|History by country|
A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, lighter than a train, designed for the transport of passengers (and/or, very occasionally, freight) within, close to, or between villages, towns and/or cities, primarily on streets. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. A railway can be broken down into two major components Basically these are the items which "move" the Rolling stock, that is the locomotives passenger carrying vehicles (coaches |}A train station, railway station, railroad station, or station yard is a facility at which Passengers may board and alight from Trains A train is a connected series of vehicles that move along a track ( Permanent way) to transport freight or passengers from one place to another A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train. A railroad car or railway carriage is a Vehicle on a rail transport system (railroad or railway that is used for the carrying of Cargo or See also Rail transport The history of rail transport dates back nearly 500 years and includes systems with man or horse power and rails of wood or stone Asia India Europe Denmark France Germany 0-9 Note for 4-4-0 2-6-4T 0-4-4-0 etc See Whyte notation or UIC classification A B This page provides an index of articles on Rail transport by country. Model railroading (US or Railway modelling (UK Australia and Canada is a Hobby in which Rail transport systems are modeled at a reduced scale A railroad car or railway carriage is a Vehicle on a rail transport system (railroad or railway that is used for the carrying of Cargo or A train is a connected series of vehicles that move along a track ( Permanent way) to transport freight or passengers from one place to another
Tram systems (or "tramways" or "street railways") were common throughout the industrialized world in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but they disappeared from many U. S. cities in the mid-20th century. In European cities they remained to be quite common. But in recent years, they have made a comeback in many U. S. cities. Many newer light rail systems share features with trams, although a distinction is usually drawn between the two, especially if the line has significant off-street running. For specific light rail systems many of which use the words "light rail" as part of their name see List of light-rail transit systems.
The terms "tram" and "tramway" were originally Scots and Northern English words for the type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran — probably derived from the North Sea Germanic word "trame" of unknown origin meaning the "beam or shaft of a barrow or sledge", also "a barrow" or container body. Scots ( The Scots leid) refers to Anglic varieties derived from early northern Middle English spoken in parts of Scotland and Northern Northern English is a group of dialects of the English language. Coal mining is the extraction or removal of Coal from the Earth by Mining.
Although "tram" and "tramway" have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English, North Americans preferring "trolley", "trolley car" or "streetcar". The term "streetcar" is first recorded in 1860, and is a North American usage, as is "trolley," which is believed to derive from the "troller," a four wheeled device that was dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wire, sometimes simply strung, sometimes on a catenary. Overhead lines or overhead wires are used to transmit Electrical energy to Trams Trolleybuses or Trains at a distance from the Overhead lines or overhead wires are used to transmit Electrical energy to Trams Trolleybuses or Trains at a distance from the The trolley pole, which supplanted the troller early-on, is fitted to the top of the car and is spring-loaded in order to keep the trolley wheel, at the upper of the pole, firmly in contact with the overhead wire. The terms trolley pole and trolley wheel both derive from the troller. 
Modern trolleys often do not use a trolley wheel: either they have a metal shoe with a carbon insert or they dispense with the trolley pole completely and have instead a pantograph. A pantograph is a device that collects electric current from Overhead lines for electric Trains or Trams The term stems from the resemblance to pantograph Other streetcars are sometimes called trolleys, even though strictly this may be incorrect: cable cars, for example, or conduit cars that draw power from an underground supply. Conduit current collection was a system of Electric current collection used by electric Trams where the power supply was carried in a channel under the roadway rather
Tourist buses made to look like streetcars are also sometimes called trolleys; see tourist trolley. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel A tourist trolley, also called a road trolley, is a rubber tired Bus (usually Diesel fueled sometimes Compressed natural gas) made to resemble Likewise, open, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires, generally used to ferry tourists short distances, can be called trams, particularly in the U. S. ; a famous example is the tram on the Universal Studios tour. The Backlot Tour also known as 'The Studio Tour' is an attraction at the Universal Studios Hollywood theme park in the USA
Electric buses, which still overwhelmingly use twin trolley poles (one for live current, one for return) are called trolleybuses, trackless trolleys (particularly in the U. S. ), or sometimes also trolleys.
The very first tram (streetcar) was the Swansea and Mumbles Railway in south Wales, UK); it was horse drawn at first and later by steam power and then electric. Tram systems were common throughout the industrialized world in the late 19th and early 20th centuries but they disappeared from many cities in the mid-20th century The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was the world's first passenger Railway service, located in Swansea, Wales. The Mumbles Railway Act 1804 was passed by the British Parliament, and the first passenger railway (which acted like streetcars did in the US some 30 years later) started operating in 1807.
The first streetcars, also known as horsecars in North America, were built in the United States and developed from city stagecoach lines and omnibus lines that picked up and dropped off passengers on a regular route and without the need to be pre-hired. Transparent Factory is the English name of an automobile production plant owned by German carmaker Volkswagen and opened in 2002. The public Transit system in Frankfurt consists of several carriers who all utilise the same fare system A horsecar was an animal-powered Streetcar or Tram. The first passenger services in the world were started by the Oystermouth Railway in The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For other meanings see Stagecoach (disambiguation. A stagecoach (also called diligence) is a type of four-wheeled enclosed These trams were an animal railway, usually using horses and sometimes mules to haul the cars, usually two as a team. The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. In its common modern meaning a mule is the offspring of a male Donkey and a female Horse, which is classified as a kind of F1 hybrid. Rarely other animals were tried, including humans in emergencies. The first streetcar - the New York and Harlem Railroad's Fourth Avenue Line - ran along the Bowery and Fourth Avenue in New York City, and began service in the year 1832. The New York and Harlem Railroad (now the Metro-North Railroad Harlem Line) was one of the First railroads in the United States, and possibly the first The Fourth and Madison Avenues Line is a Public transit line in Manhattan, New York City, United States, running mostly along Park Avenue Bowery (ˈbaʊɚi or /ˈbaʊri/ is the name of a street and a small neighborhood in the southern portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Park Avenue (formerly Fourth Avenue) is a wide boulevard that carries north and southbound traffic in New York City Borough of Manhattan The City of New York It was followed in 1835 by New Orleans, Louisiana, which is the oldest continuously operating street railway system in the world, according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana  At first the rails protruded above street level, causing accidents and major trouble for pedestrians. A Rail profile is a Hot rolled Steel profile of a specific Shape or cross section (an asymmetrical I-beam) designed They were supplanted in 1852 by grooved rails or girder rails, invented by Alphonse Loubat. Tramway track is used on tramways or Light rail operations Grooved rails (or girder rails are often used in order to make street running feasible Tramway track is used on tramways or Light rail operations Grooved rails (or girder rails are often used in order to make street running feasible Alphonse Loubat ( 15 June, 1799 - 10 September, 1866) was a French inventor who developed improvements in Tram and The first tram in Paris, France, was inaugurated in 1853 for the upcoming World's Fair, where a test line was presented along the Cours de la Reine, in the 8th arrondissement. The Exposition Universelle of 1855 was an International Exhibition held on the Champ de Mars in Paris from May 15 to November 15, The 8th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements (administrative districts of the capital city of France. The Toronto, Ontario, Canada streetcar system is one of the few in North America still operating in the classic style on street trackage shared with car traffic, where streetcars stop on demand at frequent stops like buses rather than having fixed stations. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Known as Red Rocket's due to their color, they have been operating since the mid-19th century (horsecar service started in 1861 and electric service in 1892). Streetcar service dates back to the Toronto Street Railways horse-drawn cars and continues today with the current electric cars.
One of the advantages over earlier forms of transit was the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on steel rails, allowing the animals to haul a greater load for a given effort. Rolling resistance, sometimes called rolling friction or rolling drag, is the resistance that occurs when a round object such as a ball or Tire Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Problems included the fact that any given animal could only work so many hours on a given day, had to be housed, groomed, fed and cared for day in and day out, and produced prodigious amounts of manure, which the streetcar company was charged with disposing of. Manure is Organic matter used as Organic fertilizer in Agriculture. Since a typical horse pulled a car for perhaps a dozen miles a day and worked for four or five hours, many systems needed ten or more horses in stable for each horsecar. Electric trams largely replaced animal power in the late 19th and early 20th century. New York City had closed its last horsecar line in 1917. Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The last regular mule drawn streetcar in the U. S. A. , in Sulphur Rock, Arkansas, closed in 1926. Sulphur Rock is a town in Independence County, Arkansas, United States. However during World War II some old horse cars were temporarily returned to service to help conserve fuel. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including A mule-powered line in Celaya, Mexico, operated until 1956. Celaya is a city and its surrounding municipality in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, located in the southeast quadrant of the state The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Horse-drawn trams still operate in Douglas, Isle of Man. Douglas (Doolish is the capital of the Isle of Man and its largest town The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn or Mann (Mannin) is a self-governing Crown dependency, located in the Irish Sea at the geographical There is also a small line operated on Main Street at DisneyWorld, outside of Orlando Florida. A small horse-drawn service operates every 40 minutes at Victor Harbor, South Australia, daily with 20 minute services during tourist seasons. Victor Harbor is a city located on the coast of the Fleurieu Peninsula, located 80km south of Adelaide, South Australia. This service runs between the mainland and Granite Island across a causeway. 
The tram developed after that in numerous cities including London, Southampton, Berlin, Paris, Kyoto, Tokyo, Hong Kong and Melbourne. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Southampton ( IPA /ˌsaʊθˈhæmptən/ is the largest city in the county of Hampshire, on the south coast of England Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city (IPA /kʲoːto / is a city in the central part of the island of Honshū, Japan. officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 Faster and more comfortable than the omnibus, trams had a high cost of operation because they were pulled by horses. That is why mechanical drives were rapidly developed, with steam power in 1873, and electrical after 1881, when Siemens AG presented the electric drive at the International Electricity Exhibition in Paris. A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid.
The convenience and economy of electricity resulted in its rapid adoption once the technical problems of production and transmission of electricity were solved. The first prototype of the electric tram was developed by Russian engineer Fyodor Pirotsky. Fyodor Apollonovich Pirotsky (Фёдор Аполлонович Пироцкий -) was a Russian engineer and inventor He modified a Horse tramway car to be powered by electricity instead of horses. The invention was tested in 1880 in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The world's first electric tram line opened in Lichterfelde near Berlin, Germany, in 1881. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Year 1881 ( MDCCCLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common It was built by Werner von Siemens. Ernst Werner von Siemens (known as Werner von Siemens) ( December 13, 1816 &ndash December 6, 1892) was a German Inventor (see Berlin Straßenbahn). Flexityberlinjpg|thumb|260px|New low floor tram cars of the type Flexity Berlin]]The Berlin Straßenbahn (Berlin Tramway is one of the oldest Tram networks in the
In Japan, the Kyoto Electric railroad was the first tram system, starting operation in 1865. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year By 1932, the network had grown to 82 railway companies in 65 cities, with a total network length of 1,479km. Year 1932 ( MCMXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. By the 1960s, however, the tram had generally died out in Japan.
In the nineteenth century Calcutta (now Kolkata) was developing fast as a British trading and business centre. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Gdańsk ( Polish pronunciation; 'Danzig', Gduńsk Gedania Dantiscum is the City at the centre of the fourth-largest Metropolitan area in Poland A horsecar was an animal-powered Streetcar or Tram. The first passenger services in the world were started by the Oystermouth Railway in Transport was mainly by palanquins carried on men's shoulders, phaetons pulled by horses, etc. The litter is a class of Wheelless Vehicles a type of Human-powered transport, for the transport of persons Phaeton is the early 19th-century term for a sporty Carriage drawn by a single horse or a pair typically with four extravagantly large wheels very lightly sprung In 1867, The Calcutta Corporation, with financial assistance from the Government of Bengal developed mass transport. The first tramcar rolled out on the streets of Calcutta on February 24, 1873, with horse drawn coaches running on steel rails between Sealdah and Armenian Ghat via Bowbazar and Dalhousie Square, (now B. B. D. Bagh). Events 303 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Year 1873 ( MDCCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Sealdah (In Bengali: শিয়ালদহ is one of the major Train stations serving Kolkata (Calcutta in India, the others Bowbazar (also spelt Boubazar (বৌবাজার is a neighbourhood and police stationin central Kolkata, earlier known as Calcutta in the Indian state BBD Bagh, formerly called Dalhousie Square, is the shortened version for Benoy-Badal-Dinesh Bag The Corporation entered into an agreement on February 10, 1879 with three English industrial magnates: Robinson Soutter, Alfred Parrish and Dilwyn Parrish. Events 1355 - The St Scholastica's Day riot breaks out in Oxford, England, leaving 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead Year 1879 ( MDCCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Registered in London, the Calcutta Tramways Company came into existence in 1880 after the sanction of The Calcutta Tramways Act, 1880.
By 1902 Messrs Kilburn & Co completed the electrification of the Calcutta tramways and the first electric tramcar was introduced in the Kidderpore section.
Calcutta remains the only Indian city which has maintained a tramway system. As of now, it remains an unreliable but very comfortable and eco-friendly transport.
The first mechanical trams were operated using mobile steam engines. Generally, there were two types of steam tram. The first and most common had a small steam locomotive (called a tram engine in the UK) at the head of a line of one or more carriages, similar to a small train. This article relates to UK tram engines For US tram engines see Steam dummy A Tram engine is a Locomotive specially The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Systems with such steam trams included Christchurch, New Zealand, Sydney, Australia, and other provincial city systems in New South Wales. Christchurch (Ōtautahi The largest City in the South Island, it is also the second largest city and third largest urban area of New Zealand New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.
The other style of steam tram had the steam engine mounted in the body of the tram. The most notable system to adopt such trams was in Paris. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city French-designed steam trams also operated in Rockhampton, in the Australian state of Queensland between 1909 and 1939. Rockhampton is a regional city and Local Government Area located in Queensland, Australia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern corner of the mainland continent Year 1909 ( MCMIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Stockholm, Sweden, also had a steam tramline at the island of Södermalm between 1887 and 1901. ('stɔkhɔlm is Sweden 's Capital and its largest City. It is the site of the national Swedish government, the parliament, and the "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Södermalm (often shortened to " Söder " South) is a district in central Stockholm. Year 1887 ( MDCCCLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1901 ( MCMI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting A major drawback of this style of tram was the limited space for the engine, so that these trams were usually underpowered.
The next type of tram was the cable car, which sought to reduce labor costs and the hardship on animals. A cable car or cable railway is a Mass transit system using rail cars that are propelled by a continuously moving cable running at a constant speed Cable cars are pulled along a rail track by a continuously moving cable running at a constant speed on which individual cars stop and start by releasing and gripping this cable as required. The power to move the cable is provided at a site away from the actual operation. The first cable car line in the United States was tested in San Francisco, California, in 1873. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Year 1873 ( MDCCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The second city to operate cable trams was Dunedin in New Zealand in 1881. Dunedin (dəˈneɪdɪn) Ōtepoti in Maori is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the region of Dunedin's cable trams ceased operation in 1957.
Cable cars suffered from high infrastructure costs, since a vast and expensive system of cables, pulleys, stationary engines and vault structures between the rails had to be provided. A cable is one or more Wires or Optical fibers bound together typically in a common protective jacket or sheath A pulley (also called a sheave or block) is a Wheel with a groove between two Flanges around its Circumference A stationary engine is an engine whose framework does not move They also require strength and skill to operate, to avoid obstructions and other cable cars. The cable had to be dropped at particular locations and the cars coast, for example when crossing another cable line. Breaks and frays in the cable, which occurred frequently, required the complete cessation of services over a cable route, while the cable was repaired. After the development of electrically-powered trams, the more costly cable car systems declined rapidly.
Cable cars were especially useful in hilly cities, partially explaining their survival in San Francisco, though the most extensive cable system in the U. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city S. was in Chicago, a much flatter city. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. The largest cable system in the world which operated in the flat city of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, had, at its peak, 592 trams running on 74 kilometres of track. Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3
The San Francisco cable cars, though significantly reduced in number, continue to perform a regular transportation function, in addition to being a tourist attraction. The San Francisco cable car system is the world's last permanently operational manually-operated cable car system and is an icon of San Francisco, California Single lines also survive on hilly parts of Wellington, New Zealand (rebuilt in 1979 to a funicular system but still called the 'Wellington Cable Car') and Hong Kong. Wellington (ˈwælɪŋtən is the Capital of New Zealand, the country's second largest urban area, the Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) A funicular, also known as a funicular railway, incline, inclined railway, inclined plane, or cliff railway, is a type of self-contained The Wellington Cable Car is a funicular railway in Wellington, New Zealand.
In some places, other forms of power were used to power the tram. AB Stockholms Spårvägar ( SS) (literally Stockholm Tramways) was a company founded in 1915 and owned by the City of Stockholm to coordinate Hastings and some other tramways, for example Stockholms Spårvägar in Sweden, used petrol driven trams and Lytham St Annes used gas powered trams. Hastings is a town on the coast of East Sussex in England; it is also the administrative centre for the Borough of the same name AB Stockholms Spårvägar ( SS) (literally Stockholm Tramways) was a company founded in 1915 and owned by the City of Stockholm to coordinate "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. A Petrol engine or Gasoline engine is an Internal combustion engine with spark-ignition designed to run on petrol ( Gasoline) and similar volatile Lytham St Annes is a conurbation in the Fylde district of Lancashire, England. In the UK a Gas engine means an engine running on gas such as Coal gas or Producer gas. Paris successfully operated trams that were powered by compressed air using the Mekarski system. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Pneumatics, Pressurized gas to affect mechanical motion Pneumatic power is used in Industry, where it is common to have factory units plumbed for Compressed The Mekarski system was a compressed-air propulsion system for Trams invented by Louis Mékarski or Louis Mékarsky (the correct spelling is uncertain in the 1870s In New York City, some minor lines used storage batteries rather than installing an expensive conduit current collection system in the street. The City of New York See also Rechargeable electricity storage system A rechargeable battery, also known as a storage battery, is a group of two or more secondary Conduit current collection was a system of Electric current collection used by electric Trams where the power supply was carried in a channel under the roadway rather
Multiple functioning experimental electric trams were exhibited at the 1884 World Cotton Centennial World's Fair in New Orleans, Louisiana; however they were deemed as not yet adequately perfected to replace the Lamm fireless engines then propelling the St. Charles Avenue Streetcar in that city. The 1884 World's Fair was held in New Orleans Louisiana. At a time when nearly one third of all Cotton produced in the United States was handled in New New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana Emile Lamm ( 24 November, 1834 - 12 July, 1873) was an Inventor and Dentist. Streetcars in New Orleans have been an integral part of the city's Public transportation network since the first half of the 19th century
Electric-powered trams (trolley cars, so called for the trolley pole used to gather power from an unshielded overhead wire), were first successfully tested in service in Richmond, Virginia, in 1888, in the Richmond Union Passenger Railway built by Frank J. Sprague. For the weapon see Trolley pole (weapon. trolley pole is a tapered cylindrical pole of Wood or Metal, used to transfer Electricity This article is about the city of Richmond the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The Richmond Union Passenger Railway, in Richmond Virginia, was the first practical electric trolley (tram system and set the pattern for most subsequent Frank Julian Sprague ( July 25, 1857 in Milford Connecticut - October 25, 1934) was an American naval officer There were earlier commercial installations of electric streetcars, including one in Berlin, as early as 1881 by Werner von Siemens and the company that still bears his name, and also one in Saint Petersburg, Russia, invented and tested by Fyodor Pirotsky in 1880. Ernst Werner von Siemens (known as Werner von Siemens) ( December 13, 1816 &ndash December 6, 1892) was a German Inventor Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Fyodor Apollonovich Pirotsky (Фёдор Аполлонович Пироцкий -) was a Russian engineer and inventor Another was by John Joseph Wright, brother of the famous mining entrepreneur Whitaker Wright, in Toronto in 1883. James Whitaker Wright ( 9 February 1846 in Stafford, England - 26 January 1904 in London) was an English mining The earlier installations, however, proved difficult and/or unreliable. Siemens' line, for example, provided power through a live rail and a return rail, like a model train setup, limiting the voltage that could be used, and providing unwanted excitement to people and animals crossing the tracks. Model railroading (US or Railway modelling (UK Australia and Canada is a Hobby in which Rail transport systems are modeled at a reduced scale Electrical tension (or voltage after its SI unit, the Volt) is the difference of electrical potential between two points of an electrical  Siemens later designed his own method of current collection, this time from an overhead wire, called the bow collector. A bow collector is one of the three main devices used on Tramcars to transfer Electric current from the wires above to the tram below Once this had been developed his cars became equal to, if not better than, any of Sprague's cars. The first electric interurban line connecting St. Catharines and Thorold, Ontario was operated in 1887, and was considered quite successful at the time. In Australia "interurban" is a general term for Intercity rail. Thorold (2006 population 18244 is a City in Ontario, Canada, located on the Niagara Escarpment Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec While this line proved quite versatile as one of the earliest fully functional electric streetcar installations, it still required horse-drawn support while climbing the Niagara Escarpment and for two months of the winter when hydroelectricity was not available. The Niagara Escarpment is a long Escarpment, or Cuesta, in the United States and Canada that runs westward from New York State, through Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by Hydropower, ie the production of power through use of the gravitational force of falling water This line continued service in its original form well into the 1950s.
Since Sprague's installation was the first to prove successful in all conditions, he is credited with being the inventor of the trolley car. An inventor is a person who creates or discovers a new method form device or other useful means He later developed Multiple unit control, first demonstrated in Chicago in 1897, allowing multiple cars to be coupled together and operated by a single motorman. The term multiple unit or MU is used to describe a self-propelling train unit capable of coupling with other units of the same or similar type and still This gave birth to the modern subway train.
Two rare but significant alternatives were conduit current collection, which was widely used in London, Washington, D.C. and New York, and the Surface Contact Collection method, used in Wolverhampton (The Lorain System) and Hastings (The Dolter Stud System), UK. Conduit current collection was a system of Electric current collection used by electric Trams where the power supply was carried in a channel under the roadway rather London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The Stud Contact System is a once obsolete Ground-level power supply system for electric Trams Studs were set in the road at intervals and connected to a buried Hastings is a town on the coast of East Sussex in England; it is also the administrative centre for the Borough of the same name
Attempts to use on-board batteries as a source of electrical power were made from the 1880s and 1890s, with unsuccessful trials conducted (among other places) in Bendigo and Adelaide in Australia, although run for about 14 years as Hague accutram of HTM in the Netherlands. Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French Physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of Rechargeable battery. Events and Trends Technology Development and commercial production of Electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the " Mauve Decade" because William Henry Perkin 's aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that Bendigo is a regional city in central Victoria Australia, located in the City of Greater Bendigo. Adelaide is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of South Australia, and is the fifth largest city in Australia with a For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Railway lines 1 Scheveningen Noorderstrand - Delft Tanthof 2 Kraayenstein - Leidschendam Noord RR3 Loosduinen The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands
A Welsh example of a tram system was usually known as the Mumbles Train, or more formally as the Swansea and Mumbles Railway. The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was the world's first passenger Railway service, located in Swansea, Wales. Originally built as the Oystermouth Railway in 1804, on March 25, 1807 it became the first passenger-carrying railway in the world. Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. Year 1807 ( MDCCCVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Converted to an overhead cable-supplied system it operated electric cars from March 2, 1929 until its closure on January 5, 1960. Events 986 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks. 1127 - Assassination of Charles the Good Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1477 - Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is killed and Burgundy becomes part of France. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. These were the largest tram cars built for use in Britain and could each seat 106 passengers.
Another early tram system operated from 1886 until 1930 in Appleton, Wisconsin, and is notable for being powered by the world's first hydroelectric power station, which began operating on September 30, 1882 as the Appleton Edison Electric Company. Appleton is a city in Calumet, Outagamie, and Winnebago Counties in the U Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by Hydropower, ie the production of power through use of the gravitational force of falling water Events 1399 - Henry IV is proclaimed King of England. 1744 - France and Spain defeat the Year 1882 ( MDCCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
There is one particular hazard associated with trams powered from a trolley off an overhead line. Since the tram relies on contact with the rails for the current return path, a problem arises if the tram is derailed or (more usually) if it halts on a section of track that has been particularly heavily sanded by a previous tram, and the tram loses electrical contact with the rails. In this event, the main chassis of the tram, by virtue of a circuit path through ancillary loads (such as saloon lighting), is live by the full supply voltage (typically 600 volts) relative to the running rails (and indeed the surrounding earthed land). In British terminology such a tram was said to be 'grounded' - not to be confused with the US English use of the term which means the exact opposite. Any person stepping off the tram completed the earth return circuit and could receive a nasty electric shock. In such an event the driver was required to jump off the tram (avoiding simultaneous contact with the tram and the ground) and pull down the trolley before allowing passengers off the tram. Unless derailed, the tram could usually be recovered by running water down the running rails from a point higher than the tram. The water providing a conducting bridge between the tram and the rails.
The latest generation of LRVs has the advantage of partial or fully low-floor design, with the floor of the vehicles only 300 to 360 mm (12-14 inches) above top of rail, a capability not found in older vehicles. This allows them to load passengers, including ones in wheelchairs, directly from low-rise platforms that are not much more than raised sidewalks. A wheelchair is a wheeled Mobility device in which the user sits This satisfies requirements to provide access to disabled passengers without using expensive wheelchair lifts, while at the same time making boarding faster and easier for other passengers as well. A wheelchair lift, also known as a platform lift, is a powered device designed to raise a Wheelchair and its occupant in order to overcome a step or similar vertical
Various companies have developed particular low floor designs, varying from part low floor, e. g. Citytram , to so called 100% low floor, where a corridor between the drive wheels links each end of the tram. There is no doubt that passengers like very much the ease of boarding and alighting from low floor trams but for the operator the restrictions of seating layout imposed by 100% designs limits the ability to provide seats, and to vary the configuration for different city needs. There is also some evidence that passengers do not like sitting in low floor areas, especially when trams run in mixed traffic, with larger vehicles looming above.
Articulated trams are tram cars that consist of several sections held together by flexible joints and a round platform. Like articulated buses, they have an increased passenger capacity. Articulated buses (either motorbuses or Trolleybuses) also known as tandem buses, bendy buses, banana buses, slinky buses or These trams can be up to forty metres in length, while a regular tram has to be much shorter. With this type, a Jacobs bogie supports the articulation between the two or more carbody sections. Jacobs bogies (named after Wilhelm Jakobs (1858 - 1942 are a type of rail vehicle Bogie commonly found on articulated Railcars and Tramway vehicles An articulated tram may be low floor variety or high (regular) floor variety. Since 1981 onwards, nearly 150 articulated LRV-trams of the last kind are e. g. to be found in The Hague Netherlands.
Tram-train operation uses vehicles such as the Flexity Link and Regio-Citadis which are suited for use on urban tram lines, but also meet the necessary indication, power, and resistance requirements to be certified for operation on main line railways. A tram-train is a light-rail Public transport system where Trams also run on main-line train tracks for greater flexibility A tram-train is a light-rail Public transport system where Trams also run on main-line train tracks for greater flexibility The Flexity Link is a low-floor Tram-train manufactured by Bombardier Transportation. The Citadis is a Low-floor Tram built by Alstom in La Rochelle, France, and Barcelona, Spain. This allows passengers to travel from suburban areas into city-centre destinations without having to change from a train to a tram when they arrive at the central station.
It has been primarily developed in Germanic countries, in particular Germany and Switzerland. Karlsruhe is a notable pioneer of the tram-train. Karlsruhe (ˈkaɐ̯lsʁuːə population 285812 in 2006 is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near
Goods have been carried on rail vehicles through the streets, particularly near docks and steelworks, since the 19th century (most evident in Weymouth), and some Belgian vicinale routes were used to haul timber. Weymouth (ˈweɪməθ is a town in Dorset, England situated on a sheltered bay at the mouth of the River Wey on the English Channel coast At the turn of the 21st century, a new interest has arisen in using urban tramway systems to transport goods. The motivation now is to reduce air pollution, traffic congestion and damage to road surfaces in city centres. Dresden has a regular CarGoTram service, run by the world's longest tram trainsets (59. Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Drježdźany is the Capital city of the German History The idea of building a "transparent factory" for Volkswagen automobile production in Dresden arose in 1997 4 m), carrying car parts across the city centre to its Volkswagen factory. Vienna and Zürich use trams as mobile recycling depots. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Zürich (, Zürich German: Züri, Zurich, Zurigo; in English generally Zurich) is the largest city in Switzerland and capital of the Kislovodsk had a freight-only tram system comprising one line which was used exclusively to deliver bottled Narzan mineral water to the railway station. Kislovodsk (Кислово́дск is a city in Stavropol Krai, Russia.
In the spring of 2007, Amsterdam piloted a cargo tram operation, aiming to reduce particulate pollution by 20% by halving the number of lorries – currently 5,000 - unloading in the inner city during the permitted timeframe from 07:00 till 10:30. Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in This article is about the semi-truck For the North American use of the word see Pickup truck. The inner city is the central area of a major city or metropolis The pilot, operated by City Cargo Amsterdam, involved two cargo trams, operating from a distribution centre at Lutkemeerpolder, on the A9 ring motorway near the Osdorp terminus of tram no. Motorway is a term for both a type of Road and a classification or designation 1. They delivered to a ‘hub’ at Frederiksplein, where electric trucks delivered to the final destination.
The trial was successful, releasing an intended investment of 100 million euro in a fleet of 52 cargo trams distributing from four peripheral ‘cross docks’ to 15 inner-city hubs by 2012. These specially-built vehicles would be 30 metres long with 12 axles and a payload of 30 tonnes. An axle is a central shaft for a rotating Wheel or Gear. In some cases the axle may be fixed in position with a bearing or Bushing Cargo (or freight) refers to goods or produce transported generally for Commercial gain by ship, aircraft, train, On weekdays, trams are planned to make 4 deliveries per hour between 7 a. m. and 11 a. m. and two per hour between 11 a. m. and 11 p. m. With each unloading operation taking on average 10 minutes, this means that each site would be active for 40 minutes out of each hour during the morning rush hour.
In 2008 negotiations over the location of the unloading sites are under way and are evoking opposition from some residents who object to the felling of trees and disappearance of parking spaces. Sites under consideration include Frederiksplein, Cornelis Troostplein, Mauritskade, Zoutkeetsgracht and de Lairessestraat. The Oud-West borough has refused permisison for a site at Bellamyplein, saying there is no space (although it is the site of an old tram depot).
(References: Samenwest 5 December 2006, NOS3 television news 7 March 2007, Amsterdams Stadblad 4 June 2008)
US Auto and tyre manufactures conspired to illegally close down the US street car system - see Great American Streetcar Scandal
Similar but more subtle pressures and events occurred in the UK. The Great American Streetcar Scandal is a Conspiracy theory according to which Streetcar systems throughout the United States were dismantled and replaced
Britain had the first European trams (invented in New York 1832), and until 1935 a large and comprehensive system. Including Chester, which had its own hydro power station on the River Dee. For example it was possible to go by tram across the West Midlands, from Pierhead Liverpool to Bolton by 4 different networks which met. These were mostly closed by a mixture of the same forces as in the US, but with political overtones, since most of the UK systems were municipally owned. The oil and car industries did not like the fact that the municipally owned tram networks were powered by electricity not coal, and to a large extent made car ownership unnecessary.
The 1931 Royal Commission on traffic argued that trams held up cars. When it is realised that there were only 1million cars then, what this meant was that trams with poorer people were holding up cars with richer people.
In the UK there was a big public reaction against tramway abandonment, much bigger than the present one against UK Post Office closures, and on a par with the reaction against the Beeching Rail closures in the 1960's, and with the same result. Tram (train) passengers largely did not transfer to the new (flexible and cheaper) buses, but bought cars resulting in the congested cities we have in the UK today.
After the war continental countries had little choice but to rebuild their tramways as they could not import oil, or rubber but had steel and electricity.
Models of trams are popular in HO scale, which is 1:87 and O scale, which is 1:48 in the US and generally 1:43 in Europe and Asia. 0 scale (or 0 gauge) is a scale commonly used for Toy trains and model railroading. They typically are powered and will accept plastic figures inside. Common manufacturers are Roco and Lima with many custom models being made as well. Roco, based in Salzburg, Austria, is a manufacturer of Model railway equipment The company was founded in 1960 by Ing Lima SpA (Lima Models was a brand of railway models made in Vicenza, Italy, for almost 50 years from the early 1950s until the company ceased trading in 2004 The German firm Hödl and the Austrian Halling specialize in trams in 1:87 scale.
A number of HO scale tram models, especially kits, are made worldwide. In the US, Bachmann Industries is a mass supplier. Bachmann Industries is a Bermuda registered Chinese owned company globally head quartered in Hong Kong; specializing in Model railroading. Another manufacturer, Bowser , has produced white metal models for over 50 years. Con-Cor and Bachmann recently announced fine scale models of a Pre-War PCC streetcar and a Brill Peter Witt car . The PCC ( Presidents' Conference Committee) streetcar ( Tram) design was first built in the United States in the 1930s There are many boutique vendors offering limited run epoxy and wood models. At the high end are highly detailed brass models which are usually imported from Japan or Korea and can cost in excess of $500. Many of these run on 16. 5 mm gauge track, which is incorrect for the representation of standard (4ft 8½ins) gauge, as it represents 4ft 1½ins in 4 mm (1:76. 2) scale. This scale/gauge hybrid is called OO scale.
O scale trams are also very popular among tram modelers because the increased size allows for more detail and easier crafting of overhead wiring. In the US these models are usually purchased in epoxy or wood kits and some as brass models. The Saint Petersburg Tram Company  produces highly detailed polyeurathane non-powered O Scale models from around the world.
In the US, one of the best sources for model tram enthusiasts is the East Penn Traction Club  of Philadelphia.
It is thought that the first example of a working model tramcar in the UK built by an amateur for fun was in 1929, when Frank E. Wilson created a replica of London County Council Tramways E class car 444 in 1:16 scale, which he demonstrated at an early Model Engineer Exhibition. Another of his models was London E/1 1800, which was the only tramway exhibit in the Faraday Memorial Exhibition of 1931. Together with likeminded friends, Frank Wilson went on to found the Tramway & Light Railway Society  in 1938, establishing tramway modelling as a hobby.
German models of trams (Düwag and Siemens) and a bus in HO scale
UK model of a Sheffield Roberts Car 510
UK model of 3 UK tramcars
All transit services involves a tradeoff between speed and frequency of stops. Services that stop frequently have a lower overall speed, and are therefore less attractive for longer trips. Metros, light rail, monorail, and bus rapid transit are all forms of rapid transit — which generally signifies high speed and widely-spaced stops. For specific light rail systems many of which use the words "light rail" as part of their name see List of light-rail transit systems. A monorail is a transportation system based on a single beam The term is also used variously to describe the beam of the system or the vehicles travelling on such a beam or Bus rapid transit ( BRT) is a broad term given to a variety of transportation systems that through improvements to infrastructure vehicles and scheduling attempt to use A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway Trams are a form of local transit, making frequent stops. Thus, the most meaningful comparison of advantages and disadvantages is with other forms of local transit, primarily the local bus.
Many of the pros and cons depend on the system design itself. A tram system with little distance between stops that has single unit vehicles which run in mixed traffic will see far less of an advantage over other transit alternatives than a tram system with a greater distance between stops, runs in multiple units, and runs in a dedicated right of way. Overall trams have a greater versatility in design, however as shown above, whether that is a pro or a con is debatable.
Around the world there are many tram systems. Throughout the world there are many tram systems some dating from the late 19th or early 20th centuries Some date to the late 1800s. Many were closed in the middle of the 20th century, but some still operate much as they did when they were built, especially in Eastern Europe. Some cities that closed their tram networks are now reviving service.
Published in 1878, the novel is set in the 1840s, though horse trams were not in fact introduced in Boston till the 1850s. Note how the tram's efficiency surprises the "European" visitor; how two "remarkably small" horses sufficed to draw the "huge" tramcar.
Danzig trams figure extensively in the early stages of Günter Grass's Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum). Gdańsk ( Polish pronunciation; 'Danzig', Gduńsk Gedania Dantiscum is the City at the centre of the fourth-largest Metropolitan area in Poland Günter Wilhelm Grass (born 16 October 1927 is a Nobel Prize -winning German Author and Playwright. The Tin Drum (Die Blechtrommel is a 1959 Novel by Günter Grass. Then in its last chapter, the novel's hero Oskar Matzerath, along with his friend Gottfried von Vittlar, steal a tram late at night from outside the Unterrath depot on the northern edge of Düsseldorf. The Tin Drum (Die Blechtrommel is a 1959 Novel by Günter Grass. Düsseldorf (ˈdʏsəldɔɐf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
It is a surreal journey. Gottfried von Vittlar drives the tram through the night, south to Flingern and Haniel and then east to the suburb of Gerresheim. Gerresheim is one of the oldest parts of the City of Düsseldorf, Germany. Meanwhile, inside, Oskar tries to rescue the half-blind Victor Weluhn (a character who had escaped from the siege of the Polish post office in Danzig at the beginning of the book and of the war) from his two green-hatted would-be executioners. The Defense of the Polish Post Office in Danzig (today Gdańsk) was one of the first battles of the Invasion of Poland, and of the World War II For other meanings of the term see Executioner (disambiguation. Oskar deposits his briefcase, which contains Sister Dorotea's severed ring finger in a preserving jar, on the dashboard "where professional motorman put their lunchboxes". A briefcase is a narrow box-shaped Bag or case used mainly for carrying papers and other documents and equipped with a handle The ring finger is the fourth digit of the human Hand, and the second most Ulnar Finger, located between the Middle finger and the A Kilner jar is a rubber-sealed screw-topped Jar used for the storage of food which was invented by the Kilner family and produced by John Kilner & Co Yorkshire The lunch box, also referred to as a lunch pail or lunch kit. They leave the tram at the terminus, and the executioners tie Weluhn to a tree in Vittlar's mother's garden and prepare to machine-gun him. For other uses of the phrase see Machine Gun (disambiguation. But Oskar drums, Victor sings, and together they conjure up the Polish cavalry, who spirit both victim and executioners away. The Cavalry (from French cavalerie) is the second oldest of the Combat Arms, and as Soldiers or Warriors who fought mounted on Oskar asks Vittlar to take his briefcase in the tram to the police HQ in the Fürstenwall, which he does.
The latter part of this route is today served by tram no. 703 terminating at Gerresheim Stadtbahn station ("by the glassworks" as Grass notes, referring to the famous glass factory in Gerresheim). See also Light rail Stadtbahn (literally in German: city railway) or Premetro, is a Tramway or Light railway which
[Reference: The chapter Die letzte Straßenbahn oder Anbetung eines Weckglases (The last tram or Adoration of a Preserving Jar). See page 584 of the 1959 Büchergilde Gutenberg German edition and page 571 of the 1961 Secker & Warburg edition, translated into English by Ralph Manheim]
In his 1967 spy thriller An Expensive Place to Die, Len Deighton misidentifies the Flemish coast tram: "The red glow of Ostend is nearer now and yellow trains rattle alongside the motor road and over the bridge by the Royal Yacht Club . An Expensive Place to Die is a 1967 novel by Len Deighton. It is set initially in Paris and takes its title from an Oscar Wilde quotation about Leonard Cyril Deighton (born February 18, 1929, Marylebone, London) is a British Historian, Cookery expert ||-||-||} Ostend  (  Oostende, French and German Ostende) is a Belgian City and municipality located in the Flemish . . " [Chapter 38, page 198 of the Companion Book Club edition. ]
The San Jose Mercury News is the major daily Newspaper in San Jose California and Silicon Valley. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe.