In the political tradition of some English-speaking countries, the term Tory has referred to a variety of political parties and creeds since it was used in the late 17th century to describe opponents to the Whigs. The following is a list of Sovereign states and territories where English is an Official language, in order of Population. A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral A creed is a statement of Belief — usually Religious belief — or Faith often recited as part of a religious service As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to The term, derived from Tóraidhe, was originally used to refer to an Irish outlaw and later often applied to any Confederate or Royalist in arms. Rapparees (from the Irish ropairí, plural of ropaire, actually meaning half pike or a pike-wielding person were Irish guerrilla Confederate Ireland refers to the period of Irish self-government between the Rebellion of 1641 and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649 Cavalier was the name used by Parliamentarians for a Royalist supporter of King Charles I during the English Civil War ( 1642 &ndash 1651  English and British Tories from the time of the Glorious Revolution up until the Reform Bill of 1832 were characterized by strong monarchist tendencies, support of the Church of England, and hostility to reform, while the Tory Party was an actual organization which held power intermittently throughout the same period. The Tories were any of a series of Political factions that existed in the Kingdom of Great Britain and later the United Kingdom, having its roots in the The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland in 1688 by a union The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment preservation or restoration of a Monarchy as a Form of government in a nation The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican
After 1832 and supersession of the Tory Party by the Conservative Party "Tory" has become shorthand for a member of the Conservative Party or for the party in general, sometimes but by no means always as a term of abuse. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Many Conservatives still call themselves "Tory" to differentiate themselves from opponents. The name "Captain Tory" is given to staunch Conservative supporters in the North East of England.
The term has also been used in North America, where Tory can describe the Conservative Party of Canada. The Conservative Party of Canada ( Parti conservateur du Canada) colloquially known as the " Tories " is a conservative During the American Revolutionary War it described colonists who sided with Great Britain against the revolutionaries, while another nickname for them at this time was lobsterbacks, referring to the red coats of British soldiers. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" This article concerns Loyalists in the American Revolution. For information on the role of those Loyalists in Canadian history after their emigration see United Empire The term was also used during the American Civil War, when supporters of the Confederacy extended the term to Southern Unionists. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) formed as the government set up from 1861 During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the federal government of the United States, which was supported by the twenty-three
Tory is the most common colloquial term for members and supporters of the Conservative Party. The Tories were any of a series of Political factions that existed in the Kingdom of Great Britain and later the United Kingdom, having its roots in the The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. The party as a whole is thus referred to as 'the Tories'.
Historically, the term Tory has been applied in various ways to supporters of the British monarchy. The word comes from the Middle Irish word tóraidhe, modern Irish tóraí — outlaw, robber, from the Irish word tóir, meaning 'pursuit', since outlaws were "pursued men". Middle Irish is the name given by historical philologists to the Goidelic language used from the 10th to 12th centuries it is therefore a contemporary Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. An outlaw or bandit is a person living the lifestyle of outlawry; the word literally means "outside the Law " by folk-etymology from the original 
The term was used to designate the pre-Confederation British ruling classes of Upper Canada and Lower Canada, known as the Family Compact and the Château Clique, an elite within the governing classes, and often members within a section of society known as the United Empire Loyalists. The Tory movement in Upper Canada was formed from the elements of the Family Compact following the War of 1812. The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. The Province of Upper Canada (French Province du Haut-Canada) was a British colony located in what is now the southern portion of the Province of Ontario The Province of Lower Canada (French Province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the This article is about a group in nineteenth century Canadian history The Clique du Château or Château Clique was a group of wealthy families in Lower Canada in the early 19th century The name United Empire Loyalists is a honorific name which has been given after the fact to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other
In post-Confederation Canada the terms "Red Tory" and "Blue Tory" have long been used to describe the two wings of the Conservative and previously the Progressive Conservative (PC) parties. Red Tory is a term given to a political philosophy tradition and disposition in Canada. Blue Tories, also known as small 'c' conservatives, are in Canadian politics members of the former Progressive Conservative Party of Canada The Conservative Party of Canada ( Parti conservateur du Canada) colloquially known as the " Tories " is a conservative The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada ( PC) ( Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) ( 1867 – 2003) was a Canadian The diadic tensions originally arose out of the 1854 political union of British-Canadian Tories, French-Canadian traditionalists, and the Monarchist and Loyalist leaning sections of the emerging commercial classes at the time - many of whom were uncomfortable with the pro-American and annexationist tendencies within the liberal Grits. Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment preservation or restoration of a Monarchy as a Form of government in a nation In general a loyalist is one who maintains loyalty to an established government political party or sovereign especially during war or revolutionary change Annexationism is the desire to be Annexed by another polity This may represent itself on the smallest scale in small communities that desire to be annexed by a larger city Clear Grits were reformers in the Province of Upper Canada, a British colony that is now the Province of Ontario, Canada. Tory strength and prominence in the political culture was a feature of life in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Ontario, and Manitoba. Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's New Brunswick ( French: Nouveau-Brunswick /nuvobʁɔnzwik/ is one of Canada 's three Maritime provinces and is the only constitutionally Prince Edward Island (ˌprɪns ˌɛdwɚd ˈaɪlɨnd ( PEI or P Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec Manitoba (English ˌmænɨˈtoʊbə French /manitoba/ is a province of Canada, spanning 647797 square kilometres (250116  sq mi of North America
By the 1930s, the factions within Canadian Toryism were associated with either the urban business elites, or with rural traditionalists from the country's hinterland. Over time, however, the term Blue Tory has come to embody the more ideologically neo-liberal (in the manner of Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan) elements in the party, while a Red Tory is a member of the more moderate wing of the party (in the manner of John Farthing and George Grant). Originally coined by its critics and opponents " neoliberalism " is a label referring to the recent reemergence of Economic liberalism or Classical liberalism Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 John Colborne Farthing (1897-1954 was a student soldier thinker philosopher economist teacher and author of the seminal tract Freedom Wears a Crown which became rather George Parkin Grant OC, DPhil FRSC ( Toronto, November 13, 1918 - Halifax Nova Scotia, September 27, They are generally unified by their adherence to the monarchy in Canada.
Throughout the course of Canadian history, the Conservative Party was generally controlled by MacDonaldian Tory elements, which in Canada meant an adherence to the English-Canadian traditions of Monarchy, Empire-Commonwealth, parliamentary government, nationalism, protectionism, social reform, and eventually, acceptance of the necessity of the welfare state. By the 1970s the Progressive Conservative Party was a Keynesian-consensus party.
With the onset of stagflation in the 1970s, some Canadian Tories came under the influence of neo-liberal developments in Great Britain and the United States, which highlighted the need for privatization and supply-side interventions. Stagflation is an economic situation in which Inflation and Economic stagnation occur simultaneously and remain unchecked for a period of time In Canada, these tories have been labeled neoconservatives - which has a somewhat different connotation in the US. Neoconservatism (or Neocon is a Right-wing political philosophy that emerged in the United States from the rejection of the Social liberalism, Moral relativism By the early 1980s there was no clear neoconservative in the Tory leadership cadre, but Brian Mulroney, who became leader in 1983, eventually came to adopt many policies from the Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan governments. Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939) was the eighteenth
As Mulroney took the Progressive Conservative Party further in this direction, with policy innovations in the areas of deregulation, privatization, free-trade, and a consumption tax called the Goods and Services Tax (GST), many traditionally-minded Tories became concerned that a political and cultural schism was occurring within the party. The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada ( PC) ( Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) ( 1867 – 2003) was a Canadian The Canadian Goods and Services Tax ( GST) ( French:) is a multi-level Value-added tax introduced in Canada on January 1, 1991
The 1986 creation of the Reform Party of Canada attracted some of the neo-liberals and social conservatives away from the Tory party, and as some of the neoconservative policies of the Mulroney government proved unpopular, some of the provincial-rights elements moved towards Reform as well. The Reform Party of Canada ( Parti réformiste du Canada) was a Canadian federal Political party that existed from 1987 to 2000 In 1993, Mulroney resigned, rather than fight an election based on his record after almost nine years in power. This left the PCs in disarray and scrambling to understand how to make toryism relevant in provinces such as Quebec, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia that had never had a strong tory tradition and political culture. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk Saskatchewan (səˈskætʃəwən) is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of 588276 Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905 British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C
Thereafter in the 1990s, the PCs were a small party in the Canadian House of Commons, and could only exert legislative pressure on the government through their power in the Senate of Canada. The House of Commons (Chambre des communes is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and The Senate of Canada (Le Sénat du Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the sovereign (represented by the governor general Eventually, through death and retirements, this power waned. Joe Clark returned as leader, but the schism with the Reformers effectively watered down the combined Blue and Red Tory vote in Canada. Charles Joseph "Joe" Clark PC CC AOE (born June 5 1939 is a Canadian Journalist, Politician, Statesman
By the late 1990s, there was some talk of the necessity of uniting the right in Canada, if there was any hope of deterring further Liberal majorities. Many tories - both red and blue - were opposed to any such notion, while others took the view that all would have to be pragmatic if there was any hope of reviving a strong party system. The Canadian Alliance party (as the Reform Party had become), and some leading tories came together on an informal basis to see if they could find common ground. The Canadian Alliance (in French Alliance Canadienne) formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance (or in French Alliance réformiste-conservateur While the Tory Leader Joe Clark rebuffed the notion, the talks moved ahead and eventually in December 2003, the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative parties voted to disband and integrate into a new party called the Conservative Party of Canada.
After the merger of the PCs with the Canadian Alliance in 2003, there was some debate as to whether the "Tory" appellation should survive at the federal level. Although it was widely believed that some Alliance members would take offence to the term, it was officially accepted by the newly-merged party during the 2004 leadership convention. The 2004 Conservative Party of Canada leadership election took place on March 20, 2004 in Toronto Ontario, and resulted in the election of Stephen Stephen Harper, leader of the Conservative Party of Canada, and the Prime Minister as a result of the January 23, 2006 election, regularly refers to himself as a Tory and has suggested that the new party is a natural evolution of the conservative political movement in Canada. WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Honorific prefixes --> Stephen Joseph Harper PC Events 393 - Roman Emperor Theodosius I proclaims his nine year old son Honorius co-emperor Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. However, many former Progressive Conservatives who opposed the merger take offence to the new party using the term, as do some members of the former Reform/Alliance wing who do not wish to be associated with the "Tory" governments of Canada's past, or the values of traditional Tory thought.
Before the War of Independence, the founders of Anglican and Catholic colonies were generally well disposed towards the Stuart dynasty. This article concerns Loyalists in the American Revolution. For information on the role of those Loyalists in Canadian history after their emigration see United Empire Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". Their affections were alienated by a new, foreign dynasty which seemed to little know or care for the Tudor-Stuart legacy in the New World. Those who founded the Puritan colonies of New England were Cromwellians and Orangists.
It is interesting to note the chief allies of the American Patriots were Whigs such as Charles James Fox and Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, each with direct ties to the House of Stuart and probably resentful of the Hanoverian succession--with its dire consequences in the old colonial empire in North America. The Right Honourable Charles James Fox ( 24 January 1749 &ndash 13 September 1806) was a prominent British Whig Charles Lennox 3rd Duke of Richmond and Lennox, KG, FRS, PC ( 22 February, 1735 &ndash 29 December, 1806
The term Tory or Loyalist was used in the American Revolution to describe those who remained loyal to the British Crown. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" Since early in the eighteenth century, Tory had described those upholding the right of the Kings over parliament. During the revolution, particularly after the Declaration of Independence in 1776 this use was extended to cover anyone who remained loyal to the British Crown. The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4 1776 announcing that the thirteen American colonies then At the beginning of the war, it was estimated that as much as 40% of the American population were Tories.  Those Loyalists who settled in Canada, Nova Scotia, or the Bahamas after the American Revolution are known as United Empire Loyalists. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's The Bahamas, officially the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an independent sovereign English -speaking country consisting of two thousand Cays and The name United Empire Loyalists is a honorific name which has been given after the fact to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other
Tory was frequently used as a revolutionary's pejorative, e. g. , a "Tory militia" was a militia unit which took the British side during the War.
The British term Whig, referring to the anti-Tory political movement in England, had a much longer life in the American political discourse, especially through the United States Whig Party. The Whig Party was a Political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy.