|Tower of London*|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|State Party||United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland|
|Region†||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||1988 (12th Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.|
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, England, on the north bank of the River Thames. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex As of 2008 there are a total of 878 World Heritage Sites located in 145 "State Parties" The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. Asia Minor, Cyprus, all of the Aegean Islands, the Canaries A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Thames ( is a major River flowing through southern England. It is located within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets and is separated from the eastern edge of the City of London by the open space known as Tower Hill. The London Borough of Tower Hamlets ( is a London borough to the east of the City of London, England and north of the River Thames in East For London as a whole see the main article London. The City of London is a geographically Tower Hill is an elevated spot north-west of the Tower of London, just outside the limits of the City of London in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets.
The Tower of London is often identified with the White Tower, the original stark square fortress built by William the Conqueror in 1078. The White Tower is a central tower at the Tower of London. The great central keep was started in 1078 by William the Conqueror who ordered the White William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages However, the tower as a whole is a complex of several buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. A moat is deep broad Trench, usually filled with Water, that surrounds a structure installation or town normally to provide it with a preliminary line of
The tower's primary function was a fortress, a royal palace, and a prison (particularly for high status and royal prisoners, such as the Princes in the Tower and the future Queen Elizabeth I). The Princes in the Tower, Edward V of England ( November 4 1470 &ndash 1483? and his brother Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke of York ( This last use has led to the phrase "sent to the Tower" (meaning "imprisoned"). It has also served as a place of execution and torture, an armoury, a treasury, a zoo, the Royal Mint, a public records office, an observatory, and since 1303, the home of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally An armory (Armoury is a Military depot used for the storage of Weapons and Ammunition. For the US government securities see Treasury security. Also see Treasury management. A zoological garden, shortened to zoo, is an institution in which living animals are exhibited in captivity The Royal Mint is the body permitted to manufacture or mint, coins in the United Kingdom. An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial and/or celestial events The collective term Crown Jewels denotes the regalia and vestments worn by the sovereign of the United Kingdom during the Coronation ceremony and at various other
The Tower is located at the eastern boundary of the City of London financial district, adjacent to the River Thames and Tower Bridge. 30 St Mary Axe is a Skyscraper in London 's main financial district the City of London. For London as a whole see the main article London. The City of London is a geographically The Thames ( is a major River flowing through southern England. Tower Bridge is a combined bascule and Suspension bridge in London, England over the River Thames. Between the river and the Tower is Tower Wharf, a freely accessible walkway with views of the river, tower and bridge, together with HMS Belfast and London City Hall on the opposite bank. Early history The Town class cruisers were constrained to less than 10000 tons by the Washington Naval Treaty. City Hall is the headquarters of the Greater London Authority which comprises the Mayor of London and London Assembly.
The nearest public transport locations are:
At the centre of the Tower of London stands the Norman White Tower. Tower Bridge is a combined bascule and Suspension bridge in London, England over the River Thames. The White Tower is a central tower at the Tower of London. The great central keep was started in 1078 by William the Conqueror who ordered the White It is 90 feet (27 m) high and the walls vary from 15 feet (4. 5 m) thick at the base to almost 11 feet (3. 3 m) in the upper parts. Above the battlements rise four turrets; three of them are square, but the one on the northeast is circular. This turret once contained the first royal observatory. Henry III had the exterior of the building whitewashed in 1240, which is how the tower got its name.
The White Tower is situated in the Inner Ward, defended by a massive curtain wall, which has thirteen towers:
The entrance to the Inner Ward is on the south side under the Bloody Tower. The Salt Tower is a tower located at the Tower of London was built by Henry III in about 1235. Outside of this is the Outer Ward, defended by a second massive curtain wall, flanked by six towers facing the river:
On the north face of the outer wall are three semicircular bastions. A ditch or moat, now dry, encircles the whole, crossed at the southwestern angle by a stone bridge, leading to the Byward Tower from the Middle Tower - a gateway which had formerly an outwork, called the Lion Tower.
The water entrance to the Tower is often referred to as Traitor's Gate because prisoners accused of treason such as Queen Anne Boleyn and Sir Thomas More passed through it. Many Tudor prisoners entered the Tower of London through the Traitors' Gate. Anne Boleyn (1501 or 1507 – 19 May 1536 was the Queen of England as the second wife of Henry VIII of England. Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535 from 1935 Saint Thomas More, was an English Lawyer, author and statesman who in his lifetime gained Traitor's Gate cuts through St Thomas's Tower and replaced Henry III's watergate in the Bloody Tower behind it. Behind Traitors Gate in the pool was an engine used to raise water to a cistern located on the roof of the White Tower. The engine was originally powered by the force of the tide or by horsepower and eventually by steampower; this was adapted around 1724 to drive machinery for boring gun barrels. It was removed in the 1860s. The Tudor Timber Framing seen above the great arch of Traitor's Gate dates from 1532 and was restored in the 19th century.
The Tower today is principally a tourist attraction. Besides the buildings themselves, the British Crown Jewels, a fine armour collection from the Royal Armouries, and a remnant of the wall of the Roman fortress are on display. The Royal Armouries houses the British national collection of arms and armour Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between AD 43 and 410
The tower is manned by the Yeomen Warders (known as Beefeaters), who act as tour guides, provide security, and are a tourist attraction in their own right. "Beefeater" redirects here For other uses see Beefeater (disambiguation. Every evening, the warders participate in the Ceremony of the Keys as the Tower is secured for the night. Ceremonies known as the Ceremony of the Keys are held in at least two locations in the United Kingdom: London, and Edinburgh, as well as Gibraltar
The Tower of London was founded in 1078 when William the Conqueror ordered the White Tower to be built inside the southeast angle of the city walls, adjacent to the Thames.  This was as much to protect the Normans from the people of the City of London as to protect London from outside invaders. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. William ordered the tower to be built of Caen stone, which he had specially imported from France. Caen stone or Pierre de Caen, is a light creamy-yellow Jurassic Limestone quarried in northwestern France near the city of Caen This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. He appointed Gundulf, Bishop of Rochester, as the architect. Gundulf (or Gundulph) was a Norman monk who came to England following the Conquest See also List of bishops of Rochester The Bishop of Rochester is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese An architect is a licensed individual who leads a design team in the Planning and Design of buildings and participates in oversight of Building Construction
Some writers, such as William Shakespeare in his play Richard III, have ascribed an earlier origin to the Tower of London and have stated that it was built by Julius Caesar. William Shakespeare ( baptised Richard III is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in approximately 1591 This supposed Roman origin is a myth, however, as is the story that the mortar used in its construction was tempered by the blood of beasts. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
In the 12th century, King Richard the Lionheart enclosed the White Tower with a curtain wall and had a moat dug around it filled with water from the Thames. Richard I (8 September 1157 &ndash 6 April 1199 was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death Curtain wall is a term used to describe a building Façade which does not carry any dead load from the building other than its own dead load The moat was not successful until Henry III, in the 13th century, employed a Dutch moat-building technique. Henry III (1 October 1207 &ndash 16 November 1272 was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands This king greatly strengthened the curtain wall, breaking down the city wall to the east, to extend the circuit, despite the protests of the citizens of London and even supernatural warnings, according to chronicler Matthew Paris. Matthew Paris (c 1200 &ndash 1259 was a Benedictine monk English chronicler, artist in Illuminated manuscripts and Cartographer Henry III transformed the tower into a major royal residence and had palatial buildings constructed within the Inner Bailey.
The fortification was completed between 1275 and 1285 by Edward I, who built the outer curtain wall, completely enclosing the inner wall and thus creating a concentric double defence. Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307 popularly known as Longshanks, was a King of England who achieved historical fame by conquering large parts of Wales and almost He filled in the moat and built a new moat around the new outer wall.
The tower remained a royal residence until the time of Oliver Cromwell, who demolished the old palatial buildings. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style &ndash 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known
A Royal Menagerie was established at the tower in the 21st century, possibly as early as 1204 during the reign of John I, and probably stocked with animals from an earlier menagerie started in 1125 by Henry I at his palace in Woodstock, near Oxford; William of Malmesbury reported that Henry had lions, leopards, lynxes and camels among other animals there. A zoological garden, shortened to zoo, is an institution in which living animals are exhibited in captivity John (24 December 1167 &ndash 19 October 1216 reigned as a King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death Henry I (c 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror, the first King of England after the Norman Woodstock is a small Town in Oxfordshire, England which is home to Blenheim Palace, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, where Oxford is currently bidding for the 2010 Wikimania Conference Oxford () is a city, and the County town of Oxfordshire, Biography The education William received at Malmesbury Abbey included a smattering of Logic and Physics; Moral philosophy and History, The lion ( Panthera leo) is a member of the family Felidae and one of four Big cats in the Genus Panthera. The leopard (lɛpɚd Panthera pardus) is an Old World Mammal of the Felidae family and the smallest of the four roaring A lynx is any of four medium-sized wild cats. All are members of the Genus Lynx, but there is considerable confusion about the best way to classify Camels are Even-toed ungulates within the Genus Camelus. The Dromedary, one-humped or Arabian camel has a single hump and the  Its year of origin is often stated as 1235, when Henry III received a wedding gift of three leopards (so recorded, although they may have been lions) from Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry III (1 October 1207 &ndash 16 November 1272 was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 Frederick II ( December 26, 1194 &ndash December 13, 1250) of the Hohenstaufen dynasty was a Pretender to the title In 1264, they were moved to the Bulwark, which was duly renamed the Lion Tower, near the main western entrance. It was opened as an occasional public spectacle in the reign of Elizabeth I. A lion skull was radiocarbon dated to between 1280 and 1385, making it the earliest medieval big cat known in Britain. Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a Radioactive isotope of Carbon discovered on February 27, 1940, by 
The menagerie was open to the public by the 18th century; admission was a sum of three half-pence or the supply of a cat or dog for feeding to the lions.  This was where William Blake saw the tiger which may have inspired his poem The Tyger. William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827 was an English poet, painter, and Printmaker. The tiger ( Panthera tigris) is a member of the Felidae family the largest and the most powerful of the four " Big cats quot in the Genus " The Tyger " is a famous poem by the English poet William Blake. The menagerie's last director, Alfred Cops, who took over in 1822, found the collection in a dismal state but restocked it and issued an illustrated scientific catalogue. Partly for commercial reasons and partly for animal welfare, the animals were moved to the London Zoo when it opened. Animal welfare refers to the viewpoint that it is morally acceptable for humans to use nonhuman animals for food in animal research, as clothing and in entertainment ZSL London Zoo is the world's oldest scientific Zoo. It was opened in London on April 27 1828, and was originally intended to be used The last of the animals left in 1835, and most of the Lion Tower was demolished soon after, although Lion Gate remains.
It had been thought that there have been at least six ravens in residence at the tower for centuries. It was said that Charles II ordered their removal following complaints from John Flamsteed, the Royal Astronomer. Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. John Flamsteed FRS ( 19 August, 1646 - 31 December, 1719) was an English Astronomer and the first  However, they were not removed because Charles was then told of the legend that if the ravens ever leave the Tower of London, the White Tower, the monarchy, and the entire kingdom would fall (the London Stone has a similar legend). A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or The London Stone is a stone that is said to be the place from which the Romans measured all distances in Britannia. Charles, following the time of the English Civil War, superstition or not, was not prepared to take the chance, and instead had the observatory moved to Greenwich. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. Greenwich ( ˈɡrɛnɪtʃ GREN-itch /ˈɡrɛnɪdʒ/ GREN-idge or /ˈɡrɪnɪdʒ/ GRIN-idge is a district in south-east London,
The earliest known reference to a tower raven is a picture in the newspaper The Pictorial World in 1885.  This and scattered subsequent references to the tower ravens, both literary and visual, which appear in the late nineteenth to early twentieth century place them near the monument commemorating those beheaded at the tower, popularly known as the “scaffold. ” This strongly suggests that the ravens, which are notorious for gathering at gallows, were originally used to dramatize tales of imprisonment and execution at the tower told by the Yeomen Warders to tourists. "Beefeater" redirects here For other uses see Beefeater (disambiguation.  There is evidence that the original ravens were donated to the tower by the Earls of Dunraven, perhaps because of their association with the Celtic raven-god Bran. Celtic mythology is the Mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the Religion of the Iron Age Celts Like other Iron Age  However wild ravens, which were once abundant in London and often seen around meat markets (such as nearby Eastcheap) feasting for scraps, could have roosted at the tower in earlier times. Eastcheap is a road in the City of London. Its name derives from cheap, market with the prefix "East" distinguishing it from the other former City of London 
The legend that Britain will fall if the ravens leave the tower appears to date from autumn of 1944, and to come from the Stag Brewery in London, where ravens were used as mascots and perhaps unofficial spotters for enemy bombers. 
No one can remember the tower without ravens, though during the Second World War most of them perished through shock during bombing raids – the sole survivor being a bird called 'Grip'. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including  However, before the tower reopened to the public on 1 January 1946, care was taken to ensure that a new set of ravens was in place. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
There are currently nine ravens, whose wings are clipped to prevent them from flying away, and they are cared for by the Ravenmaster, a duty given to one of the Yeomen Warders. The ravens' names/gender/age are (as of November 2006):
The oldest raven ever to serve at the Tower of London was called Jim Crow, who died at the age of 44. 
In 2006, ahead of the H5N1 avian influenza scare, the ravens were moved indoors; as of July 2006, they are once again free to roam about the grounds within the tower complex. Influenza A virus subtype H5[[Neuraminidase N1]], also known as A(H5N1 or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. Avian influenza, sometimes Avian flu, and commonly Bird flu refers
The first prisoner was Ranulf Flambard in 1100 who, as Bishop of Durham, was found guilty of extortion. Ranulf Flambard, also known as Ralph Flambard or Ranulph Flambard and sometimes Ranulf Passiflamme, (c Extortion, outwresting, or exaction is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person Unlawfully obtains either money property or services He had been responsible for various improvements to the design of the tower after the first architect Gundulf moved back to Rochester. He escaped from the White Tower by climbing down a rope, which had been smuggled into his cell in a wine casket.
Other prisoners include:
Inside the torture chambers of the tower various implements of torture were used such as the Scavenger’s daughter, a kind of compression device, and the Rack, also known as the Duke of Exeter's Daughter. A Torture chamber is a place where Torture is carried out Torture chambers through history Throughout history torture chambers have been used in a multiplicity The Scavenger's daughter was a type of torture device History It was invented as an instrument of torture in the reign of Henry VIII by Sir William Skevington The Duke of Exeter's daughter was a torture rack used in the Tower of London. 
Anne Askew is the only woman on record to have been tortured in the tower, after being taken there in 1546 on a charge of heresy. Anne Askew (also spelled Anne Ayscough) ( 1521 - 16 July 1546) was an English poet and Protestant who was persecuted as a heretic Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief Sir Anthony Kingston, the Constable of the Tower of London, was ordered to torture Anne in an attempt to force her to name other Protestants. Anne was put on the Rack. Kingston was so impressed with the way Anne behaved that he refused to carry on torturing her, and Henry VIII's Lord Chancellor had to take over.
Lower-class criminals were usually executed by hanging at one of the public execution sites outside the Tower. High-profile convicts, such as Thomas More, were publicly beheaded on Tower Hill. Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535 from 1935 Saint Thomas More, was an English Lawyer, author and statesman who in his lifetime gained Tower Hill is an elevated spot north-west of the Tower of London, just outside the limits of the City of London in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Seven nobles (five of them ladies) were beheaded privately on Tower Green, inside the complex, and then buried in the "Chapel Royal of St. Peter ad Vincula" (Latin for "in chains," making him an appropriate patron saint for prisoners) next to the Green. Tower Green is a space within the Tower of London where two English Queen consorts and five other British nobles were executed A Chapel Royal is a department of the Ecclesiastical Household of the monarch in right of each of the Commonwealth realms formally known as the royal For other churches of this dedication see St Peter ad Vincula (disambiguation. Some of the nobles who were executed outside the Tower are also buried in that chapel. (External link to Chapel webpage) The names of the seven beheaded on Tower Green for treason alone are:
George, Duke of Clarence, the brother of Edward IV of England, was executed for treason in the Tower in February 1478, but not by beheading (and probably not by being drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine, despite what Shakespeare wrote). William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (c 1431 &ndash 13 June 1483) became one of the great powers of the English realm during the reign of Edward Anne Boleyn (1501 or 1507 – 19 May 1536 was the Queen of England as the second wife of Henry VIII of England. Margaret Pole ( née Plantagenet) 8th Countess of Salisbury ( 14 August 1473 &ndash 27 May 1541) was an For other Catherine Howards see Catherine Howard (disambiguation Catherine Howard (between 1520 and 1525 – 13 February 1542 also called Jane Boleyn Viscountess Rochford (c 1505 &ndash February 13 1542) was an English noblewoman who lived in the reign of Henry VIII. Lady Jane Grey (1536/1537&ndash 12 February 1554) also referred to as Queen Jane, a greatniece of Henry VIII of England, was a claimant Robert Devereux 2nd Earl of Essex ( 10 November 1566 &ndash 25 February 1601) a favourite of Queen Elizabeth I of England George Plantagenet Duke of Clarence ( 21 October 1449 &ndash 18 February 1478) was the third son of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York Edward IV ( 28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was King of England from 4 March 1461 until 2 October Malvasia (also known as Malvazia) is a group of wine Grape varieties grown historically in the Mediterranean region and the island of Madeira William Shakespeare ( baptised
When Edward IV died, he left two young sons behind: the Princes in the Tower. The Princes in the Tower, Edward V of England ( November 4 1470 &ndash 1483? and his brother Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke of York ( His brother Richard, the Duke of Gloucester, was made Regent until the older of his two sons, Edward V, should come of age. According to Thomas More's History of Richard III, Richard hired men to kill them, and, one night, the two Princes were smothered with their pillows. Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535 from 1935 Saint Thomas More, was an English Lawyer, author and statesman who in his lifetime gained Richard III ( 2 October 1452 &ndash 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death Many years later, bones were found buried at the foot of a stairway in the Tower, which are thought to be those of the princes. Richard was crowned King Richard III of England.
The last execution at the Tower was that of German spy Josef Jakobs on 14 August 1941 by firing squad formed from the Scots Guards. Corporal Josef Jakobs ( 30 June 1898 &ndash 15 August 1941) was a German agent who was shot by firing squad in the Tower of London Events 1183 - Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Scots Guards (SG form part of the Guards Division of the British Army, whose origins lie in the personal bodyguard of King Charles I of England and
The military use of the Tower as a fortification, like that of other such castles, became obsolete with the introduction of artillery, and the moat was drained in 1830. A castle is a defensive structure seen as one of the main symbols of the Middle Ages. Artillery (from French artillerie) is a military Combat Arm which employs any apparātus machine However the Tower did serve as the headquarters of the Board of Ordnance until 1855, and the Tower was still occasionally used as a prison, even through both World Wars. The Board of Ordnance was a British government body responsible for the supply of armaments and munitions to the British Army. In 1780, the Tower held its only American prisoner, former President of the Continental Congress, Henry Laurens. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The President of the Continental Congress was the presiding officer of the Continental Congress, the convention of delegates that emerged as the first national government Henry Laurens (March 6 1724 December 8 1792 was an American merchant and rice planter from South Carolina who became a political leader during the Revolutionary In World War I, eleven German spies were shot in the Tower. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Irish rebel Roger Casement was imprisoned in the Tower during his trial on treason charges in 1916. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Roger David Casement (Ruairí Mac Easmainn 1 September 1864 &ndash 3 August 1916 ( Sir Roger Casement CMG between 1911 and until his execution for treason in August
In 1942, Adolf Hitler's deputy, Rudolf Hess, was imprisoned in the tower for four days. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Rudolf Walter Richard Hess ( Heß in German) (26 April 1894 &ndash 17 August 1987 was a prominent figure in Nazi Germany, acting as Adolf Hitler During this time, RAF Wing Commander George Salaman was placed in the same cell undercover, impersonating a Luftwaffe officer, to spy on Hess. Wing Commander ( Wg Cdr in the RAF, WGCDR in the RNZAF and RAAF, W/C in the former RCAF) is a commissioned George Salaman ( 16 May, 1907 &ndash1983 was an English businessman friend of Sir Winston Churchill, and RAF Wing Commander ( German 'luftvafe is a generic German term for an Air force. Although acting covertly and not held as a true inmate, Salaman remains the last Englishman to be locked in the Tower of London. The tower was used as a prison for German prisoners of war throughout the conflict.
Waterloo Barracks, the location of the Crown Jewels, remained in use as a base for the 1st Battalion Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment) into the 1950s; during 1952, the Kray twins were briefly held there for failing to report for national service, making them among the last prisoners of the Tower; the last British citizen held for any length of time was the traitorous Army officer Norman Baillie-Stewart from 1933 to 1937. Fusilier was originally the name of a soldier armed with a light flintlock Musket called the fusil. Reginald "Reggie" Kray ( 24 October 1933 &ndash 1 October 2000) and Ronald "Ronnie" Kray ( 24 October Norman Baillie-Stewart ( January 15, 1909 &ndash 1966 was a British army officer known as The Officer in the Tower when he was imprisoned in
Although it is no longer a royal residence, the Tower officially remains a royal palace and maintains a permanent guard: this is found by the unit forming the Queen's Guard at Buckingham Palace. The Jewel House in the Tower of London is both a building and an institution The Queen's Guard and Queen's Life Guard are the names given to contingents of Infantry and Cavalry soldiers charged with guarding the official royal Buckingham Palace is the official London residence of the British monarch. Two sentries are maintained during the hours that the Tower is open, with one stationed outside the Jewel House and one outside the Queen's House.
In 1974, there was a bomb explosion in the Mortar Room in the White tower leaving one person dead and 41 injured. A mortar is a muzzle-loading Indirect fire weapon that fires shells at low velocities short ranges and high-arcing ballistic trajectories No one claimed responsibility for the blast, however the police were investigating suspicions that the IRA was behind it. The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Óglaigh na hÉireann ( IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the 
In 2007 Moira Cameron became the first female Beefeater in history to go on duty at the Tower of London. Moira Cameron (born 1965 is a Yeoman Warder, also known as a 'Beefeater' at the Tower of London. Cameron beat five men to the job as a Yeomen Warder.
The Tower of London and its surrounding area has always had a separate administration from the adjacent City of London. For London as a whole see the main article London. The City of London is a geographically It was under the jurisdiction of Constable of the Tower who also held authority over the Tower liberties until 1894. The Constable of the Tower of London is the governor of the Tower of London. The Liberties of the Tower, or the Tower Liberty was an area adjoining the Tower of London, which was outside the jurisdiction of either the City of London In addition the Constable was ex-officio Lord Lieutenant of the Tower division of Middlesex until 1889 and head of the Tower Hamlets Militia until 1871. The title Lord Lieutenant is given to the British Monarch 's personal representatives in the United Kingdom, usually in a county or similar circumscription with varying The Tower Division was a liberty, a historical form of local government in the ancient county of Middlesex, England. Middlesex is one of the 39 historic counties of England and the second smallest by area. The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary Citizens to provide defense emergency law enforcement or Paramilitary service Today the Tower is within the boundaries of the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. The London Borough of Tower Hamlets ( is a London borough to the east of the City of London, England and north of the River Thames in East
The Crown Jewels have been kept at the Tower of London since 1303, after they were stolen from Westminster Abbey. The collective term Crown Jewels denotes the regalia and vestments worn by the sovereign of the United Kingdom during the Coronation ceremony and at various other The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church It is thought that most, if not all, were recovered shortly afterwards. After the coronation of Charles II, they were locked away and shown for a viewing fee paid to a custodian. Charles II may refer to Charles the Bald (823 &ndash 877 king of the West Franks and Holy Roman Emperor Charles II of Naples (1248 However, this arrangement ended when Colonel Thomas Blood stole the Crown Jewels after having bound and gagged the custodian. Thomas Blood ( 1618 - August 23, 1680) was an Irish-born Colonel best known for attempting to steal the Crown Jewels of Thereafter, the Crown Jewels were kept in a part of the Tower known as Jewel House, where armed guards defended them. They were temporarily taken out of the Tower during World War II and reportedly were secretly kept in the basement vaults of the Sun Life Insurance company in Montreal, Canada, along with the gold bullion of the Bank of England. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Sun Life Financial Inc (,) is a leading financial services organization in Canada known primarily as a Life insurance company Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Bank of England (formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England) is a state-owned institution and the Central bank of the United Kingdom
The Tower of London is reputedly the most haunted building in England. The ghost of Queen Anne Boleyn, beheaded in 1536 for treason against King Henry VIII, has allegedly been seen haunting the chapel of St Peter-ad-Vincula, where she is buried, and walking around the White Tower carrying her head under her arm. Anne Boleyn (1501 or 1507 – 19 May 1536 was the Queen of England as the second wife of Henry VIII of England. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of Other ghosts include Henry VI, Lady Jane Grey, Margaret Pole, and the Princes in the Tower. Henry VI (6 December 1421 &ndash 21 May 1471 was King of England 1422–1461 (though with a Regent until 1437 and then 1470–1471 and a claimant to the kingdom Lady Jane Grey (1536/1537&ndash 12 February 1554) also referred to as Queen Jane, a greatniece of Henry VIII of England, was a claimant Margaret Pole ( née Plantagenet) 8th Countess of Salisbury ( 14 August 1473 &ndash 27 May 1541) was an The Princes in the Tower, Edward V of England ( November 4 1470 &ndash 1483? and his brother Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke of York ( In January 1816 a sentry on guard outside the Jewel House witnessed an inexplicable apparition of a bear advancing towards him. Reportedly the sentry died of fright a few days later
William John Loftie (1839 – 1911 was a British Clergyman and writer on the history of London travel art and architecture Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to Digitize, archive and distribute Cultural works