In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height or shoulder drop (in North America) or prime factor (in Europe), is a concept used in the categorization of hills and mountains, also known as peaks. Topography ( topo-, "place" and graphia, "writing" is the study of Earth 's Surface features or those of Planets A mountain is a Landform that extends above the surrounding Terrain in a limited area with a peak It is a measure of the independent stature of a summit. In topography a summit is a point on a surface which is higher in Elevation than all points immediately adjacent to

## Definition of prominence

There are several equivalent definitions, which are satisfactory for all but Mount Everest:

• The prominence of a peak is the height of the peak’s summit above the lowest contour line encircling it and no higher summit. A contour line (also Level set, isopleth, isoline, isogram or isarithm) of a function of two
• If the peak's prominence is P metres, to get from the summit to any higher terrain one must descend at least P metres. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International Note that this implies that the prominence of any island or continental highpoint is equal to its elevation above sea level. An island (ˈaɪlənd or isle (/ˈaɪl/ is any piece of land that is completely surrounded by water in two dimensions above high tide and isolated from other significant A continent is one of several large Landmasses on Earth. They are generally identified by Convention rather than any strict criteria with seven regions Mean sea level (MSL is the average (mean height of the Sea, with reference to a suitable reference surface In this definition, Mount Everest is a special case: its prominence is considered to be equal to its elevation, in order to agree with the previous definition.
• For every ridge (or path of any kind) connecting the peak to higher terrain, find the lowest point on the ridge. This will be at a col (also called a saddle point or pass). In Mathematics, a saddle point is a point in the domain of a function of two variables which is a Stationary point but not a Local extremum In a range of hills or especially of mountains, a pass (also gap, notch, col, saddle, bwlch, The key col (or key saddle, or linking col, or link) is defined as the highest of these cols, along all connecting ridges. (If the peak is the highest point on a landmass, the key col will be the ocean, and the prominence of the peak is equal to its elevation. ) The prominence is the difference between the elevation of the peak and the elevation of the key col. See Figure 1 below.
• Suppose that the sea level rises to the lowest level at which the peak becomes the highest point on an island. The prominence of that peak is the height of that island. The key col represents the last isthmus connecting the island to a higher island, just before they become disconnected.
Figure 1. Vertical arrows show the topographic prominence of three peaks on an island. An island (ˈaɪlənd or isle (/ˈaɪl/ is any piece of land that is completely surrounded by water in two dimensions above high tide and isolated from other significant A dotted horizontal line links each peak (except the highest) to its key col

## Prominence in mountaineering

Prominence is interesting to some mountaineers because it is an objective measurement that is strongly correlated with the subjective significance of a summit. “Alpinist” redirects here See also Alpinist (magazine Mountaineering is the Sport, Hobby or Profession of Peaks with low prominences are either subsidiary tops of some higher summit or relatively insignificant independent summits. Peaks with high prominences tend to be the highest points around and are likely to have extraordinary views.

For example, the world's second highest mountain is K2 (height 8,611 m, prominence 4,017 m) rather than Mount Everest's South Summit (height 8,749 m, prominence about 10 m), a subsummit of the main summit, since only summits with a sufficient degree of prominence are regarded as independent mountains. K2 is the second- highest Mountain on Earth (after Mount Everest) Mount Everest, also called Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा meaning Head of the Sky) or Chomolungma, Qomolangma or Zhumulangma (in

Many lists of mountains take topographic prominence as a criterion for inclusion, or cutoff. The following is a list of the world's 100+ highest mountains per height Above sea level, all of which are located in Asia John and Anne Nuttall's The Mountains of England and Wales uses a cutoff of 15 m (about 50 ft), and Alan Dawson's list of Marilyns uses 150 m (about 500 ft). A Marilyn is a type of Mountain or Hill in Great Britain, Ireland or surrounding islands with a relative height of at least 150 metres (Dawson's list and the term "Marilyn" are limited to the British Isles. ) In the contiguous United States, the famous list of "fourteeners" (14,000 foot / 4268 m peaks) uses a cutoff of 300 ft / 91 m (with some exceptions). Qualification criteria Not all summits over 14000 feet qualify as fourteeners Also in the U. S. , 2000 feet (610 m) of prominence has become an informal threshold that signifies that a peak has major stature. Lists with a high topographic prominence cutoff tend to favour isolated peaks or those that are the highest point of their massif; a low value, such as the Nuttalls', results in a list with many summits that may be viewed by some as insignificant. In Geology, a massif is a section of a planet's crust that is demarcated by faults or Flexures In the movement of the crust, a massif

While the use of prominence as a cutoff to form a list of peaks ranked by elevation is standard, and is the most common use of the concept, it is also possible to use prominence as a mountain measure in itself. This generates lists of peaks ranked by prominence, which are qualitatively different from lists ranked by elevation. This is a list of Mountain peaks ordered by their Topographic prominence. Such lists tend to emphasize isolated high peaks, such as range or island high points and stratovolcanoes. A stratovolcano, also called a composite volcano is a tall conical Volcano composed of many layers of hardened Lava, Tephra, and Volcanic One advantage of a prominence-ranked list is that it needs no cutoff, since a peak with high prominence is automatically an independent peak.

## Parent peak

It is common to define a peak's parent as a particular peak in the higher terrain connected to the peak by the key col. If there are several higher peaks there are various ways of defining which one is the parent. These concepts give ways of putting all peaks on a landmass into a hierarchy, showing which peaks are subpeaks of which others. For example, in Figure 1, the middle peak is a subpeak of the right peak, which is in turn a subpeak of the left peak, which is the highest point on its landmass. In that example, there is no controversy over the hierarchy; in practice, there are different definitions of parent. These different definitions follow.

(A special case occurs for the highest point on an oceanic island or continent. Some sources define no parent in this case; others treat Mount Everest as the parent of every such peak (with the ocean as the "key col"). )

### Encirclement or island parentage

Also called prominence island parentage, this is the most mathematically natural definition, and is defined as follows. The key col of peak A is at the meeting place of two closed contours, one encircling A and the other containing at least one higher peak. The encirclement parent of A is the highest peak that is inside this other contour. In terms of the rising-sea model, the two contours together bound an island, with two pieces connected by an isthmus at the key col. The encirclement parent is the highest point on this entire island.

For example, the encirclement parent of Mont Blanc, the highest peak in the Alps, is Mount Everest. Mont Blanc Massif The Mont Blanc ( French for white mountain) or Monte Bianco ( Italian 'White Mountain' also Mount Everest, also called Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा meaning Head of the Sky) or Chomolungma, Qomolangma or Zhumulangma (in Mont Blanc's key col is a piece of low ground near Lake Onega in northwestern Russia (at 113 m elevation), on the divide between lands draining into the Baltic and Caspian Seas. Lake Onega (also known as Onego, Онежское озеро Onezhskoe ozero, i A drainage divide, water divide, divide or (outside North America) watershed is the line separating neighbouring Drainage basins The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea. This is the meeting place of two 113 m contours, one of them encircling Mont Blanc; the other contour encircles Mount Everest. This example demonstrates that the encirclement parent can be very far away from the peak in question when the key col is low.

This means that, while simple to define, the encirclement parent often does not satisfy the intuitive requirement that the parent peak should be close to the child peak. For example, one common use of the concept of parent is to make clear the location of a peak. If we say that Peak A has Mont Blanc for a parent, we would expect to find Peak A somewhere close to Mont Blanc. This is not always the case for the various concepts of parent, and is least likely to be the case for encirclement parentage.

The encirclement parent is the highest possible parent for a peak; all other definitions pick out a (possibly different) peak on the combined island, a "closer" peak than the encirclement parent (if there is one), which is still "better" than the peak in question. The differences lie in what criteria are used to define "closer" and "better. "

### Prominence parentage

The (prominence) parent peak of peak A can be found by dividing the island or region in question into territories, by tracing the runoff from the key col of every peak that is more prominent than peak A. The parent is the peak whose territory peak A is in.

Prominence parentage can also be defined in the following way. The parent peak of peak A is found by continuing along a ridgeline from the key col; the nearest peak to A found in such a manner that has a higher topographic prominence than A is the prominence parent.

For hills with low prominence in Britain, a definition of 'parent Marilyn' is sometimes used to classify low hills. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A Marilyn is a type of Mountain or Hill in Great Britain, Ireland or surrounding islands with a relative height of at least 150 metres This is found by dividing the region of Britain in question into territories, one for each Marilyn. Once again, the parent Marilyn is the Marilyn whose territory the peak is in. Obviously, if a peak is the highest point of its island, it has no parent. Likewise, if a hill is on an island (in Britain) whose highest point is less than 150m, it has no parent Marilyn.

Prominence parentage is the only definition used in the British Isles because 'encirclement' parents break down when the key col approaches sea level. The British Isles (Irish variously Na hOileáin Bhriotanacha, Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa, Éire agus an Bhreatain Mhór; Ellanyn Goaldagh Eileanan Using this definition, the parent of any low-lying bump next to the sea would be Ben Nevis - which could be said to be irrelevant and confusing. Similarly 'height' parentage is not used because there is no obvious standard for what the cutoff used should be.

Normally it will suffice to find the nearest higher and more prominent neighbour. However, some regions are topographically awkward.

This might seem arbitrary, but it gives a clear and unambiguous definition for the 'parent' of a mountain that is more significant than, connected to and reasonably close to it. It also enables one to make a 'hierarchy' of peaks going back to the highest point on the island. One such chain in the British Isles would read;

Billinge Hill --> Winter Hill --> Hail Storm Hill --> Boulsworth Hill --> Kinder Scout --> Cross Fell --> Helvellyn --> Scafell Pike --> Snowdon --> Ben Nevis. Billinge Hill, or affectionately known by locals as Billinge Lump, or just simply The Lump is the highest point in the Metropolitan Borough of St Helens Hail Storm Hill, also known as Cowpe Moss, is the highest point of the Forest of Rossendale, an area of Moorland and Hill country situated Boulsworth Hill is a large expanse of Moorland, the highest point of the South Pennines of south-eastern Lancashire, separating the District of Kinder Scout is a Moorland Plateau (and Mountain) in the Dark Peak of the Derbyshire Peak District in the United At 893 m Cross Fell is the highest point in the Pennine Hills of Northern England. |} Helvellyn is a mountain in the English Lake District, the apex of the Eastern Fells. |} At 978 metres (3209 feet Scafell Pike is the highest mountain in England. For other meanings see Snowdon (disambiguation. Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa is the highest Mountain in Wales and the third Ben Nevis ( Gaelic: Beinn Nibheis, peˈɲivəʃ is the highest mountain in the British Isles.

At each stage in the chain both the height and prominence are increasing.

### Height parentage

Height parentage is a less widely used term. It is similar to prominence parentage, but it requires some sort of prominence cutoff criterion. The height parent is the closest peak to peak A (along all ridges connected to A) that has a greater height than A, and is above the prominence cutoff. For example, Mont Blanc's height-parent is either a minor peak in the north-west Caucasus (if the prominence cutoff is low), or Mount Elbrus (if the cutoff is high). Mont Blanc Massif The Mont Blanc ( French for white mountain) or Monte Bianco ( Italian 'White Mountain' also The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East Mount Elbrus (Эльбрус is a Mountain located in the western Caucasus Mountain range, in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia

The disadvantage of this concept is that it goes against the intuition that a parent peak should always be more significant than its child. However it can be used to build an entire lineage for a peak which contains a great deal of information about the peak's position.

### Other criteria

To choose among possible parents, instead of choosing the closest possible parent, it is possible to choose the one which requires the least descent along the ridge.

In general, the analysis of parents and lineages is intimately linked to studying the topology of watersheds. Topology ( Greek topos, "place" and logos, "study" is the branch of Mathematics that studies the properties of A drainage divide, water divide, divide or (outside North America) watershed is the line separating neighbouring Drainage basins Further discussion of parents can be found in the Orometry article at peaklist.org.

## Interesting prominence situations

The key col and parent peak are often close to the subpeak but this is not always the case, especially when the key col is relatively low. It is only with the advent of computer programs and geographical databases that thorough analysis has become possible.

• The key col of Mount McKinley (also called Denali) in Alaska (6,194 m) is a 56 m col near Lake Nicaragua (unless one accepts the Panama Canal as a key col; this is a matter of contention). "Denali" redirects here For other meanings see Denali (disambiguation. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent The Panama Canal is a man-made Canal in Panama which joins the McKinley’s encirclement parent is Aconcagua (6,960 m), in Argentina, and its prominence is 6138 m. Cerro Aconcagua is the highest mountain in the Americas, and the highest mountain outside Asia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Put another way, to further illustrate the rising-sea model of prominence – if sea level rose 56 m North and South America would be separate continents and McKinley would be 6138 m above sea level. Mean sea level (MSL is the average (mean height of the Sea, with reference to a suitable reference surface At a slightly lower level, the continents would still be connected, and the high point of the combined landmass would be Aconcagua, the encirclement parent. Note that, for the purposes of this article, man made structures such as the Panama Canal are not taken into account. The Panama Canal is a man-made Canal in Panama which joins the [1] If they were, the key col would be along the 26 m Gaillard Cut and McKinley would have a prominence of 6,168 m. The Gaillard Cut, or Culebra Cut, is a man-made valley cutting through the Continental divide in Panama.

While it is natural for Aconcagua to be the parent of Mount McKinley, since Mount McKinley is a major peak, consider the following situation: Peak A is a small hill on the coast of Alaska, with elevation 100 m and key col 50 m. Then the encirclement parent of Peak A is also Aconcagua, even though there will be many peaks closer to Peak A which are much higher and more prominent than Peak A (for example, Mount McKinley). This illustrates the disadvantage in using the encirclement parent.

• Mount Whitney (4421 m) has its key col 1022 km (635 miles) away in New Mexico at 1347 m on the Continental Divide. Mount Whitney is the highest summit in the Contiguous United States with an elevation of. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. A continental divide is a line of elevated Terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that Water falling on one side of the line eventually Its encirclement parent is Pico de Orizaba (5,636 m), the highest mountain in Mexico. The Pico de Orizaba, or Citlaltépetl (from Nahuatl citlal(in = star and tepētl = mountain is a Stratovolcano, the highest The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Orizaba’s key col is back along the Divide, in British Columbia. British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C
• The key col for Mount Mitchell, the highest peak of the Appalachians, is in Chicago—the low point on the divide between the St. Lawrence and Mississippi River watersheds. The Appalachian Mountains ( often called the Appalachians, are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Saint Lawrence River (in French: fleuve Saint-Laurent; Kahnawáˀkye in Tuscarora, Kaniatarowanenneh meaning big waterway The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to A drainage basin is an extent of Land where Water from Rain or Snow melt drains downhill into a body of water such as a River,

## Calculations and mathematics of prominence

When the key col for a peak is close to the peak itself, prominence is easily computed by hand using a topographic map. A topographic map is a type of Map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using Contour lines in modern However, when the key col is far away, or when one wants to calculate the prominence of many peaks at once, a computer is quite useful. Edward Earl has written a program called WinProm which can be used to make such calculations, based on a Digital Elevation Model. Edward Arthur Earl (born 1964 in Brooklyn) is an American computer scientist and an author of WinProm program WinProm is a Computer program written by a Mathematician Edward Earl of San Diego. A digital elevation model ( DEM) is a Digital representation of ground Surface Topography or Terrain. The underlying mathematical theory is called "Surface Network Modeling," and is closely related to Morse Theory. "Morse function" redirects here In another context a "Morse function" can also mean an Anharmonic oscillator.

A note about methodology: when using a topographic map to determine prominence, one often has to estimate the height of the key saddle (and sometimes, the height of the peak as well) based on the contour lines. A topographic map is a type of Map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using Contour lines in modern Assume for simplicity that only the saddle elevation is uncertain. There are three simple choices: the pessimistic, or clean prominence, assumes that the saddle is as high as it can be, i. e. its elevation is that of the higher contour line nearest the saddle. This gives a lower bound on the possible prominence of the peak. [2] Optimistic prominence assumes that the saddle is as low as possible, yielding an upper bound value for the prominence. Midrange or mean prominence uses the mean of these two values.

Which methodology is used depends on the person doing the calculation and on the use to which the prominence is put. For example, if one is making a list of all peaks with at least 2,000 ft (610 m) of prominence, one would usually use the optimistic prominence, to include all possible candidates (knowing that some of these could be dropped off the list by further, more accurate, measurements).

## Wet prominence and dry prominence

There are actually two varieties of topographic prominence: wet prominence and dry prominence. [3] Wet prominence is the topographic prominence discussed in this article. Wet prominence assumes that the surface of the earth includes all permanent water, snow, and ice features. Thus, the wet prominence of the highest summit of an ocean island or landmass is always equal to the summit's elevation.

Dry prominence, on the other hand, ignores water, snow, and ice features and assumes that the surface of the earth is defined by the solid bottom of those features. The dry prominence of a summit is equal to the wet prominence of that summit unless the summit is the highest point of a landmass or island, or a summit surrounded by snow or ice. If a summit is completely surrounded by a water, snow, or ice feature, the dry prominence of that summit is equal to the wet prominence plus the depth of the highest col.

The dry prominence of Mount Everest is, by convention, equal to its wet prominence (8850 m) plus the depth of the deepest hydrologic feature (the Challenger Deep at 10,911 m), or 19,761 m. Mount Everest, also called Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा meaning Head of the Sky) or Chomolungma, Qomolangma or Zhumulangma (in The Challenger Deep is the deepest surveyed point in the oceans with a depth of about 11000 metres (about 36000 feet The dry prominence of Mauna Kea is equal to its wet prominence (4205 m) plus the depth of its highest col (about 5125 m), or about 9330 m; this is the world's largest dry prominence after Mount Everest. Mauna Kea is a Dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanoes which together form the Island of Hawaii. [3] The dry prominence of Aconcagua is equal to its wet prominence (6962 m) plus the depth of the highest col of the Bering Strait (about 50 m), or about 7012 m. Cerro Aconcagua is the highest mountain in the Americas, and the highest mountain outside Asia. The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив Beringov proliv) is a sea Strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43'

Dry prominence is also useful for measuring submerged seamounts. A seamount is a Mountain rising from the Ocean Seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface ( Sea level) and thus is not an Island Submerged summits have both a dry topographic prominence and a topographic isolation. The topographic isolation of a summit is the minimum horizontal ( Great circle) distance to the nearest point of higher Elevation.

## Debates about the use of prominence

The use of topographic prominence as a cutoff to eliminate subpeaks is well-established. This and the following sections address the merits and criticisms of using prominence as a primary mountain metric, for example, in creating lists of mountains ranked by prominence.

### Merits

• Such lists are much more wide ranging than height lists. This can be appreciated by comparing the List of peaks by prominence to the List of highest mountains. This is a list of Mountain peaks ordered by their Topographic prominence. The following is a list of the world's 100+ highest mountains per height Above sea level, all of which are located in Asia The peaks listed by the latter are all in High Asia and are inaccessible to most hikers. The List of Alpine peaks by prominence lists summits from all parts of the Alps; by contrast, the popular list of alpine peaks over 4000 metres misses entire eastern Alpine ranges, including the Dolomites. This is a list of the mountains of the Alps, ordered by their Topographic prominence. The Dolomites (Dolomiti Dolomiten Dolomitis are a section of the Alps. This has the effect of spreading list ticking hikers out more thinly, creating environmental and economic benefits.
• Relatedly, there is some sense in which Eiger, for example, is just a secondary peak on Mönch or even Jungfrau; the list only counts each mountain once, until one gets down to a scale on which the peaks are discernibly separate mountains. The Eiger is a notable mountain in the Swiss Alps, rising to an elevation of 3970 m (13025 ft The Mönch ( German: "monk" is a Mountain in the Swiss Alps. The Jungfrau ( German: "maiden/virgin" is the highest peak of a mountain Massif of the same name located in the Bernese Oberland region of the
• They tend to list better known peaks than height lists. For example, Aconcagua, Mount McKinley and Kilimanjaro are much more frequently climbed than K2, Kangchenjunga and Makalu, and in Scotland, Goat Fell and Merrick are much better known than most Munros. Cerro Aconcagua is the highest mountain in the Americas, and the highest mountain outside Asia. "Denali" redirects here For other meanings see Denali (disambiguation. K2 is the second- highest Mountain on Earth (after Mount Everest) Kangchenjunga ( Nepali:कञ्चनजङ्घा Kanchanjaŋghā) SewaLungma ( Limbu language) is the third highest Makalu (in Nepal officially मकालु;in China officially Makaru; Chinese: 马卡鲁山 Pinyin: Mǎkǎlǔ Shān) is the fifth Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Goat Fell (marked as Goatfell by the Ordnance Survey; Scottish Gaelic: Gaoda Bheinn) is the highest point on the Isle of Arran Merrick ( Gaelic: Mearaig) is the highest Mountain in the Southern Uplands of southern Scotland and is part of the Range A Munro is a Scottish mountain with a height over 3000 feet (914 Continental, sub-continental and range high points are especially well represented, and there is a positive correlation with high points of political entities (national, state, county etc).
• The peaks listed tend to have unobstructed views over long distances, which is one criterion used for evaluating the quality of a viewpoint. [4][5]
• The prominence metric is non-subjective, i. e. it is not, like the Munros, dependent on the vagaries of opinion. Even for those hikers who prefer to list by height, the prominence metric provides a useful non-subjective tool for providing qualifications for inclusion within height lists. Many lists are hybrids, requiring both height and prominence minima.
• Prominence provides additional material for those hikers who like to set themselves goals, often for the purpose of maintaining good physical fitness. Such material is seen by its proponents as useful guidance, and helps them to find notable peaks which they might not otherwise have found.

### Criticism

The use of topographic prominence as a primary mountain metric has been widely criticised, for the following reasons.

• A mountain that appears to be highly prominent from local viewpoints may not be ranked highly by topographic prominence, because high passes may connect that mountain to higher mountains in the same range. The Matterhorn and Eiger are two obvious examples of this. "Cervino" redirects here For the Italian town see Cervino (CE. The Eiger is a notable mountain in the Swiss Alps, rising to an elevation of 3970 m (13025 ft This has led to some passionately expressed derision by some climbers, especially those who lean more towards rock climbing than hiking. In response to this criticism, an alternative metric, Spire Measure, has been developed.
• The relevance of saddles that are distant from their peaks, such as the saddle point in Nicaragua[1] that belongs to Mount McKinley, is regarded by many observers to be tenuous. Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America "Denali" redirects here For other meanings see Denali (disambiguation.
• The prominence metric is unstable, in that small changes in height, due to more accurate survey information, or volcanic activity, can drastically change summits' prominence, if those changes mean that there is a change in the high point of a range. For example, had the 1986 claim that K2 was higher than Mount Everest been true, their prominences would have more than doubled and halved respectively. K2 is the second- highest Mountain on Earth (after Mount Everest) Mount Everest, also called Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा meaning Head of the Sky) or Chomolungma, Qomolangma or Zhumulangma (in
• The use of prominence as a primary mountain metric is relatively new, partly because, until recently, prominence values were not easy to determine. Therefore the concept is not widely understood and recognised, or even known, within the general outdoor community. As a result, many high prominence mountains, especially in the U. S. , are not accessible to the general public. Examples are Mount Graham, Arizona, and Ute Mountain, Colorado. Mount Graham is a Mountain in southeastern Arizona in the United States, in the Coronado National Forest. Ute Mountain (or Ute Peak or Sleeping Ute Mountain) is a peak within the Ute Mountains, a small mountain range in the southwestern corner of Since relatively few hikers are actively hiking prominence lists, there is little public support for making these mountains accessible.
• The prominence metric tends to add to the feelings of those who are offended by the whole concept of mountain metrication. For these people, statistical analysis spoils the pleasure they get out of mountains, and promotes peak bagging to the point of obsession. Peak bagging (also hill bagging, mountain bagging, Munro bagging, or among enthusiasts just bagging) is an activity in which

## References

1. ^ a b The more common convention among the sources for prominence calculations is to ignore man-made alterations in the landscape, particularly for saddle heights. This convention is not universally agreed upon, and presents particular difficulties in the case of mountaintop removal. Mountaintop removal mining ( MTR) often referred to in the industry as mountaintop mining/valley fills (MTM/VF is a form of Surface mining that involves an However for high-prominence peaks (and for low-prominence subpeaks with intact summits), the difference in prominence values for the two conventions is typically relatively small.
2. ^ This assumes that the map itself is accurate; inaccuracies in mapping lead to further uncertainties and a larger error bound.
3. ^ a b Adam Helman, The Finest Peaks---Prominence and Other Mountain Measures, 2005.
4. ^ Dawson, Alan (1992). The Relative Hills of Britain. Milnthorpe: Cicerone Press, p 253. ISBN 1-85284-068-4.
5. ^ This fails to be true in regions where no summit, or only the highest summits, are above tree line. The tree line or timberline is the edge of the habitat at which Trees are capable of growing