|Part of a series on|
|Toxicology and poison|
|Toxicology (Forensic) - Toxinology|
History of poison
(ICD-10 T36-T65, ICD-9 960-989)
|Poison - Venom - Toxicant - Antidote|
Acceptable daily intake - Acute toxicity
Bioaccumulation - Biomagnification
Fixed Dose Procedure - LD50 - Lethal dose
Toxic capacity - Toxicity Class
|Toxins and venoms|
|Neurotoxin - Necrotoxin - Hemotoxin|
Mycotoxin - Aflatoxin - Phototoxin
List of fictional toxins
|Bradford - Minamata - Niigata|
Alexander Litvinenko - Bhopal
2007 pet food recalls
List of poisonings
Toxic metal (Lead - Mercury - Cadmium - Antimony - Arsenic - Beryllium - Iron - Thallium) - Fluoride - Oxygen
Shellfish (Paralytic - Diarrheal - Neurologic
Amnesic) - Ciguatera - Scombroid
Pesticide - Organophosphate - Food
Nicotine - Theobromine - Carbon monoxide - Vitamin - Medicines
Mushrooms - Plants - Animals
|Hazard symbol - Carcinogen|
Mutagen - List of Extremely Hazardous Substances - Biological warfare
Toxic metals are metals that form poisonous soluble compounds and have no biological role, i. Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicos and logos) is the study of the adverse effects of Chemicals on living organisms Forensic toxicology is the use of Toxicology and other disciplines such as Analytical chemistry, Pharmacology and Clinical chemistry to aid medicolegal Toxinology is the specialized area of Toxicology that deals specifically with animal plant and microbial toxins but is also considered a science in its own right The history of Poison stretches from before 4500 BC to the Present day. S00-T14 - Injury (S00-S09 Head ( Superficial Injury of head ( Superficial injury of 17 Injury and poisoning (800-999 fracture of skull (800-804 ( Fracture of Vault of skull ( Fracture of Base of skull In the context of Biology, poisons are substances that can cause damage, Illness, or Death to Organisms usually by This article is about the class of Biotoxins For other uses see Venom (disambiguation and Venomous (disambiguation. A toxicant is a chemical compound that has an effect on organisms An antidote or counterdose is a substance which can counteract a form of Poisoning. Acceptable daily intake or ADI is a measure of the amount of a specific substance (usually a Food additive, or a residue of a veterinary drug or pesticide in Acute toxicity describes the adverse effects of a substance which result either from a single exposure or from multiple exposures in a short space of time (usually less than 24 hours Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate greater than that at ftudruinsubstance is lost Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification, or biological magnification is the increase in concentration of a substance such as the Pesticide Fixed Dose Procedure (FDP proposed in 1984 is a method to assess a substance's acute oral Toxicity. In Toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for “Lethal Dose 50%” or LCt50 (Lethal Concentration & Time of a A lethal dose (LD is an indication of the Lethality of a given substance or type of Radiation. Toxic capacity can mean the Toxicity of a substance possibly in relation to a specific Organism and toxic capacity can mean the capacity of an organism Toxicity Class refers to a classification system for Pesticides created by a national or international government-related or -sponsored organization A toxin ( Greek:, toxikon, lit (poison for use on arrows is a Poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms that is active at very low This article is about the class of Biotoxins For other uses see Venom (disambiguation and Venomous (disambiguation. A neurotoxin is a Toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells ( Neurons, usually by interacting with Membrane proteins such as Ion channels Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = "dead" is the name given to unnatural Death of cells and living tissue. Hemotoxins, haemotoxins or hematotoxins are Toxins that destroy Red blood cells (that is cause Hemolysis) disrupt Blood Mycotoxin (from the Greek μύκης (mykes mukos "fungus" is a Toxin produced by an organism of the Fungus kingdom which includes Mushrooms Aflatoxins are naturally occurring Mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a Fungus, most notably Aspergillus Phototoxins are Toxins that can cause allergic reactions in particularly susceptible individuals and which can cause dangerous Photosensitivity in a much broader range This is a list of toxins poisons and chemical weapons from works of fiction (usually in Fantasy and Science fiction) The Bradford sweets poisoning was the accidental Arsenic poisoning of more than 200 people in Bradford, England in 1858 an estimated 20 people died when sometimes referred to as, is a neurological syndrome caused by severe Mercury poisoning. is a Neurological syndrome caused by severe Mercury poisoning. Alexander Litvinenko was a former officer of Russian Federal Security Service, who escaped prosecution in Russia and received a Political asylum in The Bhopal disaster was an Industrial disaster that occurred in the city of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, resulting in the immediate deaths The 2007 pet food recalls comprise the contamination and wide recall of many brands of cat and dog foods beginning in March 2007 and the ensuing developments This is a list of Poisonings in chronological order of victim Lead poisoning (also known as saturnism, plumbism, or painter's colic) is a medical condition caused by increased levels of the metal Lead in Mercury poisoning (also known as mercurialism, hydrargyria, Hunter-Russell syndrome, or acrodynia when affecting children is a Disease Cadmium has no constructive purpose in the Human body It and its compounds are extremely Toxic even in low concentrations and will Bioaccumulate in Antimony (IPA (Received Pronunciation, /ˈæntɪmoʊni/ (US is a Chemical element with the symbol Sb (stibium meaning "mark" and Arsenic Poisoning kills by Allosteric inhibition of essential metabolic Enzymes, leading to death from multi-system Beryllium (bəˈrɪliəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Be and Atomic number 4 Iron poisoning is caused by a large excess of Iron intake It has been primarily been associated with young children who consumed large quantities of iron supplement pills Thallium (ˈθæliəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Tl and Atomic number 81 In high concentrations soluble Fluoride Salts are somewhat Toxic. Oxygen toxicity or oxygen toxicity syndrome (also known as the " Paul Bert effect" or the "Lorrain Smith effect" describes harmful effects caused There are four syndromes called shellfish poisoning, which share some common features and are primarily associated with bivalve molluscs (such as Mussels Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP is one of the four recognized syndromes of Shellfish poisoning (the others being Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, diarrhetic Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP is one of the four recognised symptom types of Shellfish poisoning, the others being Paralytic shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxic Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP is a human illness caused by consumption of the marine biotoxin called Domoic acid. Ciguatera is a Foodborne illness poisoning in humans caused by eating Marine species whose flesh is contaminated with a toxin known as Ciguatoxin, Scombroid food poisoning is a foodborne Illness that results from eating spoiled (decayed Fish. Tetrodotoxin (anhydrotetrodotoxin 4-epitetrodotoxin tetrodonic acid TTX is a potent Neurotoxin with no known antidote which blocks Action potentials in Nerves Pesticide Poisonings occur when chemicals intended to control a pest affect non-target organisms such as Humans Wildlife, or Bees Since Many Organophosphates are potent Neurotoxins functioning by inhibiting the action of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE in nerve cells. Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease) is any Illness resulting from the consumption of food Historically most cases of nicotine poisoning have been the result of its use as an Insecticide; however such use is less frequent now than previously Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after the inhalation of Carbon monoxide gas Vitamin poisoning, or hypervitaminosis, refers to a condition of high storage levels of Vitamins which can lead to Toxic Symptoms The medical The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the Ingestion or application of a Drug or other substance in quantities See also List of deadly fungi Mushroom poisoning, also known as mycetism, refers to deleterious effects from ingestion of Toxic substances present This is a list of Plants containing Poisonous parts that pose a serious risk of illness, injury or Death to Humans or Animals. Hazard symbols are easily recognizable symbols designed to warn about hazardous materials or locations The term carcinogen refers to any substance Radionuclide or radiation that is an agent directly involved in the promotion of Cancer or in the fatation of its propagation In Biology, a mutagen ( Latin, literally origin of change) is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) This is a list of Extremely Hazardous Substances as defined by Section 302 of the U Biological warfare (BW — known as a germ warfare, biological weapons and bioweaponry — is the use of any Pathogen ( Bacterium The M acro E xpansion T emplate A ttribute L anguage complements TAL, providing macros which allow the reuse of code across In the context of Biology, poisons are substances that can cause damage, Illness, or Death to Organisms usually by e. are not essential minerals, or are in the wrong form. Often heavy metals are thought as synonymous, but lighter metals also have toxicity, as exemplified by beryllium, and not all heavy metals are particularly toxic and some are even essential (such as iron). Beryllium (bəˈrɪliəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Be and Atomic number 4 Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 The definition may also include trace elements when considered in abnormally high, toxic doses. In Analytical chemistry, a trace element is an element in a sample that has an average Concentration of less than 100 Parts per million atoms A difference is that there is no beneficial dose for a toxic metal with no biological role.
Toxic metals sometimes imitate the action of an essential element in the body, interfering with the metabolic process to cause illness. Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health or ail) can be defined as a state of poor Health. Many metals, particularly heavy metals are toxic, but some heavy metals are essential, have a low toxicity, and bismuth is even non-toxic. Bismuth (ˈbɪzməθ is a Chemical element that has the symbol Bi and Atomic number 83 Most often the definition includes at least cadmium, lead, mercury and the radioactive metals. Cadmium (ˈkædmiəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Cd and Atomic number 48 Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum Metalloids (arsenic, polonium) may be included in the definition. Metalloid is a term used in Chemistry when classifying the Chemical elements On the basis of their general physical and chemical properties nearly every element Arsenic (ˈɑrsənɪk is a Chemical element that has the symbol As and Atomic number of 33 Polonium (pəˈloʊniəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Po and Atomic number 84 discovered in 1898 by Marie and Pierre Curie Radioactive metals have both radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity. Metals in an oxidation state abnormal to the body may also become toxic: chromium(III) is an essential trace element, but chromium(VI) is a carcinogen. Chromium (ˈkroʊmiəm is a Chemical element which has the symbol Cr and Atomic number 24 The term carcinogen refers to any substance Radionuclide or radiation that is an agent directly involved in the promotion of Cancer or in the fatation of its propagation The toxicity of any metal depends on its ligands.
Toxicity is a function of solubility. Insoluble compounds as well as the metallic forms often exhibit negligible toxicity. In some cases, organometallic forms, such as dimethyl mercury and tetraethyl lead, can be extremely toxic. Dimethylmercury (( C[[Hydrogen H]]32 Hg) is a flammable colorless liquid and one of the strongest known Neurotoxins It is described Tetra-ethyl lead, abbreviated TEL, is an organometallic compound with the formula ( CH3CH2)4 Pb. In other cases, organometallic derivatives are less toxic such as cobaltocenium cation.
Decontamination for toxic metals is different from organic toxins: because toxic metals are elements, they cannot be destroyed. Toxic metals may be made insoluble or collected, possibly by the aid of chelating agents.
Toxic metals can bioaccumulate in the body and in the food chain. Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate greater than that at ftudruinsubstance is lost Food chains, also called food networks and/or trophic networks, describe the feeding relationships between species within an Ecosystem. The exceptions are barium and aluminum. Barium (ˈbɛəriəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol Ba, and Atomic number 56 WikipediaNaming Therefore, a common characteristic of toxic metals is the chronic nature of their toxicity.
Aluminum has no biological role and its classification into toxic metals is controversial. WikipediaNaming Significant toxic effects and accumulation to tissues have been observed in renally impaired patients.  However, individuals with healthy kidneys can be exposed to large amounts of aluminum with no ill effects. Thus, aluminum is not considered dangerous to persons with normal elimination capacity. 
Some heavy nonmetals may be erroneously called "metals", because they have some metallic properties. Chromium (ˈkroʊmiəm is a Chemical element which has the symbol Cr and Atomic number 24 Nickel (ˈnɪkəl is a metallic Chemical element with the symbol Ni and Atomic number 28 Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Iron poisoning is caused by a large excess of Iron intake It has been primarily been associated with young children who consumed large quantities of iron supplement pills