Commune of Toulon
|Tall ships in the old port of Toulon|
|Canton||Chief town of 9 cantons|
|Elevation||0 m–589 m|
(avg. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of countries, arranged alphabetically This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. France is divided into 26 regions or régions (in French of which 21 are in continental Metropolitan France, one is the island of Corsica, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (PACA ( Provençal Occitan: Provença-Aups-Còsta d'Azur in classical norm or Prouvènço-Aup-Costo d'Azur in Mistralian In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division The Var is a French department in Provence in southeast France A prefecture ( préfecture) in France can refer to: the Chef-lieu de département, the town in which the administration of a ''département'' The 100 French departments are divided into 342 arrondissements, which may be translated into English as districts. The arrondissement of Toulon is an arrondissement of France located in the Var department, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region The cantons of France are territorial subdivisions of the French Republic's 341 arrondissements and 100 departments. The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. The Agglomeration community of Toulon Provence Mediterranean ( French: Communauté d'agglomération Toulon Provence Méditerranée) is the intercommunal A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Hubert Falco (born May 15, 1947 in Dijon is a French politician who has been appointed Secretary of State for development of the territory in the government of François The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. 1 m)
|Land area¹||42. 84 km²|
|- Density||3,750/km² (1999)|
|INSEE/Postal code||83137/ 83000|
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0. As of January 1, 2008, 64473140 people live in the French Republic. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume The INSEE code is a numerical indexing code used by the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE to identify various entities including communes Postal codes were introduced in France in 1972, when La Poste introduced automated sorting. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. An estuary is a semi-enclosed Coastal body of Water with one or more Rivers or Streams flowing into it and with a free connection to the open|
|2 Population sans doubles comptes: residents of multiple communes (e.g. students and military personnel) only counted once. C D E|
Toulon (Provençal Occitan: Tolon in classical norm or Touloun in Mistralian norm) is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. Provençal ( Provençau) is one of several dialects of Occitan spoken by a minority of people mostly in Provence (in southern France Occitan ( IPA BrE: /ˈɒksɪtn/ AmE: /ˈɑksəˌtɑn/ known also as Lenga d'òc or Langue d'oc (native name occitan This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur région, Toulon is the préfecture (capital) of the Var département, in the former province of Provence. Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (PACA ( Provençal Occitan: Provença-Aups-Còsta d'Azur in classical norm or Prouvènço-Aup-Costo d'Azur in Mistralian France is divided into 26 regions or régions (in French of which 21 are in continental Metropolitan France, one is the island of Corsica, A prefecture ( préfecture) in France can refer to: the Chef-lieu de département, the town in which the administration of a ''département'' The Var is a French department in Provence in southeast France In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division The Kingdom of France was organised into Provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm is a region of southeastern France
The population of the city (commune) in 2005 was 167,400  making Toulon the fifteenth largest city in France. The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. The population of the Toulon metropolitan area (aire urbaine in French) in 1999 was 564,823, making Toulon the tenth largest metropolitan area, after Strasbourg,in France. The aire urbaine is an INSEE (the national statistics office of France statistical region comprising a Couronne périurbaine commuter belt around a contiguous 
Toulon is an important centre for naval construction, fishing, wine making, and the manufacture of aeronautical equipment, armaments, maps, paper, tobacco, printing, shoes, and electronic equipment.
Toulon is the major naval center on France's Mediterranean coast, home of the French Navy aircraft carrier Charles De Gaulle and her battle group. Development Construction The carrier replaced ''Foch'', a conventionally-powered aircraft carrier in 2001 The French Mediterranean Fleet is based in Toulon. The French Mediterranean Fleet is one of the two major forces of the French Navy.
Archeological excavations, such as those at the Cosquer Cave near Marseille,show that the coast of Provence was inhabited since at least the paleolithic era. The Cosquer cave is located in the Calanque de Morgiou near Marseille, France, not very far from Cap Morgiou Marseille, ( English alt Marseilles mɑrˈseɪ — French: maʁsɛj locally — Provençal Occitan: Marselha maʀˈsijɔ Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm is a region of southeastern France The term Paleolithic (or Palaeolithic) (from Greek παλαιός palaios, " Old " and λίθος Lithos, "stone" Greek colonists came from Asia Minor in about the 7th century BC and established trading depots along the coast, including one, called Olbia, at Saint-Pierre de l'Almanarre south of Hyeres, to the east of Toulon. The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Hyères ( Provençal Occitan: Ieras in classical norm or Iero in Mistralian norm is a town and commune in the southeast of France A Celtic (possibly) people, the Ligurians, settled in the area beginning in the 4th century BC. Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts 
In the 2nd century BC the residents of Massalia (present-day Marseille) called upon the Romans to help them pacify the region. This is a list of topics related to ancient Rome that aims to include aspects of both the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. The Romans defeated the Ligurians and began to start their own colonies along the coast. A Roman settlement was founded at the present location of Toulon, with the name Telo Martius - Telo, either for the goddess of springs or from the latin tol, the base of the hill - and Martius, for the god of war. Telo Martius became one of the two principal Roman dye manufacturing centers, producing the purple color used in imperial robes, made from the local sea snail called murex, and from the acorns of the oak trees. A dye can generally be described as a Colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied Murex is a Genus of medium to large sized Predatory tropical sea Snails These are carnivorous marine Gastropod
The Rade of Toulon became a shelter for trading ships, and the name of the town gradually changed from Telo to Tholon, Tolon, and Toulon.
Toulon was Christianized in the 5th century, and the first cathedral built. Honoratus and Gratianus of Toulon (Gratien), according to the Gallia Christiana, were the first bishops of Toulon, but Louis Duchesne gives Augustalis as the first historical bishop. For the 7th century saint see Honoratus of Amiens. Saint Honoratus (ca The Gallia Christiana, a type of work of which there have been several editions is a documentary catalogue or list with brief historical notices of all the Catholic dioceses Abbé Louis Marie Olivier Duchesne ( September 13, 1843 - April 21, 1922) was a French priest philologist, teacher and An augustalis or augustale was a Gold coin minted in the Kingdom of Sicily beginning around 1231 He assisted at councils in 441 and 442 and signed in 449 and 450 the letters addressed to Pope Leo I from the province of Arles. Pope Saint Leo I or Pope Saint Leo the Great was Pope from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461. French Ancien Régime Roman Catholic Dioceses and ecclesiastical provinces were heirs of Late Roman Civitates (themselves created out of
A Saint Cyprian, disciple and biographer of St. Cæsarius of Arles, is also mentioned as a Bishop of Toulon. Saint Cyprian of Toulon ( Cyprianus Tolonensis) ( 476 - October 3, 546) was Bishop of Toulon during the 6th century For others with this name see Caesarius. Saint Caesarius of Arles (468/470&ndash 27 August 542) sometimes called "of His episcopate, begun in 524, had not come to an end in 541; he converted to Catholicism two Visigothic chiefs, Mandrier and Flavian, who became anchorites and martyrs on the peninsula of Mandrier. The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Anchorite (male/ anchoress (female (adj anchoritic from the Greek anachōreō signifying "to withdraw" "to depart into the rural countryside" 
As barbarians invaded the region and Roman power crumbled, the town was frequently attacked by pirates and the Saracens. Saracen was a term used by Europeans in the Middle Ages for Fatimids at first then later for all who professed the religion of Islam.
The old town of Toulon, the historic center located between the port, the Boulevard de Strasbourg and the cours Lafayette, is a pedestrian area with narrow streets, small squares and many fountains. Toulon Cathedral is located here. Toulon Cathedral ( Cathédrale Notre-Dame-de-la-Seds de Toulon or Notre-Dame-de-la-Sède de Toulon; also known as Sainte-Marie-Majeure) is a Roman The area is also home of the celebrated Provencal market which takes place every morning on the Cours Lafayette, which features local products. The old town had decayed in the 1980s and 1990s, but recently many of the fountains and squares have been restored, and many new shops have opened. 
The upper town, between the Boulevard de Strabourg and the railroad station, was built in the mid 19th century under Louis Napoleon. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President The project was begun by Baron Haussmann, who was prefet of the Var in 1849. Georges-Eugène Haussmann ( March 27, 1809 &ndash January 11, 1891) who called himself Baron Haussmann, was a French Improvements to the neighborhood included the Toulon Opera, the place de la Liberté, the Grand Hôtel, the Gardens of Alexander I, the Chalucet Hospital, the palais de Justice, the train station, and the building now occupied by Galeries Lafayette, among others. The Toulon Opera (L'opéra de Toulon, innaugurated in 1862 is the second-largest opera house in France after the Palais Garnier in Paris Haussmann went on to use the same style on a much grander scale in the rebuilding of central Paris. 
The word rade comes from the old english term 'Road,' "a protected place near shore, not so enclosed as a harbor, where ships can ride at anchor. Rade may refer to E De people a people group in Southeast Asia also called "Rhade" or "Rade" places in Schleswig-Holstein Germany " . The Rade of Toulon is one of the best natural anchorages on the Mediterranean, and the largest rade in Europe. It is protected from the sea by the peninsula of Giens and the peninsula of Saint-Mandrier-sur-Mer,and has been used as a military harbor since the 15th century. The Rade shelters the port of Saint-Mandrier-sur-Mer, the port of La Seyne-sur-Mer, as well as the arsenal, or military port of Toulon, and the commercial port. La Seyne-sur-Mer, or La Seyne is a town and commune of the Var département, in France.
A naval arsenal and shipyard was built in 1599, and small sheltered harbor, the Veille Darse, was built in 1604-1610 to protect ships from the wind and sea. The shipyard was greatly enlarged by Cardinal Richelieu, who wished to make France into a Mediterranean naval power. This article is about a cardinal For information on the Russian also called The Red Eminence, see Mikhail Andreyevich Suslov. In 1680, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the Minister of the Navy and Controller of Finance of King Louis XIV, began building a much larger port, called the Darse Vauban or the Darse Neuve, and shipyard, designed by his commissioner of fortifications,Vauban. Jean-Baptiste Colbert ( August 29, 1619 — September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent Sébastien Le Prestre Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban ( May 15, 1633 – March 30, 1707) commonly referred to 
In 1697, Vauban built the impressive corderie, a building designed to make ropes. Sébastien Le Prestre Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban ( May 15, 1633 – March 30, 1707) commonly referred to The corderie, still standing, is 20 meters wide and 320 meters long, built so that ropes could be stretched the entire length of the building as they were twisted together. Power for the ropemaking was provided by convicts from the adjoining prison, who walked in an enormous treadmill. A triumphal gate (now the Museum of the Navy) was added to the Arsenal in 1738.
The Arsenal port was enlarged still further in the 19th century and the 20th century. It was badly damaged by Allied bombing in World War II, but since has been reconstructed and modernized. It has eleven drydocks for ship repair, the two largest of which are 422 meters by 40 meters. The Arsenal is still the principle military port of France, the home port of the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle (R91), attack submarines, and the other ships of the French Mediterranean fleet. Development Construction The carrier replaced ''Foch'', a conventionally-powered aircraft carrier in 2001
The Arsenal is not open to the public, but the Naval Museum at its entrance has a remarkable collection of enormous ship models from the 18th century, used to train the heir to to throne in seamanship , as well as other naval memorabilia. The building of the Corderie can be seen beside the road nearby. Boat tours depart regularly from the waterfront, and allow visitors to have a good look at ships of the French fleet. 
Le Mourillon is a small seaside neigborhood to the east of Toulon, near the entrance of the Rade. It was once a fishing village, and then became the home of many of the officers of the French fleet. Mourillon has a small fishing port, next to a 16th-century fort, Fort Saint Louis, which was reconstructed by Vauban. In the 1970s the city of Toulon built a series of sheltered sandy beaches in Mourillon, which today are very popular with the Toulonais and with naval families. The Museum of Asian Art is located in a house on the waterfront near Fort St. Louis.
For the history of Mourillon, see Le Mourillon (in French)
Mount Faron (584 meters) dominates the city of Toulon. The top can be reached either by a cable car from Toulon, or by a narrow and terrifying road which ascends from the west side and descends on the east side. The road is one of the most challenging stages of the annual Paris-Nice and Tour Méditerranéen bicycle races. Paris–Nice, "the race to the sun" is a professional cycling stage race held each March Tour Méditerranéen is a professional Road bicycle racing event held in southern France along the Mediterranean Sea.
At the top of Mount Faron is a memorial dedicated to the 1944 Allied landings in Provence (Operation Dragoon) , and to the liberation of Toulon. Operation Dragoon was the Allied invasion of southern France, on 15 August, 1944, as part of World War II.
Beginning in 1678, Vauban constructed an elaborate system of fortifications around Toulon. Sébastien Le Prestre Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban ( May 15, 1633 – March 30, 1707) commonly referred to Some parts, such as the section that once ran along the present-day Boulevard de Strasbourg, were removed in the mid-nineteenth century, so the city could be enlarged, but other parts remain.  One part that can be visited is the Port d'Italie, one of the old city gates. Napoleon Bonaparte departed on his triumphant Italian campaign from this gate in 1796. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe.
Toulon has a Mediterranean climate, characterized by abundant and strong sunshine, dry summers, and rain which is rare but sometimes torrential; and by hot summers and mild winters. A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the Climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide Because of its proximity to the sea, the temperature is relatively moderate.
The average temperature in January, the coldest month, is 9. 3 degrees C. , the warmest of any other city in metropolitan France. In January the maximum average temperature is 12. 7 degrees C. and the average minimum temperature is 5. 8 degrees C.
The average temperature in July, the warmest month, is 23. 9 degrees C. , with an average maximum of 29. 1 degrees C. and an average minimal temperature of 18. 8 degrees C.
Toulon is the city with the most sunshine annually in France; an average of 2899 hours per year. 
Average rainfall is 665 millimeters per year. The dryest month is July with 6. 6 mm. , and the wettest is October, with 93. 9 mm. It rains less than 60 days per year (an average of 59. 7 days) and the amount of precipitation is very unequal in the different seasons. In February, the month with the most rain, it rains 7. 1 days, but with only 88. 3 millimeters of rain, while in October there are 5. 9 days of rain. July, with 1. 3 days of rain, is usually the dryest month, but the dryest month can fall anywhere between May and September. Autumn is characterized by torrential but brief rains; the winter by more precipitation spread out over loner periods.
Because of the proximity to the sea, freezing temperatures are rare; an average of 2. 9 days a year, and lasting frosts (when the maximum temperature remains less or equal to zero) are nonexistent. Snow is also very rare (barely 1. 5 days per year on average) and it is even more rare for the the snow to last during the day (0. 3 days a year on average).
One distinctive feature of the Toulon climate is the wind, with 115 days a year of strong winds; usually either the cold and dry Mistral or the Tramontane from the north, the wet Marin; or the Sirocco sometimes bearing reddish sand from Africa; or the wet and stormy Levant from the east. Wind is the flow of Air or other Gases that compose an Atmosphere (including but not limited to the Earth's) Tramontane ( Tramuntana, Tramontana) is a classical name for a northern wind Sirocco, scirocco, jugo or rarely siroc is a Mediterranean Wind that comes from See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the (See Winds of Provence. The Winds of Provence, the region of southeast France along the Mediterranean from the Alps to the mouth of the Rhone River are an important ) The windiest month is January, with an average of 12. 5 days of strong winds. The least windy month is September, with 7 days of strong winds. In winter, the Mistral can make the air feel extremely cold, even though the temperature is mild.
The climate is dry and the humidity in Toulon is usually low. The average humidity is 56 percent, with little variation throughout the year; the driest months are July and August with 50 percent, and the most humid months are November and December with 60 percent.
Source: Wikipedia article in French
Toulon has a number of museums.
The Museum of the French Navy (Musée national de la marine) is located on Place Monsenergue, next on the west side of the old port, a short distance from the Hotel de Ville. The Museum was founded in 1814, during the reign of the Emperor Napoleon. It is located today behind what was formerly the monumental gate to the Arsenal of Toulon, built in 1738. The building of the museum, along with the clock tower next to it, is one of the few buildings of the port and arsenal which survived Allied bombardments during World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including It contains displays tracing the history of Toulon as a port of the French Navy. The French Navy, officially the Marine nationale ( National Navy) and often called La Royale ( The Royal Navy) is the maritime arm Highlights include large eighteenth century ship models used to teach seamanship, models of the aircraft carrier Charles DeGaulle.
The Museum of Old Toulon and its Region (Musée du vieux Toulon et de sa région). The Museum was founded in 1912, and contains a collection of maps, paintings, drawings, models and other artifacts showing the history of the city.
The Museum of Asian Arts (Musée des arts asiatiques), in Mourillon. Located in a house with garden which once belonged to the son and later the grandson of author Jules Verne, the museum contains a small but interesting collection of art objects, many donated by naval officers from the time of the French colonization of Southeast Asia. Jules Gabriel Verne ( February 8 1828 &ndash March 24 1905) was a French Author who pioneered the science-fiction It includes objects and paintings from India, China, Southeast Asia, Tibet and Japan.
The Museum of Art (Musée d'art) was created in 1888, the museum contains collections of modern and contemporary art, as well as paintings of provence from the 17th century to the beginning of the 20th century. It owns works by landscape artists of Provence from the late 19th century (Guigou, Aiguier, Courdouan, Ziem), and the Fauves of Provence (Camoin, Chabaud, Verdilhan). The contemporary collections contain works from 1960 to today representing the New Realism Movement (Arman, César, Christo, Klein, Raysse); Minimalist Art (Sol Lewitt, Donald Judd); Support Surface (Cane, Viallat côtoient Arnal, Buren, Chacallis) and an important collection of photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson, Dieuzaide, Edouard Boubat, Willy Ronis and André Kertész). Christo (born as Christo Vladimirov Javacheff, Bulgarian: Христо Явашев and Jeanne-Claude (born as Jeanne-Claude Denat de Guillebon Sol LeWitt ( September 9, 1928 - April 8, 2007) was Donald Clarence Judd ( June 3, 1928 - February 12, 1994) was a minimalist Artist (a term he stridently disavowed Henri Cartier-Bresson ( August 22, 1908 &ndash August 3 2004) was a French Willy Ronis (born August 14, 1910) is a French Photographer who focused on life in post-war Paris and Provence. André Kertész ( July 2, 1894 – September 28, 1985) born Kertész Andor, was a Hungarian -born photographer 
The Memorial Museum to the Landings in Provence (Mémorial du débarquement de Provence) is located on the summit of Mount Faron, this small museum, opened in 1964 by President Charles DeGaulle, commemorates the Allied landing in Provence in August 1944 with photos, weapons and models. Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ( 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French General and statesman who led the Free French
The Museum of Natural History of Toulon and the Var (Musée d'histoire naturelle de Toulon et du Var) was founded in 1888, has a large collection of displays about dinosaurs, birds, mammals, and minerals, mostly from the region.
The Hôtel des arts was opened in 1998, presents five exhibits a year of works by well-known contemporary artists. Featured artists have included Sean Scully, Jannis Kounellis, Claude Viallat, Per Kirkeby, and Vik Muniz. Sean Scully (born Dublin, Ireland, 30 June 1945) is an Irish-born American painter and printmaker who has twice been named Jannis Kounellis was born in 1936 in Piraeus, Greece.He studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Rome. Claude Viallat (born 1936 is a French contemporary painter. Born in Nîmes, he grew up in Aubais a French village with a strong bull tradition Per Kirkeby (born September 1, 1938) is a Danish painter, poet filmmaker and sculptor Biography 1962 Studies at the Experimental Vik Muniz (born 1961 is a Brazilian born New York based artist who experiments with media. 
Toulon figures prominently in Victor Hugo's Les Misérables. Victor-Marie Hugo ( ( February 26, 1802 – May 22, 1885) was a French Poet, Playwright, Novelist Les Misérables (pronounced /le miːzeʁabl(ə translated variously from French as The Miserable Ones, The Wretched It is the location of the infamous prison, the bagne of Toulon, in which the protagonist Jean Valjean spends 19 years in hard labour. The bagne of Toulon was the notorious prison in Toulon, France, made famous as the place of imprisonment of Jean Valjean, the hero of Les Miserables Toulon is also the birthplace of the novel's antagonist, Javert, and the place where Valjean and Javert first meet.
One portion of the wall of the old bagne, or prison, where Jean Valjean was supposedly held still stands to the right of the entrance of the Old Harbor.
Local food highlights include:
The region is famous for being the host of the finals of the annual Toulon Tournament - a football tournament of under 20 national players from around the whole world. The Toulon Tournament (officially the Tournoi Espoirs de Toulon or "Toulon Hopefuls' Tournament" is a football tournament which traditionally features invited Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered The city's top football club is Sporting Toulon Var, currently playing in the third level of French Football (Championnat National). Sporting Toulon Var is a football club from Toulon, France, who currently play in the French fourth division (the Championnat de France Amateurs The Championnat de France National (also called Division 3 is the third highest division in French football, one division below Ligue 2, one above the Championnat Famous players such as David Ginola, Delio Onis, Jean Tigana, Christian Dalger or more recently Sebastien Squillacci formerly played for Sporting.
The region is home to rugby union club RC Toulon, currently playing in Rugby Pro D2 at the Stade Mayol and Hyères-Toulon Var Basket, playing at the top of the Pro A. RC Toulonnais (also known as RC Toulon or just Toulon) is a French professional Rugby union based in Toulon in Provence-Alpes-Côte Rugby Pro D2, also known as Pro D2 is the second level of domestic club Rugby union in France, below the first division Top 14.
Toulon was the birthplace of: