|Motto: "Travail, Liberté, Patrie" (French)|
"Work, Liberty, Homeland"
|Anthem: Salut à toi, pays de nos aïeux (French)|
"Hail to thee, land of our forefathers"
(and largest city)
|-||Prime Minister||Komlan Mally|
|-||from France||April 27, 1960|
|-||Total||56,785 km² (125th)|
21,925 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||4. The flag of Togo was adopted on April 27, 1960. It has five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom alternating with yellow The Coat of Arms of Togo was adopted on 14 March, 1962. In the coat of arms there are two red lions to be seen which symbolize the A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's " Terre de nos aïeux " (Land of our forefathers is the National anthem of Togo. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Togo 's population of 48 million people (2002 est is composed of about 21 ethnic groups Lomé, estimated population 700000 (1998 is the Capital and largest city of Togo. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its This page contains a list of presidents of Togo. See also Lists of incumbents. Faure Essozimna Gnassingbé (born June 6, 1966) has been the President of Togo since May 4, 2005; he was previously List of Heads of Government of Togo (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office Political affiliations Komlan Mally (born December 12 1960) is a Togolese politician who served as Prime Minister of Togo from December 2007 to September 2008 Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions  Areas between 10000 km² and 100000 km² are listed here This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 2|
|-||July 2005 estimate||5. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology 7million (102nd1)|
|GDP (PPP)||2005 estimate|
|-||Total||$8. List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 945 billion (144th1)|
|-||Per capita||$1,700 (193rd1)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 512 (medium) (152nd)|
|Currency||CFA franc (|
|Time zone||GMT (UTC+0)|
|1 Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The CFA franc (in French: franc CFA, "céfa" or just franc colloquially is a currency used in twelve formerly French -ruled ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established Greenwich Mean Time ( GMT) is a term originally referring to mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E Rankings based on 2005 figures CIA World Factbook - Togo|
² Rankings based on 2005 figures (source unknown)
Togo, officially the Togolese Republic, is a narrow country in West Africa bordering Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north. West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. The Republic of Ghana is a country in West Africa. It borders Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast to the west Burkina Faso to the north Togo to the Benin (bə'nɪn officially the Republic of Benin, and also known as Benin Republic, is a country in Western Africa. Burkina Faso (bɚˌkiːnəˈfɑːsoʊ burr-KEE-na FAH-soh) also known by its short-form name Burkina, is a Landlocked nation in West Africa The country extends south to the Gulf of Guinea, on which the capital Lomé is located. The Gulf of Guinea is the part of the Atlantic Ocean southwest of Africa. Lomé, estimated population 700000 (1998 is the Capital and largest city of Togo. The official language is French; however, there are many other languages spoken there as well. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people
Western history does not record what happened in Togo before the Portuguese arrived in the late fifteenth century. Little is known about the history of Togo before the late fifteenth century when Portuguese explorers arrived although there are signs of Ewe settlement for several The Portuguese people (os Portugueses literally the Portuguese) are the Ethnic group or Nation native to the country of Portugal, in the west During the period from the eleventh century to the sixteenth century, various tribes entered the region from all directions: the Ewé from Nigeria and Benin; and the Mina and Guin from Ghana. Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal Benin (bə'nɪn officially the Republic of Benin, and also known as Benin Republic, is a country in Western Africa. Gen (also called Gɛ̃ or Gɛn gbe) is a Gbe language spoken in the southeast of Togo in the Maritime Region. "Guin" is also the French name for Düdingen, Switzerland The Republic of Ghana is a country in West Africa. It borders Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast to the west Burkina Faso to the north Togo to the Most settled in coastal areas. When the slave trade began in earnest in the sixteenth century, the Mina benefited the most. For the next two hundred years, the coastal region was a major raiding center for Europeans in search of slaves, earning Togo and the surrounding region the name "The Slave Coast. The Slave Coast is the name of the coastal areas of present Togo, Benin (formerly Dahomey) and western Nigeria, a fertile region of coastal "
In an 1884 treaty signed at Togoville, Germany declared a protectorate over a stretch of territory along the coast and gradually extended its control inland. Togoville is a Town in southern Togo, lying on the northern shore of Lake Togo. This became the German colony Togoland in 1905. Togoland was a German Protectorate in West Africa from 1884 to 1914 After the German defeat during World War I in August 1914 at the hands of British troops (coming from the Gold Coast) and the French troops (coming from Dahomey), Togoland became two League of Nations mandates, administered by the United Kingdom and France. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All A League of Nations mandate refers to a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I. After World War II, these mandates became UN Trust Territories. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Trust Territories were the successors of the remaining League of Nations mandates and came into being when the League of Nations ceased to exist in 1946 The residents of British Togoland voted to join the Gold Coast as part of the new independent nation of Ghana, and French Togoland became an autonomous republic within the French Union. British Togoland was a League of Nations Class B mandate in Africa, formed by the splitting of German protectorate Togoland into This article is about the British colony in west Africa 1821-1957 The Republic of Ghana is a country in West Africa. It borders Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast to the west Burkina Faso to the north Togo to the French Togoland was a France Mandate territory in West Africa, which later became the Togolese Republic. The French Union (Union française was a political entity created by the French Fourth Republic to replace the old French colonial system the " French Empire Independence came in 1960 under Sylvanus Olympio. Sylvanus Epiphanio Olympio ( 6 September 1902 - 13 January 1963) was a Togolese Sylvanus Olympio was assassinated in a military coup on January 13, 1963 by a group of soldiers under the direction of Sergeant Etienne Eyadema Gnassingbe. Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. General Gnassingbé Eyadéma, formerly Étienne Eyadéma ( December 26, 1937 – February 5 2005) was the President of However there is no real evidence that he was the leader of the coup or the perpetrator of the assassination. Some sources point that he was the only one who accepted to shoulder the paternity of the assassination. Opposition leader Nicolas Grunitzky was appointed president by the "Insurrection Committee" headed by Emmanuel Bodjollé. Nicolas Grunitzky ( April 5, 1913 &ndash September 27, 1969) was the third president of Togo. Emmanuel Bodjollé (born 1928 served as Chairman of the Insurrection Committee in Togo from 13 January 1963 to 15 January 1963 following However, on January 13, 1967, Eyadema Gnassingbe overthrew Grunitzky in a bloodless coup and assumed the presidency, which he held from that date until his sudden death on February 5, 2005. Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Events 1576 - Henry of Navarre converts to Roman Catholicism in order to ensure his right to the throne of France. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Eyadema Gnassingbe (many wrongly think Eyadema was his last name) died in early 2005 after thirty-eight years in power, as Africa's longest sitting dictator. General Gnassingbé Eyadéma, formerly Étienne Eyadéma ( December 26, 1937 – February 5 2005) was the President of The military's immediate but short-lived installation of his son, Faure Gnassingbe, as president provoked widespread international condemnation, except from France. Faure Essozimna Gnassingbé (born June 6, 1966) has been the President of Togo since May 4, 2005; he was previously This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. However, surprisingly, some democratically elected African leaders, such as Abdoulaye Wade of Senegal and Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria, supported that move and created a rift within the African Union. Abdoulaye Wade (born May 29 1926 is the third and current President of Senegal, in office since 2000 Senegal (le Sénégal officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa. General (rtd Olusegun Aremu Okikiola Matthew Obasanjo, GCFR (Oluṣẹgun Mathew Okikiọla Arẹmu Ọbasanjọ olúʃɛ̙́ɡũ ɒ̙básandʒɒ̙́ (born circa March Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal The African Union (abbreviated AU in English, and UA in its other working languages is a Confederation consisting of 53  African Faure Gnassingbe stood down and called elections which he won two months later. The opposition claimed that the election was fraudulent. The developments of 2005 led to renewed questions about a commitment to democracy made by Togo in 2004 in a bid to normalize ties with the European Union, which cut off aid in 1993 over the country's human rights record. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Moreover, up to 400 people were killed in the political violence surrounding the presidential poll, according to the United Nations. Around 40,000 Togolese fled to neighbouring countries.
Togo's small sub-Saharan economy is heavily dependent on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Agriculture Subsistence agriculture is the main economic activity in Togo; the majority of the population depends on subsistence agriculture Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture cotton, coffee, and cocoa together generate about 30% of export earnings. Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom Cocoa is the dried and fully fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which Chocolate is made Togo is self-sufficient in basic foodgoods when harvests are normal, with occasional regional supply difficulties. In the industrial sector, phosphate mining is no longer the most important activity, as cement and clinker export to neighbouring countries have taken over. A phosphate, an Inorganic chemical, is a salt of Phosphoric acid. It has suffered from the collapse of world phosphate prices, increased foreign competition and financial problems . Togo's GNI per capita is US$380 (World Bank, 2005). Gross National Income (GNI comprises the total value produced within a country (i The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been
Togo serves as a regional commercial and trade center. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures, has stalled. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic Political unrest, including private and public sector strikes throughout 1992 and 1993, jeopardized the reform program, shrank the tax base, and disrupted vital economic activity. The 12 January 1994 devaluation of the currency by 50% provided an important impetus to renewed structural adjustment; these efforts were facilitated by the end of strife in 1994 and a return to overt political calm. Events 475 - Basiliscus becomes Byzantine Emperor, with a coronation ceremony in the Hebdomon palace in Constantinople Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Progress depends on increased openness in government financial operations (to accommodate increased social service outlays) and possible downsizing of the military, on which the regime has depended to stay in place. A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking Lack of aid, along with depressed cocoa prices, generated a 1% fall in GDP in 1998, with growth resuming in 1999. Assuming no deterioration of the political atmosphere, growth should rise to 5% a year in 2000-2001.
In 1988 US foreign aid relief issued a contract to install wells in impoverished communities in Togo, Africa (Waters of Ayole). Aid (from the french word aide, also known as international aid, overseas aid, or foreign aid, especially in the United States) is The women and children of these communities had to travel about six kilometers to get to any kind of water source (African Well Fund). African Well Fund is a Non-profit organization dedicated to raising funds for the construction and maintenance of freshwater wells throughout impoverished sections of Africa Many times the river or water source that these communities had access to were horrible. The water has several kinds of diseases that were making the people of the community sick with primary concerns over the contraction of the guinea worm. Dracunculiasis, more commonly known as Guinea worm disease ( GWD) or Medina Worm, is a parasitic Infection caused by the Although many of the people knew the health risks of the water, they had no other choice than to continue walking all this way for water. They had no other means of obtaining clean water. The foreign aid showed initial signs of promise by making water more accessible and clean. Aid (from the french word aide, also known as international aid, overseas aid, or foreign aid, especially in the United States) is Further efforts, however, to sustain these wells were not very successful for a few reasons. Though wells may be the most successful way of providing impoverished Sub-Saharan African communities with clean and accessible water, programs such as the one in Togo failed to implement strategies that support the sustainability of this technology because of the lack of education, training, money, and community intervention. Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries
Sub-Saharan Africa, as of 2002, has the highest number of poor people in the world, with impoverished levels nearing 45%. Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries Poverty (also called penury) is deprivation of common necessities that determine the quality of life including food clothing shelter and safe Drinking water, and In addition it has also been shown to have the highest rates of population growth (about 2. Population growth is the change in Population over time and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population using "per unit time" for 2% year) “with subsequent increased pressure on water resources” and although Africa has many sources of water, the majority of them are not safe to drink or are inaccessible by most (Bordalo, 2). Efforts to reduce the amount of water born diseases, as well as increased availability of these water reservoirs have had mixed results.
Programs such as the PFI (Promoting Farmer Innovation) have shown great signs of success. This 10-step program, created by the UNDP, was first instituted in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda with the goal being to bring forth community inventions that supported agricultural growth as well as water conservation tactics (Duveskog, 2). The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya The Republic of Uganda is a Landlocked country in East Africa. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture The program provided farmers with a source of information which was generally feasible and results have shown that these innovations have also helped to support the surrounding communities as well. Alex Ole-Pere of the Maasai lived in Kenya during the time the PFI was instituted. The Maasai are an indigenous African Ethnic group of semi-nomadic people located in Kenya and northern Tanzania. His invention, a dam of about 25 meters, was digging an alternate route for rainwater runoff that he directed toward his homestead and then using that dirt to construct the dam. A dam is a barrier that divides waters. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water while other structures such as Floodgates, Levees A dam is a barrier that divides waters. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water while other structures such as Floodgates, Levees His invention had greater uses then just to provide water for his personal agricultural and health benefits but the success of this dam was so great that he was able to help in supporting the struggling neighbors in his community. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture A dam is a barrier that divides waters. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water while other structures such as Floodgates, Levees Ole-Pere stated “My neighbors normally come to fetch water from my dam in bad times. They can take both for their families and for their livestock, I have enough” (Duveskog, 2). Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food The only downside of these kinds of water conservation efforts is that there can be no guarantee that this source of water is safe and that in times of drought there may be no rainwater runoff to collect. A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply
A plan that has the potential to be more successful, and which has been implemented by a number of organizations as well as governments in the past, is the production of wells. Wells is a small Cathedral city and Civil parish in the Mendip district of Somerset, England, on the southern edge of the Mendip Wells, provided that they are dug deep enough to penetrate the deeper layers of bedrock, prove to be the most successful means in which to provide accessible, disease free water to SSA (Sub-Saharan Africa). Wells is a small Cathedral city and Civil parish in the Mendip district of Somerset, England, on the southern edge of the Mendip Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the surface of a terrestrial planet usually the Earth. Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries However, for these well institution programs to be successful further measures need to be taken to promote their sustainability. Sustainability, in a general sense is the capacity to maintain a certain process or state indefinitely Some of the wells that were installed in Togo lasted only a mere two months before the community was forced to resort to their previous practice of walking for miles to get there water which again was not safe to drink (Waters of Ayole). These wells were expensive, nearing $10,000 dollars per well (Waters of Ayole). A mere two month return on a $10,000 dollar investment was staggering. Individuals in these communities were helpless, unable to understand the technology they were given and unable to contact technicians that could help them. This village didn’t take responsibility for the wells; they expected the government to maintain them. These wells became mere monuments representing their strife. A monument is a structure either explicitly created to commemorate a person or important event or which has become important to a social group as a part of their remembrance of past In order to combat these failures further intervention must be taken in conjunction with the introduction of these wells to insure that they will remain sustainable for a lifetime rather than a season. Wells is a small Cathedral city and Civil parish in the Mendip district of Somerset, England, on the southern edge of the Mendip
An example of a village that was unsuccessful is Amoussoukope which is near a main road and there is a train stop. They also have a high school, health center, and some small businesses. High school is the name used in some parts of the world (in particular Scotland, North America and Australia) to describe an institution This article describes policy-related systems For the article on hospital networks which are sometimes referred to as health care systems see Hospital network. Amoussoukope was one of the first villages to get a well and pump system, but technology alone could not solve the problem. A lot more work had to be done to see a difference. Although the village got two wells and pumps, six years after the installation neither one of the pumps worked. A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet, but smaller than a Town or City. There are a few reasons why the well and pump system were unsuccessful.
The villagers didn’t take responsibility for the pumps. They didn’t do any maintenance on the pumps. The villagers felt that since the government and aid groups installed the wells and pumps that it was their responsibility to fix the pump. One of the installers stated “When we asked them to make an effort to repair the pumps, they didn’t see why” (Waters of Ayole). Another reason for the failure of the pumps was education. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency None of the villagers had proper education on how the pumps worked. They had no way of fixing the pumps and were forced to resort back to their previous methods of collecting water; a long and tedious six kilometer walk.
The community, not coming together through work on the pump, was another down fall. The villagers were not organized in the way they collected their money, the way they fixed the pump, or in making decisions about the pump. It was everyone contributing a little, but there was no one there to make sure everyone was contributing.
Money was also a major issue that added to the failure of the pumps. Without having a committee, their fund raising efforts were just a waste of time. A committee (some of which are titled instead as a "Commission" or other terms discussed below in) is a type of small Deliberative assembly that is usually intended The village tried to raise 100,000 francs ($300) by going from house to house collecting 65 cents each household, but they "don’t know if each person gave" (Waters of Ayole). Without the committee or someone to oversee the money raising, none of the villagers know exactly how much was raised or what happened to the money that was collected. A committee (some of which are titled instead as a "Commission" or other terms discussed below in) is a type of small Deliberative assembly that is usually intended
The first measure that must be taken is education. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency A member of the particular community in which the well was installed must be training in the ways of fixing the well and these techniques must be meshed into the community themselves. The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge skills and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge If a member of the community is trained with this knowledge than that person is able to pass that knowledge on to either an apprentice or his own kin, allowing the community to be self sustaining in terms of technical necessities. Apprenticeship is a system of Training a new generation of practitioners of a skill If, however, communities are provided technical training there still remains the problem of paying for the parts for repair. Further education in the ways that this well can provide for much greater expansion of agricultural production must be emphasized. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture
With the well being greatly more accessible, women are not forced to consume the majority of their day merely transporting water form the source to the home. They now have more time to devote to the fields in which they are growing food and have the opportunity to expand those fields to produce a surplus that can then be sold to larger communities in the area that have a greater infrastructure than their own. The extra money that they make from the sale of produce can be placed into a fund that will help them purchase the parts needed for the upkeep and repair of the well. But even this is not enough. One particular community in Togo said that the system of collecting money for the repairs was unorganized and counter productive. A woman states that someone would come around to their homes, knock on the door, and ask for the money that they needed for the parts to repair the well. After that, nothing was done; parts were not purchased and repairs were not made. It seems that this may be because of a lack of communication within these communities.
A particular community that was successful in maintaining their well has the characteristics prescribed above but took community intervention to the next level. A committee was formed which included men and women of the community which is highly uncommon in Africa’s patriarchal society but is a necessary transition if programs such as these are going to be successful. A committee (some of which are titled instead as a "Commission" or other terms discussed below in) is a type of small Deliberative assembly that is usually intended Patriarchy is the structuring of Society on the basis of Family units where fathers have primary responsibility for the welfare of hence authority over Since women are in charge of getting water for the community they should be involved in the decision making process. The committee would meet regularity to discuss technical issues that they are having with the well. A committee (some of which are titled instead as a "Commission" or other terms discussed below in) is a type of small Deliberative assembly that is usually intended If these technical issues are nonexistent at the time the discussion may take a monetary twist and economic development may be the topic of conversation. Banter redirects here for the Radio 4 panel show see Banter (radio show A conversation is Communication by two or more people or by one's self Either way the involvement of the community is essential to these programs. No longer are these community members looking out for only themselves but they are now looking out for the community as a whole, which is also necessary for future transition from third world to first world progressions. Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically The term " first world " refers to countries that are capitalist, which are technologically advanced and whose
An example of a village which was very successful with the implementation of a well is Ayole. Ayole is a village that is much more underdeveloped compared to Amoussoukope. They don’t have a health center or a main road nearby. Without these resources the villagers were still able to keep the well and pump working continuously for five years because the pump was made part of village life from the beginning. Extension agents also worked closely with the village to implement the well and water system.
One of the villagers had previous experience with mechanics and was designated as the person in charge of pump repairs. Mechanics ( Greek) is the branch of Physics concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to Forces or displacements For information on Wikipedia project-related discussions see WikipediaVillage pump. He stated “They wrote down what I had to learn and gave me a booklet” (Waters of Ayole). After watching the installers install the pump he went to the Social Affairs Office in Glei to get extensive training on repairing the pump (Waters of Ayole). With the training that he received the repairman was able to repair the pump any time something broke. For example when the bladder, the main piece of the pump, broke he was able to fix it. The village came together to help him remove the bladder for repairs and putting it back. The pump was up and running the next day.
The village also came together to create a committee to make decisions about the pump. A committee (some of which are titled instead as a "Commission" or other terms discussed below in) is a type of small Deliberative assembly that is usually intended For information on Wikipedia project-related discussions see WikipediaVillage pump. Women were also involved in the decision making process because getting water for the village is considered to be the job of women. One of the villagers stated “In the past everyone lived for themselves but now they have come together and are happier and hold meetings about the pump and personal problems” (Waters of Ayole). Not only did the pump bring the villagers together to keep the pump working they also came together to help each other out on other issues.
Money being a big part of keeping the pump working is one that is hard to find in these villages. Ayole and the Extension agents worked together to figure out way for the village to raise money for parts for the pump. They created a communal field to help raise money with the profits going into a bank account. They saved the money for parts to fix the pump. In the communal field they raised casaba, maze, cotton, and beans (Waters of Ayole). Honeydew is a Cultivar group of the Muskmelon, Cucumis melo Inodorus group which includes crenshaw, casaba, Persian A maze is a complex Tour puzzle in the form of a complex branching passage through which the solver must find a route Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Bean is a common name for large plant Seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae used for human food or animal They money was managed by the committee. They had one of the committee members in charge of authorizing the repairman to buy parts for the pump.
Though wells may be the most successful way of providing impoverished Sub-Saharan African communities with clean and accessible water, programs such as the one in the village Amoussoukope failed to implement strategies that support the sustainability of this technology because of the lack of education, training, money, and community intervention. Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries Although there are other efforts to provide clean and sustainable water to communities in Africa, many of these efforts are not very successful because the water is still not clean and can not reach a large majority of people because of different factors including drought. A project of implementing wells in different communities was proven successful with some communities unsuccessful. There are many different things that need to be implemented besides just building a well and telling the community to figure it out from there. There needs to be education, technical training, a form of additional income for the wells, and community intervention. Organizations that implement these wells also need to work with the community to educate them on the wells and how to repair them. The community needs to work together to be able to sustain the wells and continue to enjoy clean water close to their home.
Togo is a small, thin sub-Saharan nation. Togo is a small Sub-Saharan nation comprising a long strip of land in West Africa. In Computer graphics, a raster graphics image or bitmap, is a Data structure representing a generally rectangular grid of Pixels The Map Library should not be confused with the Map Library of The British Museum. It borders the Bight of Benin in the south; Ghana lies to the west; Benin to the east; and to the north Togo is bound by Burkina Faso. The Bight of Benin is a bight (a type of bay on the western African coast that extends eastward for about 400 miles (640 km from Cape St The Republic of Ghana is a country in West Africa. It borders Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast to the west Burkina Faso to the north Togo to the Benin (bə'nɪn officially the Republic of Benin, and also known as Benin Republic, is a country in Western Africa. Burkina Faso (bɚˌkiːnəˈfɑːsoʊ burr-KEE-na FAH-soh) also known by its short-form name Burkina, is a Landlocked nation in West Africa
In the north the land is characterized by a gently rolling savannah in contrast to the center of the country, which is characterized by hills. The south of Togo is characterized by a plateau which reaches to a coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes. The land size is 21,925 square miles (56,785 km²), with an average population density of 253 people per square mile (98/km²). The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. In 1914 it changed from Togoland to Togo.
The climate is generally tropical with average temperatures ranging from 27°C on the coast to about 30°C in the northernmost regions, with a dry climate and characteristics of a tropical savanna. Tropical and subtropical grasslands savannas and shrublands are a Grassland Biome located in Semi-arid to semi- Humid Climate regions To the south there are two seasons of rain (the first between April and July and the second between October and November), even though the average rainfall is not very high (about 1,000 mm in mountainous areas, the most rainy).
Togo is divided into 5 regions, which are subdivided in turn into 30 prefectures and 1 commune. |||} Togo is divided into five Regions ( régions, singular région) (capitals in parentheses Centrale ( Sokodé) |||}The regions of Togo are subdivided into 30 Prefectures and one commune The article is about the geographic sense of the term For other uses including Regions and Regional, see Region (disambiguation. For subsequent types of praefectura, see Prefect. Prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office From north to south the regions are Savanes, Kara, Centrale, Plateaux and Maritime. Savanes is the northernmost of the five Regions of Togo. Dapaong is the regional capital Kara is one of Togo's five regions. Kara is the regional capital Centrale is one of Togo's five regions. Sokodé is the regional capital Plateaux is one of Togo 's five regions. Atakpamé is the regional capital Maritime is the southernmost of Togo 's five regions, with the country's only shoreline on the Bight of Benin.
With a population of 5,548,702 (as of 2006), Togo is the 107th largest country by population. Togo 's population of 48 million people (2002 est is composed of about 21 ethnic groups Most of the population (65%) live in rural villages dedicated to agriculture or pastures. The population of Togo shows a strong growth: from 1961 (the year after independence) to 2003 it quintupled.
In Togo there are about 45 different ethnic groups, the most important and numerous are the Ewe in the south (46%), Kabyé in the north (22%), Uaci or Ouatchis (14%. Kabye is the name for both the Kaybe or Kabiyé language and peoples of the northern plains of Togo. There are no historical and ethnical facts that justify the separation between Ewes and Ouatchis. On the contrary, the term Ouatchi relates to a subgroup of Ewes which migrated south during the 16th century from Notse the Ewe Kingdom capital. This classification is inaccurate and has been contested for being politically motivated; Mina, Mossi, and Aja (about 8%) are the remainder; and under 1% are European expatriates live in Togo as diplomats and for economic reasons.
About half the population adheres to indigenous, animist beliefs . Animism (from Latin anima ( Soul, Life) commonly refers to a religious belief that Souls or Spirits exist in Animals Christianity is the second largest religious group, to which 29% of the country's population belong. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The remaining 21% of Togolese follow Islam. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation.
Togo's transition to democracy is stalled. Politics of Togo takes place in a framework of a presidential Republic, whereby the President of Togo is both Head of state and Head Its democratic institutions remain nascent and fragile. President Gnassingbé Eyadéma, who ruled Togo under a one-party system for nearly twenty-five of his thirty-seven years in power, died of a heart attack on February 5, 2005. General Gnassingbé Eyadéma, formerly Étienne Eyadéma ( December 26, 1937 – February 5 2005) was the President of Events 1576 - Henry of Navarre converts to Roman Catholicism in order to ensure his right to the throne of France. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Under the constitution, the speaker of parliament, Fambaré Ouattara Natchaba, should have become president, pending a new election. Fambaré Ouattara Natchaba (born 17 April 1945) is a Togolese politician Natchaba was out of the country, returning on an Air France plane from Paris. The Togolese army closed the nation's borders, forcing the plane to land in nearby Benin. With an engineered power vacuum, the army announced that Eyadéma's son Faure Gnassingbé, also known as Faure Eyadéma, who had been the communications minister, would succeed him. Faure Essozimna Gnassingbé (born June 6, 1966) has been the President of Togo since May 4, 2005; he was previously The constitution of Togo declared that in the case of the president's death, the speaker of Parliament takes his place, and has sixty days to call new elections. However, on February 6th, Parliament retroactively changed the Constitution, declaring that Faure would hold office for the rest of his father's term, with elections deferred until 2008. The stated justification was that Natchaba was out of the country.  . The government also moved to remove Natchaba as speaker  and replaced him with Faure Gnassingbé, who was sworn in on February 7, 2005, despite the international criticism of the succession. Events 457 - Leo I becomes emperor of the Byzantine Empire. 1074 - Battle of Montesarchio in which the Prince Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
The African Union described the takeover as a military coup d'état.  International pressure came also from the United Nations. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Within Togo, opposition to the takeover culminated in riots in which several hundred died. In the village of Aného reports of a general civilian uprising followed by a large scale massacre by government troops went largely unreported. In response, Gnassingbé agreed to hold elections and on February 25, Gnassingbé resigned as president, but soon afterwards accepted the nomination to run for the office in April. A presidential election was held in Togo on April 24, 2005, following the death in office of long-time president Gnassingbé Eyadéma. Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor On April 24, 2005, Gnassingbé was elected president of Togo, receiving over 60% of the vote according to official results. Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to However fraud was suspected as cause of his election, due to a lack of presence of the European Union or other such oversight. See the History section of this article for details. Parliament designated Deputy Speaker Bonfoh Abbass as interim president until the inauguration of the election a clear violation of the constitution but a political compromise. El-Hadj Bonfoh Abbass (born November 23 1948) was the interim President of Togo from February 25, 2005 to May winner. 
On May 3, 2006, Faure Gnassingbe was sworn in as the new president, garnering 60% of the vote according to official results. Events 1491 - Kongo monarch Nkuwu Nzinga is baptised by Portuguese missionaries adopting the baptismal name of João Discontent has continued however, with the opposition declaring the voting rigged, claiming the military stole ballot boxes from various polling stations in the South, as well as other election irregularities, such as telecommunication shutdown.  The European Union has suspended aid in support of the opposition claims, while the African Union and the United States have declared the vote "reasonably fair" and accepted the outcome. The Nigerian president and Chair of the AU, Olusẹgun Ọbasanjọ, has sought to negotiate between the incumbent government and the opposition to establish a coalition government, but rejected an AU Commission appointment of former Zambian president, Kenneth Kaunda, as special AU envoy to Togo ( and ). General (rtd Olusegun Aremu Okikiola Matthew Obasanjo, GCFR (Oluṣẹgun Mathew Okikiọla Arẹmu Ọbasanjọ olúʃɛ̙́ɡũ ɒ̙básandʒɒ̙́ (born circa March The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa. Kenneth David Kaunda, commonly known as KK (born April 28, 1924) served as the first President of Zambia, from 1964 to 1991 Later in June, President Gnassingbe named opposition leader Edem Kodjo as the prime Minister. Édouard Kodjovi Kodjo, better known as Edem Kodjo (born May 23 1938) is a Togolese politician and diplomat who has twice served as Prime
In April 2006 reconciliation talks between government and opposition progressed; said talks were suspended after Gnassingbé Eyadema's death in 2005. General Gnassingbé Eyadéma, formerly Étienne Eyadéma ( December 26, 1937 – February 5 2005) was the President of In August both parties signed the Ouagadougou agreement calling for a transitional unity government to organize parliamentary elections. On September 16th, the president nominated Yaovi Agboyibor of the Action Comittee for Renewal (CAR) prime minister snubing the major opposition party Union of the Forces of Change (UFC) which in reaction refused to join the government. Yawovi Madji Agboyibo (born December 31, 1943) is a Togolese politician The Union of Forces for Change (Union des Forces du Changement is the main opposition Political party in Togo. Professor Léopold Gnininvi of the Democratic Convention of African Peoples (CDPA) was appointed the 20th. Léopold Messan Kokou Gnininvi (born December 19 1942) is a Togolese politician and the Secretary-General of the Democratic Convention of African Peoples The Democratic Convention of African Peoples (Convention démocratique des peuples africains is a Political party in Togo. From the beginning, opposition's weakness was manifest. The president had the final say on who would be cabinet minister from a list of names proposed by the prime minister. Second, disunity was rife within opposition ranks after the failure to get UFC representation in the transitional government.
In October 2007, after several postponements, elections were held under proportional representation. This allowed the less populated north to seat as many MPs the more populated south. The president backed party Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) won outright majority with the UFC coming second with the other parties claiming inconsequential representation. The Rally of the Togolese People (Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais is the ruling Political party in Togo. Again vote rigging accusations were leveled at the RPT supported by the civil and military security apparatus. Despite the presence of an EU observer mission, cancelled ballots and illegal voting took place the majority of which in RPT strongholds. The elections was declared fair by the international community and praised as a model with few intimidation and violent acts for the first time since multipartism was reinstated. On December 3rd Komlan Mally of the RPT was appointed to prime minister succeeding Agboyibor. Komlan Mally (born December 12 1960) is a Togolese politician who served as Prime Minister of Togo from December 2007 to September 2008
However presidential elections of 2010 presents a different challenge with no proportional representation effect to balance for geographic location. The executive power is mainly presidential and this showdown fallout will really determine how far the country has come in terms of democratic rule.
Togo's culture reflects the influences of its thirty-seven ethnic groups, the largest and most influential of which are the Ewe, Mina, and Kabre. Togo has produced a number of internationally known popular entertainers including Bella Bellow and Jimi Hope. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic Mina can refer to Places Mina Gabon Mina Greece Mina Iloilo, in the Philippines Kabye is the name for both the Kaybe or Kabiyé language and peoples of the northern plains of Togo.
French is the official language of Togo. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The many indigenous African languages spoken by Togolese include: Gbe languages such as Ewe, Mina, and Aja; Kabiyé; and others. There are an estimated 2000 Languages spoken in Africa. About a hundred of these are widely used for inter-ethnic communication The Gbe languages (ɡ͡bè form a cluster of about twenty related Languages stretching across the area between eastern Ghana and western Nigeria. Ewe (native name Ɛ̀ʋɛ̀gbè ὲβὲg͡bè is a Niger-Congo language spoken in Ghana, Togo and Benin by approximately five Gen (also called Gɛ̃ or Gɛn gbe) is a Gbe language spoken in the southeast of Togo in the Maritime Region. Kabiyé (also Kabiye, Kabyé, Kabye) is a Grusi language spoken primarily in northern Togo, and also by smaller numbers of people
Despite the influences of Christianity and Islam, over half of the people of Togo follow native animistic practices and beliefs. Animism (from Latin anima ( Soul, Life) commonly refers to a religious belief that Souls or Spirits exist in Animals
Ewe statuary is characterized by its famous statuettes which illustrate the worship of the ibéji. A statue is a Sculpture in the round representing a person or persons an animal or an event normally full-length as opposed to a bust, and at least close to life-size Sculptures and hunting trophies were used rather than the more ubiquitous African masks. The wood-carvers of Kloto are famous for their "chains of marriage": two characters are connected by rings drawn from only one piece of wood. is a prefecture located in the Plateaux Region of Togo. The prefecture seat is located in Kpalimé.
The dyed fabric batiks of the artisanal center of Kloto represent stylized and coloured scenes of ancient everyday life. Batik ( pronunciation:, but often in English is or) is a wax-resist Dyeing technique used on Textile. is a prefecture located in the Plateaux Region of Togo. The prefecture seat is located in Kpalimé. The loincloths used in the ceremonies of the weavers of Assahoun are famous. Works of the painter Sokey Edorh are inspired by the immense arid extents, swept by the harmattan, and where the laterite keeps the prints of the men and the animals. The plastics technician Paul Ahyi is internationally recognized today. He practices the "zota", a kind of pyroengraving, and his monumental achievements decorate Lome. Lomé, estimated population 700000 (1998 is the Capital and largest city of Togo.
As in much of Africa, football is the most popular sporting pursuit. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Until 2006, Togo was very much a minor force in world football, but like fellow West African nations such as Senegal, Nigeria and Cameroon before them, the Togolese national team finally qualified for the World Cup. The Senegal national football team, nicknamed the Lions of Teranga, is the national team of Senegal and is controlled by the Fédération Sénégalaise de The Nigeria national football team, nicknamed the Super Eagles, is the national team of Nigeria and is controlled by the Nigeria Football Federation The Cameroon national football team, nicknamed Lions Indomptables (Indomitable Lions, is controlled by the Fédération Camerounaise de Football and is Africa's The national football team of Togo, nicknamed Les Eperviers (The Sparrow Hawks, is controlled by the Fédération Togolaise de Football. The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th instance of the FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament Until his dismissal from the team over a long-standing bonus dispute, Emmanuel Adebayor was largely considered the side's star player. Sheyi Emmanuel Adebayor (born 26 February 1984 in He currently plays for English Premiership club, Arsenal. The Premier League, colloquially referred to as the Premiership, is an English professional league for football clubs Togo was knocked out of the tournament in the group stage after losing to South Korea, Switzerland and France. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Photo of the team
Togo's 2006 World Cup appearance was marred by a dispute over financial bonuses, a situation that almost led to the team boycotting their match against Switzerland. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Eventually, Togo did fulfil all three fixtures, failing to qualify for the second round of the competition. Over the following months, the stalemate has continued to mar Togolese football, and eventually resulted in the dismissal of strike pair Emmanuel Adebayor and Kader Cougbadja, and defender Nibombe Dare in March 2007, ostensibly for "indecent remarks concerning the FTF management". Sheyi Emmanuel Adebayor (born 26 February 1984 in
After their outings as World Cup underdogs, Togo gained support throughout the world. For example, Togo has a 'Supporters Club' in Levenmouth in Scotland, whilst the Newry Togo Supporters Club has its own bar as a venue in Newry, Northern Ireland.
5. Yes Minister is a multi-award winning satirical British sitcom written by Antony Jay and Jonathan Lynn that was first transmitted The Cokossian Monarchy is a traditional monarchy in Togo that has existed since at least the 17th century Telephones - main lines in use 22000 (1995 Telephones - mobile cellular NA Telephone system fair system based on network of microwave radio relay Togo is a transit hub for Nigerian Heroin and Cocaine traffickers The national football team of Togo, nicknamed Les Eperviers (The Sparrow Hawks, is controlled by the Fédération Togolaise de Football. Railways total 525 km (1995 narrow gauge 525 km 1000-m gauge Standards Coupling - Centre buffer and two African Well Fund. African Well Fund is a Non-profit organization dedicated to raising funds for the construction and maintenance of freshwater wells throughout impoverished sections of Africa Water Stats and Facts. 2006.
6. Waters of Ayole. Dir. Nichols, Sandra. Prod. Nichols. Sandra. Sandra Nichols Productions. 1998.
7. Duveskog, Deborah. Forsman, Asa. Mburu, Charles. Farmer Innovations in Water Harvesting. Leisa Magazine. Jun 2003.
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