|Toronto Eaton Centre|
The Toronto Eaton Centre logo.
|Facts and statistics|
|Location||Toronto, Ontario, Canada|
|Address||220 Yonge Street Suite 110; Toronto, ON; M5B 2H1|
|Opening date||1977 (first phase)|
|Developer||Cadillac Fairview, TD Bank, Eaton's|
|No. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. The Cadillac Fairview Corporation is a development corporation which is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan, Eaton's was once Canada 's largest Department store Retailer. Eberhard Heinrich Zeidler OC OOnt (born January 11, 1926 in Germany) is a Canadian Architect. of stores and services||330|
|Total retail floor area||1,722,000 square feet (159,979. Gross leasable area ( GLA) in the retail development industry is a term applied to Shopping malls lifestyle centers, Outlet malls and other retail 0 m²)|
|Parking||Yonge Parkade, operated by Cadillac Fairview Express (785 spaces)|
|No. of floors||5|
The Toronto Eaton Centre is a large shopping mall and office complex in downtown Toronto, Ontario Canada, named after the now-defunct Eaton's department store chain that once anchored it. A shopping mall or shopping centre is a building or set of buildings that contain Retail units with interconnecting Walkways enabling visitors Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Eaton's was once Canada 's largest Department store Retailer. In terms of the number of visitors, the shopping mall is Toronto's top tourist attraction.  It is also the largest shopping mall in Eastern Canada and third-largest in Canada as a whole. The following is a list of Canada's largest shopping malls, ranked by reported total retail floor space, or Gross leasable area (GLA Eastern Canada (also the Eastern provinces) is generally considered to be the region of Canada east of Manitoba, consisting of the following provinces
The Eaton Centre is bounded by Yonge Street on the east, Queen Street West on the south, Dundas Street West on the north, and to the west by James Street and Trinity Square. Yonge Street (pronounced "young" is a major arterial street in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and its northern Suburbs It was formerly Queen Street West describes both the western branch of Queen Street, a major east-west thoroughfare and a series of neighbourhoods or commercial districts situated west Dundas Street in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, also known interchangeably as Highway 5 west of Toronto is a major arterial street which forms Its interior passages also form part of Toronto's PATH underground pedestrian network, and the centre is served by two TTC stations: Dundas and Queen. PATH is a 27 km (17 miles network of pedestrian tunnels beneath the office towers of downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Toronto Transit Commission ( TTC) is a Public transport authority that operates Buses streetcars, subways and Rapid transit Dundas is a station of the Yonge-University-Spadina line of the subway system in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Queen is a station on the Yonge-University-Spadina line of the Toronto, Ontario, Canada The complex also contains three office buildings (at 20 Queen Street West, 250 Yonge Street and 1 Dundas Street West) and the Ryerson University Ted Rogers School of Management. Ryerson University, commonly referred to simply as Ryerson, is a public University in Toronto, Canada. Additionally, the Eaton Centre is linked to a 17-storey Marriott hotel, and to Canada's largest store, the flagship location of The Bay department store chain. The Bay is a chain of 94 fashion Department stores that operate across parts of Canada.
Timothy Eaton founded a dry goods store on Yonge Street in the 19th century, and that small shop went on to revolutionize retailing in Canada, ultimately becoming the largest department store chain in the country. Timothy Eaton (1834 &ndash January 31, 1907) was a Canadian businessman who founded the Eaton's Department store, one of the The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page A department store is a Retail establishment which specializes in selling a wide range of products without a single predominant merchandise line. By the 20th century, the Eaton's chain owned most of the land bounded by Yonge, Queen, Bay and Dundas streets, with the notable exceptions of Old City Hall and the Church of the Holy Trinity. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Eaton's was once Canada 's largest Department store Retailer. Toronto 's Old City Hall was home to its city council from 1899 to 1966 and remains one of the city's most prominent structures The Church of the Holy Trinity is a church in downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Eaton's land, once the site of Timothy Eaton's first store, was occupied by Eaton's large Main Store, the Eaton's Annex and a number of related mail order and factory buildings. Located on Albert Street directly behind the Eaton's Main Store and Toronto's (now former City Hall, the Eaton's Annex was a 10-storey building containing both retail and office As the chain's warehouse and support operations were increasingly shifting to cheaper suburban locales in the 1960s, Eaton's wanted to make better use of its valuable downtown landholdings. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 In particular, the chain wanted to build a massive new flagship store to replace the aging Main Store at Yonge and Queen and the Eaton's College Street store a few blocks to the north. College Park is a shopping mall residential and office complex located on the southwest corner of Yonge Street and College Street in Toronto, Ontario
In the mid-1960s, Eaton's announced plans for a massive office and shopping complex that would occupy several city blocks. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 Initial plans for the centre called for the demolition of both Old City Hall (except for the clock tower and cenotaph) and the Church of the Holy Trinity, as well as the closing of a number of small city streets within the above-noted block (Albert Street, Louisa Street, Terauley Street, James Street, Albert Lane, Downey's Lane and Trinity Square). A cenotaph is a tomb or a Monument erected in honour of a person or group of persons whose remains are elsewhere At one point, even the City Hall clock tower was slated for demolition. After a fierce local debate over the fate of the city hall and church buildings, Eaton's put its plans on hiatus in 1967. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar.
The Eaton Centre plans were resuscitated in 1971, although these plans allowed for the preservation of Old City Hall. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Controversy erupted anew, however, as the congregation of the Church of the Holy Trinity exhibited an increased willingness to fight the demolition plans for its church. Eventually, the Eaton Centre plans were revised to save both Old City Hall and the church, and then revised further when Holy Trinity's parishioners successfully fought to ensure that the new complex would not block all sunlight to the church.
These amendments to the plans resulted in three significant changes to the proposed centre from the initial 1960s concept. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 First, the new Eaton's store was shifted north to Dundas Street, as the new store would be too large to be accommodated in its traditional location on Queen Street (opposite its rival Simpson's) due to the preservation of City Hall. The Robert Simpson Company, or Simpsons ( Simpson's until 1972 was a Canadian Department store chain founded by Robert Simpson in Fortuitously, this resulted in the mall being constructed with Eaton's and Simpson's acting as anchors at either end. The second significant change was the reduction in the size of the office component, so that the Eaton Centre project no longer represented an attempt to extend the City's financial district north of Queen Street, as the Eaton Family had originally contemplated in the 1960s. The Eaton family of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, were owners of the Eaton's Department stores a national chain that was founded The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 Finally, the bulk of the centre was shifted east to the Yonge Street frontage, and the complex was designed so that it no longer had any frontage along Bay Street. Old City Hall and the Church were thus saved, as was the Salvation Army headquarters building by virtue of its location between the two other preserved buildings (although the Salvation Army building was eventually demolished in the late 1990s to make way for an Eaton Centre expansion). The Salvation Army is a Christian charity and church that is internally organised like a military service. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999
Eaton's partnered with the Cadillac Fairview development company and the Toronto-Dominion Bank in the construction of the Eaton Centre. The Cadillac Fairview Corporation is a development corporation which is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan, The complex was designed by Eberhard Zeidler and Bregman + Hamann Architects as a multi-levelled, vaulted glass-ceiling galleria, modelled after the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, Italy. Eberhard Heinrich Zeidler OC OOnt (born January 11, 1926 in Germany) is a Canadian Architect. Bregman + Hamann Architects is a Toronto, Canada based architecture and interior design firm The Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II is a covered double arcade formed of two glass-vaulted arcades at right angles intersecting in an Octagon; it is prominently Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest At the time, the interior design of the Eaton Centre was considered quite revolutionary and influenced shopping centre architecture throughout North America.
The Eaton Centre represented one of North America's first downtown shopping malls. The first phase, including the nine-storey, 1,000,000 square foot (100,000 square metre) Eaton's store, opened in 1977. Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays The temporary wall at the south end was mirrored over its full height, to give an impression of what the complete galleria would look like. The old Eaton's store at Yonge and Queen was then demolished and the south half of the complex opened in its place in 1979. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) The same year, the north end of the complex added a multiplex cinema, Cineplex, at the time the largest in the world with 18 screens.
Terauley Street, Louisa Street, Downey's Lane and Albert Lane were closed and disappeared from the city street grid to make way for the new complex. Albert Street and James Street were preserved only to the extent of their frontage around Old City Hall (although the city of Toronto required that pedestrians be able to cross through the mall where Albert Street once existed, at any time 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and pedestrians still enjoy this right today). Trinity Square lost its public access to Yonge Street, and became a pedestrian-only square with access via Bay Street.
Many urban planners and designers have long lamented the original exterior design of the Eaton Centre. The complex was oriented inwards, with very few street-related retail stores, windows or even mall entrances to animate the exterior. Much of the Yonge Street façade, facing what was once one of Toronto's primary shopping thoroughfares, was dominated by a parking garage. At the insistence of the Metro Toronto government, which had jurisdiction over major roads, the complex was set back from Yonge Street. The Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto was the senior level of Municipal government in the Toronto, Ontario, Canada, area from 1954 to The goal was to eventually add an additional lane to the street. As a result, the complex was set back a considerable distance from Yonge Street, thus further weakening the centre's streetscape presence.
The office component of the complex was constructed over the years, as follows:
Despite the controversy and criticisms, the centre was an immediate success. In fact, the mall profits were said to be so lucrative that the success of the Eaton Centre has often been credited with keeping the troubled Eaton's chain afloat for another two decades before it finally succumbed to bankruptcy in 1999. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Today, the Eaton Centre is one of North America's top shopping destinations, and is Toronto's most popular tourist attraction, attracting over a million visitors a week.
One of the most prominent sights in the shopping mall is the group of fibreglass Canada Geese hanging from the ceiling. Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre see Spelling differences) is material made from extremely fine Fibers of Glass. The Canada Goose ( Branta canadensis) is a Goose belonging to the Genus Branta native to North America. This sculpture, named Flight Stop, is the work of artist Michael Snow. Michael Snow, CC (born December 10, 1929) is a Canadian artist working in painting sculpture video films photography holography It was also the subject of an important intellectual property court ruling. Intellectual property ( IP) is a legal field that refers to creations of the mind such as musical literary and artistic works inventions and symbols names One year, the management of the centre decided to decorate the geese with red ribbons for Christmas, without consulting Snow. Snow objected arguing that the ribbons made his naturalistic work "ridiculous" and harmed his reputation as an artist. Snow sued and in Snow v. The Eaton Centre Ltd. the court ruled that even though the Centre owned the sculpture, the ribbons had infringed Snow's moral rights. Snow v The Eaton Centre Ltd (1982 70 CPR (2d 105 is a leading Canadian decision on Moral rights. Moral rights are Rights of creators of Copyrighted works generally recognized in civil law jurisdictions and first recognized in France and The ribbons were ordered removed.
The exterior of the Eaton Centre store was designed in the style of the 1970s, intended at that time to be a statement of Eaton's dominance and its future aspirations. However, the "modern" design of this mustard-coloured box has not aged well and is generally considered (from an architectural perspective) to be a poor replacement for the demolished Main Store. 
In recent years, the Eaton Centre's owners have redesigned the mall's Yonge Street façade, bringing it closer to the street and making it more closely resemble an urban shopping district, with stores opening directly onto the street, and presenting a variety of façades to create the perception of an urban streetscape.
Further redevelopments, in the late 1990s and early 2000s, added new retail space. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 The west side of the complex, opposite Albert Street, was expanded. The northeast corner (Yonge and Dundas intersection) was redesigned, with a number of former tenants, including a Toronto Police Service office, relocated or evicted to make way for H&M's Canadian flagship store. The Toronto Police Service ( TPS) formerly the Metropolitan Toronto Police, is the Police force for the City of Toronto, Ontario Hennes & Mauritz AB (operating as H&M) is a Swedish clothing company known for its inexpensive and fashionable clothing offerings for women men teenagers and children
One of the mall's two parking garages, the nine-storey Dundas Parkade on Dundas Street with its two spiral stack ramps, was demolished in 2003. In the place of the garage and of a vacant development site on the southeast corner of Dundas and Bay streets, a new wing of the Eaton Centre was opened in 2006, containing Canadian Tire and Best Buy, with Ryerson University's Faculty of Business and a new parking garage with 574 spaces  on the upper levels. Canadian Tire Corporation Limited ( is one of Canada's 35 largest publicly traded companies and operates an inter-related network of businesses engaged in retailing (hardgoods apparel Best Buy Co Inc ( is a Fortune 100 company and the largest specialty retailer of Consumer electronics in the United States and Canada Ryerson University, commonly referred to simply as Ryerson, is a public University in Toronto, Canada. Unlike the former garage which had access off Dundas Street, the new garage has access on Bay Street. This work was done by Queen's Quay Architects International Inc. with Zeidler Partnership Architects.
There are now about 330 stores in the retail complex, which encompasses about 1,600,000 square feet (150,000 m²), making it possibly the largest downtown shopping centre in North America.
With the demise of the Eaton's chain, the department store space at the north end of the mall is now occupied by Sears Canada, which is the chain's largest store in the world at about 817,850 square feet (75,981 m²), though they have blocked off the top two floors. Sears Canada Inc ( (more commonly referred to as "Sears" is a Retailer, headquartered in Toronto, Ontario, that operates in all provinces Shortly after Sears' acquisition of Eaton's, the Timothy Eaton statue was moved from the Dundas Street entrance to the Royal Ontario Museum. There are two castings of the well-known statue of Timothy Eaton, the famous Canadian retailer in Canada one in Toronto, Ontario, the The Royal Ontario Museum, commonly known as the ROM, is a major Museum for world culture and Natural history in the city of Toronto The complex retains the Eaton Centre name, representing an ongoing tribute to Timothy Eaton and the small shop he once opened at this location. Timothy Eaton (1834 &ndash January 31, 1907) was a Canadian businessman who founded the Eaton's Department store, one of the