province) of western Ukraine, and is the administrative The Dniester (Дністер translit Dnister; Nistru is a river in Eastern Europe. Boh redirects here see also BOH tea. The Western Bug or Buh is another river which flows from Ukraine through Poland For the rocket see Dnepr rocket. For other uses see Dnieper (disambiguation.
Prior to becoming part of the Russian Empire in 1792, the largest groups living between the Dniester and the Bug rivers were Moldavian (Romanian), Ruthenian (Ukrainian), and Tatar peasants. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya  The Russian census of 1793 of the Ochakov region (southern part of the Dniester-Bug area) mentions a totality of 67 villages, of which 49 are mentioned as Moldavian and 18 as Tatar.  The first candidate for the governor of the new Russian region was the Moldavian boyar Alexandru I. Mavrocordat.  The northern part of Transnistria had Ruthenian (Ukrainian) and Moldavian villages.
In 1792 the region became part of the Russian Empire as a result of sixth Russo-Turkish War. The Russo–Turkish War of 1787–1792 involved a futile attempt by the Ottoman Empire to regain lands lost to Russia in the course of the previous Russo–Turkish In that year, the general Alexander Suvorov founded modern Tiraspol as a Russian border fortress. Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Суво́ров (sometimes transliterated as Aleksandr, Aleksander and Suvarov  Until the Russian Revolution of 1917, the current Transnistria was divided between imperial guberniyas of Podolia, Kherson, and Bessarabia. See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them Guberniya (губе́рния) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of Imperial Russia, usually The region of Podolia (also spelled Podilia or Podillya) is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, Kherson (Херсон is a City in southern Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Kherson Oblast ( province) and is Bessarabia ( Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian Most of the territory which now is Transnistria was part of the larger New Russia region, hence it witnessed a strong colonization process, with a multitude of ethnicities being settled: lands were given to enserfed peasantry from Russia and Ukraine (see also Nova Serbia), and Jews and Germans were brought to facilitate economic development. Novorossiya (Новоро́ссия literally New Russia) is a historic area now mostly located in southern Ukraine, in southern Russia, in Bessarabia The origins of Serfdom in Russia are traced to Kievan Rus in the 11th century New Serbia (Нова Србија or Nova Srbija, archaic Serbian name Ново-Сербія Romanian: Noua Serbie, Новая Сербия was a territory PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as
Transnistria became an autonomous political entity in 1924 with the proclamation of the Moldavian ASSR, which included today's Transnistria (4,000 km²) as well as an adjacent area (9,000 km²) around the city of Balta in modern-day Ukraine, but nothing from Bessarabia, which at the time was part of Romania. Moldavian ASSR or Moldovan ASSR (Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Romanian Republica Autonomă Socialistă Sovietică Moldovenească) was an autonomous The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic ( Moldovan: Република Советикэ Сочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ or Republica Sovietică Socialistă Moldavian ASSR or Moldovan ASSR (Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Romanian Republica Autonomă Socialistă Sovietică Moldovenească) was an autonomous Balta (Балта Romanian: Balta) is a small City in the Odessa Oblast ( province) of south-western Ukraine. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. One of the reasons for the creation of the Moldavian ASSR was the desire of the Soviet Union at the time to eventually incorporate Bessarabia. Moldavian ASSR or Moldovan ASSR (Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Romanian Republica Autonomă Socialistă Sovietică Moldovenească) was an autonomous The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Bessarabia ( Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian The Moldavian SSR, which was organised by a decision of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on 2 August 1940, was formed from a part of Bessarabia (taken from Romania on 28 June, following the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact), and a part of the Moldavian ASSR which is roughly equivalent to present-day Transnistria. The Supreme Soviet of the USSR (Верхо́вный Сове́т СССР Verkhóvnyj Sovét SSSR) was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in Events 338 BC - A Macedonian army led by Philip II defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. On June 26 1940, Romania received an Ultimatum from the Soviet Union, demanding the evacuation of the Romanian military and administration from Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul.
In 1941, after Axis forces invaded the Soviet Union in the course of the Second World War, they defeated the Soviet troops in the region and occupied it. The Axis powers also known as the Axis alliance Axis nations Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those Countries The Eastern Front of World War II (die Ostfront 1941-1945, der Rußlandfeldzug 1941-1945 (Russian campaign or der Ostfeldzug 1941-1945 (Eastern Campaign Transnistria, during World War II, was a region of the USSR, occupied by Romania, during the maximum eastward expansion of the Axis Powers By March 1943, a total of 185,000 Ukrainian and Romanian Jews had been deported and the majority died or were murdered in ghettos and concentration camps situated in an area immediately north and east of the current Transnistria, which as the latter was under Romanian and partially German occupation. Einsatzgruppen ( German: "task forces" "intervention groups" were Paramilitary groups formed by Heinrich Himmler and
In the 1980s Mikhail Gorbachev's policies of perestroika and glasnost in the Soviet Union allowed political liberalization at a regional level. Igor Nikolaevich Smirnov (Игорь Николáевич Смирнóв (b Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov;; born 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye Stavropol Krai) is a Russian politician (Перестройка) is the Russian term (now used in English for the economic reforms introduced in June 1987 by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev (Гла́сность)is literally defined as publicity and sometimes figuratively interpreted as "tipping a vase to let someone see into the vase but not the bottom of the vase" The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 This led to the creation of various informal movements in the Moldavian SSR, and the resurgence of pro-Romanian nationalism among ethnic Moldovans. The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic ( Moldovan: Република Советикэ Сочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ or Republica Sovietică Socialistă  The most prominent of these movements was the Popular Front of Moldova. The Popular Front of Moldova (Frontul Popular din Moldova was a political movement in the Moldavian SSR, one of the 15 union republics of the former Soviet Union, Since the spring of 1988, PFM demanded from the Soviet authorities to declare Moldovan the only state language, to return to the use of the Latin alphabet and to recognize the shared ethnic identity of Moldovans and Romanians. History and politics The more radical factions of the Popular Front used extremely anti-minority, ethnocentric and chauvinist rhetoric.  Some have called for minority populations, particularly the Slavs (mainly Russians and Ukrainians) and Gagauz, to leave or be expelled from Moldova. The Gagauz is predominantly Eastern Orthodox Turkic ethnic group in southern Moldova ( Gagauzia) and southwestern Ukraine ( 
On August 31, 1989, the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR adopted Moldovan as the only official language, with Russian retained only for secondary purposes, returned Moldovan to the Latin alphabet, and declared a shared Moldova-Romanian linguistic identity. As plans for major cultural changes in Moldova were made public, tensions rose further. Ethnic minorities felt threatened by the prospects of removing Russian as the de facto official language, the possible future reunification of Moldova and Romania and the ethnocentric rhetoric of the Popular Front. The Yedinstvo (Unity) Movement, established by the Slavic population of Moldova, pressed for the equal status given to both Russian and Moldovan. 
The nationalist Popular Front won the first free parliamentary elections in the Moldavian SSR in the spring of 1990, and its agenda started slowly to be implemented. On September 2, 1990, the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed as a Soviet republic by an ad hoc assembly, the Second Congress of the Peoples' Representatives of Transnistria. Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (PMSSR was created on the eastern periphery of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (MSSR in 1990 Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means "for this [ Purpose ]" The situation in the country was escalating into violence, in October 1990 the Popular Front called for volunteers to form armed militias in order to stop a Gagauz autonomy referendum by coercion. In response, volunteer militias were formed in Transnistria. In April 1990 nationalist mobs attacked ethnic Russian members of parliament, while the Moldovan police refused to intervene or restore order. 
Citing the restriction of civil rights of ethnic minorities by Moldova as the cause of the dispute, in the interest of preserving a unified Moldavian SSR within the USSR and preventing the situation escalating further into violence the then Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev declared the Transnistria proclamation to be lacking legal basis and annulled it by presidential decree on December 22, 1990. The President of the Soviet Union was the Head of State of the USSR from March 15, 1990 to December 25, 1991. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov;; born 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye Stavropol Krai) is a Russian politician Events 1790 - The Turkish fortress of Izmail is stormed and captured by Suvorov and his Russian armies Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar)  Nevertheless, there was no significant actions taken against Transnistria and the new authorities were slowly able to establish control of the region.
The War of Transnistria followed armed clashes on a limited scale which broke out between Transnistrian separatists and Moldova as early as November 1990 at Dubăsari. The War of Transnistria involved armed clashes on a limited scale that broke out between Transnistrian Republican Guard militia and Cossack units supported by the Dubăsari ( Дубоссары, sometimes Dubossary in English) is a city in Transnistria, Moldova, with a population of 28500 Volunteers, including Cossacks, came from Russia and Ukraine to help the separatist side. The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern  In mid-April 1992, in accordance with the agreements concerning the split of the military equipment of the former Soviet Union, negotiated between the former 15 republics in the previous months, Moldova created its own Defense Ministry. According to the decree of its creation, most of the 14th Soviet Army's military equipment was to be retained by Moldova.  Starting from March 2, 1992, there was concerted military action between Moldova and Transnistria. Events 986 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks. 1127 - Assassination of Charles the Good Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Throughout early-1992 the fighting intensified. The former Soviet 14th Guards Army entered the conflict in its final stage, opening fire against Moldovan forces; since then, Moldova has exercised no effective control or influence on PMR authorities. A ceasefire agreement was signed on July 21, 1992 and has held to the present day. Events 356 BC - Herostratus sets fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar)
The OSCE is trying to facilitate a negotiated settlement. Under OSCE auspices, on May 8, 1997, the Moldovan President Petru Lucinschi and the Transnistrian president Igor Smirnov, signed the "Memorandum on the principles of normalizations of the relations between the Republic of Moldova and Transnistria", also known as the "Primakov Memorandum", sustaining the establishment of legal and state relations, although the memorandum's provisions had diverging legal and political interpretations in Chişinău and Tiraspol. Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Petru Chiril Lucinschi (Russian Пётр Кириллович Лучинский Pyotr Kirillovich Luchinsky; Ukrainian Петро Кирилович Лучинський Igor Nikolaevich Smirnov (Игорь Николáевич Смирнóв (b Chişinău (kiʃi'nəw (also known as Kishinev, Кишинёв Kishinyov) is the capital and largest city of Moldova. Tiraspol (ti'raspol Russian and Ukrainian: Тирáсполь Moldavian Cyrillic: Тираспол is the second largest city in Moldova
In November 2003, Dmitry Kozak, a counselor of the Russian president Vladimir Putin, proposed a memorandum on the creation of an asymmetric federal Moldovan state, with Moldova holding a majority and Transnistria being a minority part of the federation. Dmitry Nikolayevich Kozak (Дмитрий Николаевич Козак (b Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (; born 7 October 1952 in Leningrad, USSR; now Saint Petersburg, Russia was the second President of Russia Asymmetric federalism or asymmetrical federalism is found in a Federation in which different constituent states possess different powers one or more of the states  Known as "the Kozak memorandum", it did not coincide with the Transnistrian position, which sought equal status between Transnistria and Moldova, but was giving Transnistria veto powers, which hence agreed to sign it. The Kozak Memorandum was a 2003 proposal aimed at a final settlement of relations between Moldova and Transnistria. Vladimir Voronin was initially supportive of the plan, but refused to sign it after internal opposition and international pressure from the OSCE and US, and after Russia had endorsed the Transnistrian demand to maintain a Russian military presence for the next 20 years as a guarantee for the intended federation. Vladimir Nicolae Voronin (Владимир Николаевич Воронин Vladimir Nikolaevich Voronin) (born May 25, 1941) is a Moldovan  The refusal by the Moldovan side resulted in the sudden and long-term cooling of relations between Moldova and Russia, and halted further progress in the settlement negotiations. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
At the census of 1989, the population was 679,000 (including all the localities in the security zone, even those under Moldovan control). The 1989 Census in Transnistria was organized by the authorities of the MSSR in the final days of its existence as a Soviet republic. At the time of the 2004 census, the population was 555,347 (only localities under Transnistrian control). The 2004 Census in Transnistria was organized by Transnistria at roughly the same time that Moldova held its own census which Transnistria refused to participate in
The Transnistrian authorities organized a separate census from the 2004 Moldovan Census, and therefore demographic statistics of Moldova do not include data from Transnistria. The 2004 Republic of Moldova Census was carried October 5 &ndash October 12, 2004. This article is about the demographic features of the population of Moldova, including distribution Ethnicity, language distribution religious affiliation and .
According to the 2004 Census in Transnistria, ethnic Moldovans compose the plurality with 31. The 2004 Census in Transnistria was organized by Transnistria at roughly the same time that Moldova held its own census which Transnistria refused to participate in Moldovans, or Moldavians (original name Moldoveni; Молдовень in the Moldovan Cyrillic script, used nowadays only in Transnistria 9%, followed by ethnic Russians 30. The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries 4%, and Ukrainians 28. Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens 8%. Smaller numbers of Bulgarians, Poles, Germans, Jews, Gagauz, Belarusians and others make up the rest, totaling 8. The Bulgarians (българи balgari) are a South Slavic people generally associated with the Republic of Bulgaria and the Bulgarian language The Polish people, or Poles, (Polacy) are a Western Slavic Ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland. The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The Gagauz is predominantly Eastern Orthodox Turkic ethnic group in southern Moldova ( Gagauzia) and southwestern Ukraine ( Belarusians or Belorussians (Беларусы Biełarusy previously also spelled Belarussians, Byelorussians and Belorusians, also 9%. 64. 2% of the population belongs to some ethnic Slav group (Russians, Ukrainians, Bulgarians, Poles, Belarusians).
The ethnic composition of the region has not been stable in the recent history, with the most notable change being the decrease of the Moldovan ethnic population and increase of the Russian. A demographic history of Transnistria shows that Transnistria has been home to numerous ethnic groups in varying proportions over time
Most religious Transnistrians are Orthodox Christians and the government has supported restoration and new construction of orthodox churches. See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure Transnistria's government affirms that the republic has freedom of religion and 114 religious beliefs and congregations are officially registered. Freedom of religion is the freedom of an individual or community in public or private to manifest religion or belief in teaching practice worship and observance However, as of 2005, registration hurdles were encountered by some minor religious groups, notably the Jehovah's Witnesses. Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination  In 2007, the US-based Christian Broadcasting Network denounced the persecution of Protestants. The Christian Broadcasting Network, or CBN, is a Christian Television broadcasting network in the United States. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. 
Transnistria has a mixed economy. A mixed economy is an Economic system that incorporates aspects of more than one economic system Following a large scale privatization process in the late 90s, most of the companies in Transnistria are now privately owned. Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the Public sector (government to the Private sector (business The economy bases on a mix of heavy industry (steel production), electricity production and manufacturing (textile production), which together accounts about 80% of the total industrial output. Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning as compared to Light industry. Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, "making by hand" is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale 
Transnistria has its own central bank, which issues Transnistrian currency, the Transnistrian ruble. The Transnistrian Republican Bank is the Central bank of Transnistria. The ruble is the official currency of Transnistria. It is divided into 100 kopecks. It is convertible at a freely floating exchange rate but only in Transnistria. 
After World War II, Transnistria was heavily industrialised, to the point that in 1990, it was responsible for 40% of Moldova's GDP and 90% of its electricity despite the fact that it accounted for only 17% of Moldova's population. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Transnistria wanted to return to a "Brezhnev-style planned economy", however, several years later, it decided to head toward a market economy. A planned economy or directed economy is an Economic system in which the Government or Workers' councils manages the Economy. A market economy is a realized Social system based on the Division of labour in which the prices of Goods and Services are determined in a
According to the government of Transnistria, the 2006 GDP was US$585. 6 million and the GDP per capita was US$1,076. The GDP increased 7. 7% and inflation rate was 10. 1%.  Transnistria's government budget for 2007 is US$246 million, with an estimated deficit of approximately US$100 million which the government plans to cover with income from privatizations.  Budget for 2008 is US$331 million, with an estimated deficit of approximately US$80 million. 
In 2004, Transnistria had debt of US$1. 2 billion (two thirds of which are with Russia), which was per capita approximately 6 times higher than in Moldova (without Transnistria).  In March 2007 the debt to Gazprom for the natural gas has increased to US$1. OJSC Gazprom, (Газпром long version Открытое Aкционерное Oбщество Газпром sometimes transcribed as Gasprom is the largest Russian company 3 billion. On 22 March 2007 Gazprom sold Transnistria's gas debt to the Russian businessman Alisher Usmanov, who controls Moldova Steel Works, the largest enterprise in Transnistria. Alisher Burkhanovich Usmanov (born 9 September 1953, Namangan Province, Uzbek SSR, USSR) is a Russian billionaire of Moldova Steel Works (in Russian Молдавский металлургический завод; abbreviated as MMZ) is a steel producing company in Transnistria Transnistria's president Igor Smirnov has announced that Transnistria will not be paying off its gas debt because "Transdnistria has no legal debt [to Gazprom]".  In November 2007, the total debt of Transnistria's public sector was increased up to US$1. 64 billion. 
According to Yevgeni Shevchuk, speaker of Transnistrian Supreme Soviet, Transnistria is in a difficult economic situation. Yevgeni Shevchuk (Евгéний Шевчýк Євген Шевчýк (born June 19 1968 in Rybnitsa, Moldavian SSR, Soviet Union The Supreme Council of the Transnistrian Moldovan Republic ( Советулуй Супрем ал Републичий Молдовенешть Нистрене, Sovietul Despite a 30% tax increase in 2007 pension fund is still lacking money and emergency measures must be taken. However, the situation is not hopeless and it can not be considered a crisis, as a crisis mean three-months delays in payment of pensions and salaries.
In 2006, the Transnistrian Republican Bank reported exports of US$422. The Transnistrian Republican Bank is the Central bank of Transnistria. 0 million and imports of US$738. 4 million. Compared to 2005, export decreased 27. 2% and import decreased 13. 7%. The trade deficit reached US$316. 3 million.  Over 50% of the export goes to the CIS, mainly to Russia, but also to Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova.  Main non-CIS markets for the Transnistrian goods are Italy, Egypt, Greece, Romania and Germany.  The CIS accounts for over 60% of the imports, while the share of the EU is about 23%. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The main imports are non-precious metals, food products and electricity.
The leading industry is steel, due to the Moldova Steel Works (part of the Russian Metalloinvest holding) in Rîbniţa (Rybnitsa), which accounts for about 60% of the budget revenue of Transnistria. Moldova Steel Works (in Russian Молдавский металлургический завод; abbreviated as MMZ) is a steel producing company in Transnistria Metalloinvest Management Company LLC (Металлоинвест is a Russian Mining and Metallurgy company specializing in the manufacture of Rîbniţa (also spelled Râbniţa, Рыбница Rybnitsa) is a city in Transnistria ( Moldova) and is the seat of the Rîbniţa  The largest company in the textile industry is Tirotex, which claimed to be the second largest textile company in Europe. Tirotex is a Transnistrian textile company producing clothing and other textile products  The energy sector is dominated by the Russian companies. The largest power company Moldavskaya GRES (Cuchurgan power station), which is located in Dnestrovsk, is owned by Inter RAO UES, the joint subsidiary of RAO UES and Rosenergoatom, and the gas transmission and distribution company Tiraspoltransgas is probably controlled by Gazprom, although Gazprom has not confirmed the ownership officially. Dnestrovsc (Dnestrovsk Днестрóвск Dnestrovsk; Дністровськ Dnistrovs'k) is a town in southern Transnistria, Moldova, near The Unified Energy System (OAO RAO UES of Russia ЕЭС России or Единые Энергетические Системы was an Electric power Holding company Rosenergoatom (РосЭнергоАтом is a Russian nuclear power stations operator under the Atomenergoprom. Tiraspoltransgas ( Russian: Тираспольтрансгаз sometimes transcribed as Tiraspoltransgaz) is the leading Gas supplier in Transnistria OJSC Gazprom, (Газпром long version Открытое Aкционерное Oбщество Газпром sometimes transcribed as Gasprom is the largest Russian company The banking sector of Transnistria consists 8 commercial banks, including Gazprombank. Gazprombank (Transnistria is a large Transnistrian Bank with headquarters in Tiraspol. The oldest alcohol producer Kvint, located in Tiraspol, produces and exports brandy, wines and vodka. Kvint (short for Kon’iaki vina i napitki Tiraspol’ia) is a Wine - and Brandy distillery based in Tiraspol, the administrative center of
The human rights record of Transnistria has been criticised by several governments and international organizations. Human rights of Transnistria have been under severe criticism by several governments and international organizations The 2007 Freedom in the World report, published by the US-based Freedom House, described Transnistria as a "non-free" territory, having an equally bad situation in both political rights and civil liberties. Freedom in the World is a yearly report by US-based Freedom House that attempts to measure the degree of Democracy and political freedom Freedom House is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Democracy, political 
According to the U.S. Department of State report referring to year 2006, The right of citizens to change their government was restricted[. . . ] Authorities reportedly continued to use torture and arbitrary arrest and detention. [. . . ]In Transnistria authorities limited freedom of speech and of the press. [. . . ]Authorities usually did not permit free assembly. [. . . ] In the separatist region of Transnistria the authorities continued to deny registration and harassed a number of minority religions groups. [. . . ]The separatist region remained a significant source and transit area for trafficking in persons. [. . . ] Homosexuality was illegal, and gays and lesbians were subject to governmental and societal discrimination. 
The chairman of the Moldovan Helsinki Committee for Human Rights claimed that 20 people were killed in the village of Chiţcani, 5 km south of Tiraspol, between 1996 and 2000. Chiţcani may refer to several villages Chiţcani Moldova, in Transnistria Moldova Chiţcani Teleneşti, a village in Raionul He said that no government authority investigated these deaths because Moldova has no access to the village and Transnistrian authorities do not wish to investigate. 
In the best known political process, Ilie Ilaşcu was convicted in 1993 of killing two Transnistrian officials, and initially sentenced to death by Transnistria's Supreme Court, however this was repealed to a life prison sentence. Ilie Ilaşcu (born July 30, 1952) is a Moldovan born Romanian politician famous for being sentenced to death by the separatist Three other members of his group were sentenced to terms of 12 to 15 years’ imprisonment, and confiscation of their property. Ilaşcu was released in 2001, following a decision of the European Court of Human Rights against Moldova and Russia, while the other three were released in 2004 and 2007, when they finished serving their sentences. Ilie Ilaşcu (born July 30, 1952) is a Moldovan born Romanian politician famous for being sentenced to death by the separatist The European Court of Human Rights ( ECtHR) (Cour européenne des droits de l’homme in Strasbourg was established under the European Convention on Human Rights ECHR stated the authorities have broken the right of freedom and safety to all 4 members of his group, and the treatment Ilie Ilaşcu suffered is qualified as torture. Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally As part of the ruling the court also stated that they believe Transnistria was "under the effective authority or at least decisive influence of Russia".  The court also ordered Moldova and Russia—which backs Transnistria—to pay the four a total of €750,000 (US$1,000,000) in compensation for the deprivation of their freedom, and for torture and inhumane treatment while in custody.  The members of Ilaşcu group were forced to exile after their release from prison.
In March 2007 several opponents of Transnistrian regime were arrested as they made public appeals for a protest rally against the Tiraspol regime's policy. On 19 March 2007 Transnistrian authorities had also arrested Ştefan Urîtu, the leader of Moldovan Helsinki Committee for Human Rights, and two other local political activists. They were released later. 
According to the Moldovan InfoTag news agency, Transnistrian authorities blocked the polling station of the Corjova village, not allowing residents to participate in the Moldovan elections of June 3, 2007. Corjova is a commune located in Dubăsari district of the Republic of Moldova, on the eastern bank of the River Dniester.  At the same occasion, Iurie Cotofana, a local antiseparatist councilor was arrested and beaten. Valentin Besleag, a candidate for mayoral office in Corjova was arrested in 2 June for carrying electoral material from Moldova. 
According to the OSCE, the media climate in Transnistria is restrictive and the authorities continue a long-standing campaign to silence independent opposition voices and groups. The media in Transnistria, the breakaway territory within the borders of Moldova, features both state-owned or supported outlets and opposition media  Alternative viewpoints were stifled by widespread censorship
According to the same U. S. Department of State report for 2006, Both of region's major newspapers were controlled by the authorities. There was one independent weekly newspaper in Bendery and another in the northern city of Rîbniţa. Bendery or Bender, also known as Tighina, is a city in Moldova. [. . . ]Separatist authorities harassed independent newspapers for critical reporting of the Transnistrian regime. [. . . ]Most television and radio stations and print publication were controlled by Transnistrian authorities, which largely dictated their editorial policies and finance operations. Some broadcast networks, such as the TSV television station and the INTER-FM radio station, were owned by Transnistria's largest monopoly, Sheriff, which also holds a majority in the region's legislature. [. . . ]In July 2005 the Transnistrian Supreme Soviet amended the election code to prohibit media controlled by the Transnistrian authorities from publishing results of polls and forecasts related to elections. 
Transnistrian local authorities insist that public education for ethnic Moldovans in their mother tongue is done using the Soviet-originated Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet, having restricted the usage of the Latin script (the norm) for the Romanian language to only 6 schools. The Moldovan schools in Transnistria became an issue of contention in 2004 in the context of the Disputed status of Transnistria, a region claimed equally by Moldova The Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet is a Cyrillic alphabet derived from the Russian alphabet and developed for the Romanian / Moldovan language Romanian or Daco-Romanian ( dated: Rumanian or Roumanian; self designation limba română, ˈlimba roˈmɨnə is a Romance Four schools (of the remaining six) that performed their instruction into the Romanian language. The Moldovan schools in Transnistria became an issue of contention in 2004 in the context of the Disputed status of Transnistria, a region claimed equally by Moldova  using the Latin script were forcibly closed by the authorities, who claimed this was due to the refusal of the schools to apply for official accreditation. The schools were later registered as private schools and reopened. This process may have been accelerated by pressure from the European Union 
The OSCE mission to Moldova has urged local authorities in the Transnistrian city of Rîbniţa to return a confiscated building to the Moldovan Latin script school located in the city. The unfinished building was nearing completion in 2004, when Transnistria took control of it during that year's school crisis. 
"In November 2005 Ion Iovcev, the principal of a Romanian-language school in Transnistria and active advocate for human rights as well as a critic of the Transnistrian leadership, received threatening calls that he attributed to his criticism of the separatist regime. "
Following the collapse of the former Soviet Union the Russian 14th Army left behind 40,000 tonnes of weapony and ammunition. Russification (in Russian: русификация rusifikátsiya)is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily Anti-Romanian discrimination and sentiment or " Romanian-phobia " ( Romanian: antiromânism, românofobie) is hostility toward or prejudice In the subsequent years there were concerns that the Transnistrian authorities may try to sell these stocks internationally and intense pressure was applied to have these removed by the Russian Federation. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
In 2000 and 2001, the Russian Federation withdrew by rail 141 self-propelled artillery and other armoured vehicles and destroyed locally 108 T-64 tanks and 139 other pieces of military equipment limited by the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE). For the engine see General Electric T64 The T-64 is a Soviet main battle tank, introduced in the late 1960s The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe ( CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits During 2002 and 2003 Russian military officials destroyed a further 51 armoured vehicles, all of which were types not limited by the CFE Treaty. The OSCE also observed and verified the withdrawal of the 48 trains with military equipment and ammunition in 2003. However, no further withdrawal activities have taken place since March 2004 and a further 20,000 tons of ammunition, as well as some remaining military equipment are still to be removed. In the Autumn of 2006 the Transnistria leadership agreed to let an OSCE inspectorate examine the munitions and further access agreed moving forward. Recent weapons inspections were permitted by Transnistria and conducted by the OSCE.  The onus of responsibility rests on the Russian Federation to remove the remainder of the supplies.
Transnistrian authorities declared that they are not involved in the manufacture or export of weapons.  Mark Almond of BHHRG stated that accusations of state-sponsored weapons smuggling in the PMR appear to be groundless and politically motivated, rather than based on any verified facts. Mark Almond is a Writer and lecturer in Modern History at Oriel College Oxford. The British Helsinki Human Rights Group is an Oxford -based Non-governmental organization which monitors human rights in the 56 participating States of the Organization 
The OSCE and European Union officials state that there is no evidence that Transnistria has ever, at any time in the past, trafficked arms or nuclear material. 
Foreign experts working on behalf of the United Nations say that the historically low levels of transparency and continued denial of full investigation to international monitors has reinforced negative perceptions of the Transnistrian regime, although recent good levels of cooperation on the part of Transnitrian authorities in some areas may reflect a shift in the attitude of PMR.  Also it says that the evidence for the illicit production and trafficking of weapons into and from Transnistria has in the past been exaggerated, that although the trafficking of light weapons is likely to have occurred before 2001 (the last year when export data showed US$ 900,000 worth of ‘weapons, munitions, their parts and accessories’ exported from Transnistria. The report also states that the same holds true for the production of such weapons, which is likely to have been carried out in the 1990s primarily to equip Transnistrian forces.
The OSCE mission spokesman Claus Neukirch spoke about this situation: "There is often talk about sale of armaments from Transnistria, but there is no convincing evidence. "
Some countries, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada,  Australia, and New Zealand  announced travel warnings for their citizens traveling to Transnistria. Crime in Transnistria covers actual incidents in Transnistria as well as allegations of potential criminal activity for which the level of evidence varies and may in some cases The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island
On May 25, 2007, Valeri Emelianov, a Tiraspol city councillor, was shot dead. Events 1085 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo Spain back from the Moors. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
In March 2007, Victor Neumoin, a local politician was shot dead.
In July 2006, a bomb killed eight in a Tiraspol minibus, and in August 2006, a grenade explosion in a Tiraspol trolleybus killed two and injured ten. "Microbus" redirects here For the Volkswagen Microbus see Volkswagen Type 2.