-

Ti

Zr
General
Name, symbol, numbertitanium, Ti, 22
Chemical seriestransition metals
Group, period, block44, d
Appearancesilvery grey-white metallic
Standard atomic weight47.867(1)g·mol−1
Electron configuration[Ar] 3d2 4s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 8, 4
Physical properties
Phasesolid
Density (near r.t.)4. Scandium (ˈskændiəm is a Chemical element that has the symbol Sc and Atomic number 21 Vanadium (vəˈneɪdiəm is a Chemical element that has the symbol V and Atomic number 23 Zirconium (zɚˈkoʊniəm /ˌzɝˈkoʊniəm/ is a Chemical element with the symbol Zr and Atomic number 40 This is a typical display of the periodic table of the elements and contains the symbol and Atomic number of each element Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This is a list of Chemical elements, sorted by name Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This is a list of chemical elements by symbol, including the A table of Chemical elements ordered by Atomic number and color coded according to type of element In Chemistry a group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the Periodic table of the Chemical elements There are 18 groups in In Chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings It commonly refers to any element in In Chemistry a group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the Periodic table of the Chemical elements There are 18 groups in In the Periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table A block of the Periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups The respective highest-energy electrons in each element in a block belong to the same Atomic Biological occurances The group 4 elements are not known to be involved in the biological chemistry of any living systems A period 4 element is one of the Chemical elements in the fourth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. The d-block of the periodic table of the elements consists of those Periodic table groups that contain elements in which in the atomic ground state the highest-energy The atomic mass (ma is the Mass of an atom most often expressed in unified atomic mass units The atomic mass may be considered to be the total mass To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various Mass levels between 10&minus36&thinsp kg and 1053&thinspkg Molar mass, symbol M, is the Mass of one mole of a substance ( Chemical element or Chemical compound) In Atomic physics and Quantum chemistry, electron configuration is the arrangement of Electrons in an Atom, Molecule, or other This article pertains to the chemical element For other uses see Argon (disambiguation. The electron is a fundamental Subatomic particle that was identified and assigned the negative charge in 1897 by J An electron shell may be crudely thought of as an Orbit followed by Electrons around an Atom nucleus. In the Physical sciences a phase is a Set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties A solid' object is in the States of matter characterized by resistance to Deformation and changes of Volume. The density of a material is defined as its Mass per unit Volume: \rho = \frac{m}{V} Different materials usually have different Room temperature (also referred to as ambient temperature) is a common term to denote a certain Temperature within enclosed space at which humans are accustomed 506 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p.4. Kilogram per cubic metre is the SI measure of Density and is represented as kg/m³ where kg stands for Kilogram and m³ stands for Cubic metre The density of a material is defined as its Mass per unit Volume: \rho = \frac{m}{V} Different materials usually have different The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to Liquid. 11 g·cm−3
Melting point1941 K
(1668 °C, 3034 °F)
Boiling point3560 K
(3287 °C, 5949 °F)
Heat of fusion14. The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to Liquid. The kelvin (symbol K) is a unit increment of Temperature and is one of the seven SI base units The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the Vapor pressure of the liquid equals the environmental pressure surrounding the liquid The kelvin (symbol K) is a unit increment of Temperature and is one of the seven SI base units The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 The standard Enthalpy of fusion (symbol \Delta{}H_{fus} also known as the heat of fusion or specific melting heat, is the amount of 15 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization425 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity(25 °C) 25. The joule per mole (symbol J·mol-1 is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol \Delta{}_{v}H also known as the heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the Energy required The joule per mole (symbol J·mol-1 is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material Specific heat capacity, also known simply as specific heat, is the measure of the heat energy required to increase the Temperature of a unit quantity 060 J·mol−1·K−1
 P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k at T/K 1982 2171 (2403) 2692 3064 3558
Atomic properties
Crystal structurehexagonal
Oxidation states4, 3, 2, 1 [2]
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity1. Vapor pressure (also known as equilibrium vapor pressure or saturation vapor pressure) is the Pressure of a Vapor in equilibrium In Mineralogy and Crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of Atoms in a Crystal. The oxidation number of a central atom in a coordination compound is the charge that it would have if all the Ligands were removed along with the Electron pairs " Electronegativity " is the opposite of " Electropositivity," which describes an element's ability to donate electrons 54 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 658. The ionization potential, ionization energy or EI of an Atom or Molecule is the Energy required to remove an Electron These tables list the Ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove one mole of Electrons from one mole of neutral gaseous Atoms (first energy respectively 8 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1309. The joule per mole (symbol J·mol-1 is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material 8 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2652. 5 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius (calc. Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined Physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances A picometre ( American spelling: picometer, symbol pm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one trillionth )176 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Electrical resistivity(20 °C) 0. The covalent radius, r cov is a measure of the size of Atom which forms part of a Covalent bond. In Physics, magnetism is one of the Phenomena by which Materials exert attractive or repulsive Forces on other Materials. Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism which occurs only in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field Electrical resistivity (also known as specific electrical resistance) is a measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow of Electric current. 420 µΩ·m
Thermal conductivity(300 K) 21. In Physics, thermal conductivity, k is the property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct Heat. 9 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion(25 °C) 8. When the Temperature of a substance changes the energy that is stored in the Intermolecular bonds between atoms changes 6 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod)(r.t.) 5090 m·s−1
Young's modulus116 GPa
Shear modulus44 GPa
Bulk modulus110 GPa
Poisson ratio0. Sound is a vibration that travels through an elastic medium as a Wave. Room temperature (also referred to as ambient temperature) is a common term to denote a certain Temperature within enclosed space at which humans are accustomed In Solid mechanics, Young's modulus (E is a measure of the Stiffness of an isotropic elastic material In Materials science, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of Shear Poisson's ratio ( ν) named after Simeon Poisson, is the ratio of the relative contraction strain, or transverse strain (normal to 32
Mohs hardness6. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various Minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material 0
Vickers hardness970 MPa
Brinell hardness716 MPa
CAS registry number7440-32-6
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of titanium
isoNAhalf-lifeDMDE (MeV)DP
44Tisyn63 yε-44Sc
46Ti8. 0%46Ti is stable with 24 neutrons
47Ti7. Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not Radioactive (to current knowledge This article is a discussion of neutrons in general For the specific case of a neutron found outside the nucleus see Free neutron. 3%47Ti is stable with 25 neutrons
48Ti73. Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not Radioactive (to current knowledge This article is a discussion of neutrons in general For the specific case of a neutron found outside the nucleus see Free neutron. 8%48Ti is stable with 26 neutrons
49Ti5. Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not Radioactive (to current knowledge This article is a discussion of neutrons in general For the specific case of a neutron found outside the nucleus see Free neutron. 5%49Ti is stable with 27 neutrons
50Ti5. Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not Radioactive (to current knowledge This article is a discussion of neutrons in general For the specific case of a neutron found outside the nucleus see Free neutron. 4%50Ti is stable with 28 neutrons
References
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The element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are widely distributed in the Earth's crust and lithosphere, and it is found in almost all living things, rocks, water bodies, and soils. Rutile is a Mineral composed primarily of Titanium dioxide, Ti[[oxygen O]]2 Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic titanium-iron oxide Mineral which is iron-black or steel-gray EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 [1] The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores via the Kroll process[2], or the Hunter process. The Kroll process is a Pyrometallurgical industrial process used to produce metallic Titanium. The Hunter process was the first industrial process to produce pure ductile metallic Titanium. Its most common compound, titanium dioxide, is used in the manufacture of white pigments. Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring Oxide of Titanium, chemical formula Ti[[oxygen [3] Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) (used in smoke screens/skywriting and as a catalyst) and titanium trichloride (used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene). Titanium tetrachloride or titanium(IV chloride is the Chemical compound with the formula TiCl4 For the Transformers character see Smokescreen (Transformers A smoke screen is a release of Smoke in order to mask the movement Skywriting is the process of using a small Aircraft, able to expel special Smoke during flight to fly in certain patterns to create Writing readable by Catalysis is the process in which the rate of a Chemical reaction is increased by means of a Chemical substance known as a catalyst Titanium(III chloride is the Chemical compound with the formula TiCl3 Polypropylene or polypropene ( PP) is a Thermoplastic Polymer, made by the Chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications [1]

The two most useful properties of the metal form are corrosion resistance, and the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any metal. [4] In its unalloyed condition, titanium is as strong as some steels, but 45% lighter. Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 [5] There are two allotropic forms[6] and five naturally occurring isotopes of this element; 46Ti through 50Ti with 48Ti being the most abundant (73. Allotropy (Gr allos, other and tropos, manner is a behavior exhibited by certain Chemical elements these elements can exist in two or more different Isotopes (Greek isos = "equal" tópos = "site place" are any of the different types of atoms ( Nuclides In Chemistry, natural abundance (NA refers to the abundance Isotopes of a Chemical element as naturally found on a planet 8%). [7] Titanium's properties are chemically and physically similar to zirconium. Zirconium (zɚˈkoʊniəm /ˌzɝˈkoʊniəm/ is a Chemical element with the symbol Zr and Atomic number 40

## History

Titanium was discovered combined in a mineral in Cornwall, England in 1791 by amateur geologist and pastor William Gregor, the then vicar of Creed parish. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition a highly ordered atomic structure and specific Cornwall ( Kernow ˈkɛɹnɔʊ is the most southwesterly county of England, on the Peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland William Gregor ( 25 December 1761 &ndash 11 June 1817) was the British Clergyman and Mineralogist who discovered Creed (Krida is a Village in the Civil parish of Grampound with Creed, Cornwall, United Kingdom. He recognized the presence of a new element in ilmenite[3] when he found black sand by a stream in the nearby parish of Manaccan and noticed the sand was attracted by a magnet. Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic titanium-iron oxide Mineral which is iron-black or steel-gray A parish is a Local church; it is an administrative unit typically found in episcopal or presbyterian churches Manaccan is a village and Civil parish in the Kerrier district of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. A magnet (from Greek grc μαγνήτης λίθος " Magnesian stone" is a material or object that produces a Magnetic field. Analysis of the sand determined the presence of two metal oxides; iron oxide (explaining the attraction to the magnet) and 45. Altogether there are sixteen known Iron Oxides and oxyhydroxides 25% of a white metallic oxide he could not identify. [5] Gregor, realizing that the unidentified oxide contained a metal that did not match the properties of any known element, reported his findings to the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall and in the German science journal Crell's Annalen. The Royal Geological Society of Cornwall is a geological society based in Cornwall in the United Kingdom. Crell's Annalen is a German Chemistry journal. Its original name is Chemische Annalen für die Freunde der Naturlehre Arzneygelahrtheit Haushaltungskunst und Manufacturen [8]

Martin Heinrich Klaproth named titanium for the Titans of Greek mythology. Martin Heinrich Klaproth ( 1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German Chemist. In Greek mythology, the Titans ( Greek: Tītā́n; plural Tītânes) were a race of powerful Deities that ruled during the legendary Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance

Around the same time, Franz Joseph Muller also produced a similar substance, but could not identify it. Franz-Joseph Müller Freiherr von Reichenstein or Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein (Müller F [3] The oxide was independently rediscovered in 1795 by German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth in rutile from Hungary. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Martin Heinrich Klaproth ( 1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German Chemist. Rutile is a Mineral composed primarily of Titanium dioxide, Ti[[oxygen O]]2 Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic [9] Klaproth found that it contained a new element and named it for the Titans of Greek mythology. In Greek mythology, the Titans ( Greek: Tītā́n; plural Tītânes) were a race of powerful Deities that ruled during the legendary Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance [8] After hearing about Gregor's earlier discovery, he obtained a sample of manaccanite and confirmed it contained titanium.

The processes required to extract titanium from its various ores are laborious and costly; it is not possible to reduce in the normal manner, by heating in the presence of carbon, because that produces titanium carbide. Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Titanium carbide, Ti[[Carbon C]] is an extremely hard ( Mohs 9-9 [8] Pure metallic titanium (99. 9%) was first prepared in 1910 by Matthew A. Hunter by heating TiCl4 with sodium in a steel bomb at 700–800 °C in the Hunter process. Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and Sodium (ˈsoʊdiəm is an element which has the symbol Na( Latin natrium, from Arabic natrun) atomic number 11 atomic mass 22 The Hunter process was the first industrial process to produce pure ductile metallic Titanium. [2] Titanium metal was not used outside the laboratory until 1946 when William Justin Kroll proved that it could be commercially produced by reducing titanium tetrachloride with magnesium in what came to be known as the Kroll process. See also German classic philologist Wilhelm Kroll (philologist (1869-1939 Kroll: William Justin Kroll (born Guillaume Justin Titanium tetrachloride or titanium(IV chloride is the Chemical compound with the formula TiCl4 Magnesium (mægˈniːziəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Mg, Atomic number 12 Atomic weight 24 The Kroll process is a Pyrometallurgical industrial process used to produce metallic Titanium. Although research continues into more efficient and cheaper processes (e. g. , FFC Cambridge), the Kroll process is still used for commercial production. The FFC Cambridge Process is an Electrochemical method in which solid metal compounds particularly Oxides are cathodically reduced to the respective metals [3][2]

A titanium crystal bar made by the iodide process

Titanium of very high purity was made in small quantities when Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered the iodide, or crystal bar, process in 1925, by reacting with iodine and decomposing the formed vapors over a hot filament to pure metal. The crystal bar process (or iodide process) was discovered by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925 Anton Eduard van Arkel, ( 's-Gravenzande Netherlands, November 19, 1893 &ndash Leiden, March 14 1976) was a The crystal bar process (or iodide process) was discovered by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925 [10]

In the 1950s and 1960s the Soviet Union pioneered the use of titanium in military and submarine applications (Alfa Class and Mike Class)[11] as part of programs related to the Cold War. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Preproduction The initial design work began in 1957 and was highly innovative necessarily so to meet the demanding requirements - sufficient speed to successfully pursue any ship Hanzo missed identifierss-n-15starfish]]missiles*6x533mm(21- Inch)torpedotubesfor 53-65 / 53-65k |shiparmour --> [12] Starting in the early 1950s, Titanium began to be used extensively for military aviation purposes, particularly in high-performance jets, starting with aircraft such as the F100 Super Sabre and Lockheed A-12. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout

In the USA, the Department of Defense realized the strategic importance of the metal[13] and supported early efforts of commercialization. The United States Department of Defense ( DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government [14] Throughout the period of the Cold War, titanium was considered a Strategic Material by the U. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the S. government, and a large stockpile of titanium sponge was maintained by the Defense National Stockpile Center, which was finally depleted in 2005. [15] Today, the world's largest producer, Russian-based VSMPO-Avisma, is estimated to account for about 29% of the world market share. VSMPO-AVISMA Corporation () (ВСМПО-АВИСМА where VSMPO stands for V erkhnesaldinskoye m etallurgicheskoye p roizvodstvennoye [16]

In 2006, the U. S. Defense Agency awarded $5. 7 million to a two-company consortium to develop a new process for making titanium metal powder. Powder metallurgy is a forming and fabrication technique consisting of three major processing stages Under heat and pressure, the powder can be used to create strong, lightweight items ranging from armor plating to components for the aerospace, transportation, and chemical processing industries. [17] ## Characteristics ### Physical A metallic element, titanium is recognized for its high strength-to-weight ratio. The M acro E xpansion T emplate A ttribute L anguage complements TAL, providing macros which allow the reuse of code across A chemical element is a type of Atom that is distinguished by its Atomic number; that is by the number of Protons in its nucleus. [6] It is a light, strong metal with low density that, when pure, is quite ductile (especially in an oxygen-free environment),[18] lustrous, and metallic-white in color. The density of a material is defined as its Mass per unit Volume: \rho = \frac{m}{V} Different materials usually have different Ductility is a mechanical property used to describe the extent to which materials can be deformed plastically or "stretched" into "wires" without Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the The relatively high melting point (over 1,649 °C or 3,000 °F) makes it useful as a refractory metal. The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to Liquid. Refractory metals are a class of Metals that are extraordinarily resistant to Heat and Wear. Commercial (99. 2% pure) grades of titanium have ultimate tensile strength of about 63,000 psi (434 MPa), equal to that of some steel alloys, but are 45% lighter. Tensile strength \sigma_{UTS} or S_U is the Stress at which a material breaks or permanently deforms The pound per square inch or more accurately pound-force per square inch (symbol psi or lbf/in² or lbf/in²) is a unit of [5] Titanium is 60% heavier than aluminium, but more than twice as strong[5] as the most commonly used 6061-T6 aluminium alloy. WikipediaNaming Certain titanium alloys (e. g. , Beta C) achieve tensile strengths of over 200,000 psi (1380 MPa). [19] However, titanium loses strength when heated above 430 °C (800 °F). [5] It is fairly hard (although not as hard as some grades of heat-treated steel), non-magnetic and a poor conductor of heat. Machining requires precautions, as the material will soften and gall if sharp tools and proper cooling methods are not used. Like those made from steel, titanium structures have a fatigue limit which guarantees longevity in some applications. Fatigue limit, endurance limit, and fatigue strength are all expressions used to describe a property of materials the amplitude (or range of Cyclic stress [20] The metal is a dimorphic allotrope with the hexagonal alpha form changing into the body-centered cubic (lattice) beta form at 882 °C (1,619 °F). Allotropy (Gr allos, other and tropos, manner is a behavior exhibited by certain Chemical elements these elements can exist in two or more different [5] The specific heat of the alpha form increases dramatically as it is heated to this transition temperature but then falls and remains fairly constant for the beta form regardless of temperature. Specific heat capacity, also known simply as specific heat, is the measure of the heat energy required to increase the Temperature of a unit quantity [5] Similar to zirconium and hafnium, an additional omega phase exists, which is thermodynamically stable at high pressures, but which may exist metastably at ambient pressures. Zirconium (zɚˈkoʊniəm /ˌzɝˈkoʊniəm/ is a Chemical element with the symbol Zr and Atomic number 40 Hafnium (ˈhæfniəm is a Chemical element that has the symbol Hf and Atomic number 72 This phase is usually hexagonal (ideal) or trigonal (distorted) and can be viewed as being due to a soft longitudinal acoustic phonon of the beta phase causing collapse of (111) planes of atoms. Regular hexagon The internal Angles of a regular hexagon (one where all sides and all angles are equal are all 120 ° and the hexagon has 720 degrees In Crystallography, the rhombohedral (or trigonal) Crystal system is one of the seven lattice point groups named after the two-dimensional In Physics, a phonon is a quantized mode of vibration occurring in a rigid crystal lattice, such as the Atomic lattice of a Solid [21] ### Chemical The most noted chemical property of titanium is its excellent resistance to corrosion; it is almost as resistant as platinum, capable of withstanding attack by acids, moist chlorine gas, and by common salt solutions. Corrosion means the breaking down of essential properties in a material due to Chemical reactions with its surroundings Platinum (ˈplætɪnəm is a Chemical element with the Atomic symbol Pt and an Atomic number of 78 In Computer science, ACID ( Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that Database transactions are Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants [6] Pure titanium is not soluble in water but is soluble in concentrated acids. Solubility is the characteristic Physical property referring to the ability of a given substance the Solute, to dissolve in a Solvent. [22] While the following pourbaix diagram shows that titanium is thermodynamically a very reactive metal, it is slow to react with water and air. In Chemistry, a Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, maps out possible stable ( equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system The Pourbaix diagram for titanium in pure water, perchloric acid or sodium hydroxide[23] This metal forms a passive and protective oxide coating (leading to increased corrosion-resistance) when exposed to elevated temperatures in air, but at room temperatures it resists tarnishing. In Chemistry, a Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, maps out possible stable ( equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system Passivation is the process of making a material "passive" in relation to another material prior to using the materials together An oxide is a Chemical compound containing at least one Oxygen atom as well as at least one other element Tarnish is a layer of Corrosion that develops over Copper, Brass, Silver, Aluminum as well as a degree of semi-reactive metals as [18] When it first forms, this protective layer is only 1–2 nm thick but continues to slowly grow; reaching a thickness of 25 nm in four years. A nanometre ( American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) ( Greek: νάνος nanos dwarf; μετρώ metrό count) is a [8] Titanium burns when heated in air 610 °C (1,130 °F) or higher, forming titanium dioxide. [6] It is also one of the few elements that burns in pure nitrogen gas (it burns at 800 °C or 1,472 °F and forms titanium nitride, which causes embrittlement). Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Titanium nitride ( (sometimes known as Tinite or TiNite is an extremely hard Ceramic material often used as a coating on Titanium alloy, Steel, [24] Titanium is resistant to dilute sulfuric and hydrochloric acid, along with chlorine gas, chloride solutions, and most organic acids. Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. Hydrochloric acid is the Solution of Hydrogen chloride ( H[[Chlorine Cl]] in water Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and The chloride Ion is formed when the element Chlorine picks up one Electron to form an Anion (negatively-charged ion Cl&minus An organic acid is an Organic compound with Acidic properties [2] It is paramagnetic (weakly attracted to magnets) and has fairly low electrical and thermal conductivity. Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism which occurs only in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field A magnet (from Greek grc μαγνήτης λίθος " Magnesian stone" is a material or object that produces a Magnetic field. Electrical conductivity or specific conductivity is a measure of a material's ability to conduct an Electric current. In Physics, thermal conductivity, k is the property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct Heat. [18] Experiments have shown that natural titanium becomes radioactive after it is bombarded with deuterons, emitting mainly positrons and hard gamma rays. Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable Atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles and Radiation. Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a Stable isotope of Hydrogen with a Natural abundance in the Oceans of Earth The positrons or antielectron is the Antiparticle or the Antimatter counterpart of the Electron. Gamma rays (denoted as &gamma) are a form of Electromagnetic radiation or light emission of frequencies produced by sub-atomic particle interactions [2] When it is red hot the metal combines with oxygen, and when it reaches 550 °C (1,022 °F) it combines with chlorine. Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and [2] It also reacts with the other halogens and absorbs hydrogen. Abundance Owing to their high Reactivity, the halogens are found in the environment only in compounds or as Ions Halide ions and oxoanions Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 [3] ## Occurrence ProducerThousands of tons % of total Australia1291. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. 030. 6 South Africa850. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa 020. 1 Canada767. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page 018. 2 Norway382. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional 99. 1 Ukraine357. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. 08. 5 Other countries573. 113. 6 Total world4221. 0100. 1 Source: 2003 production of titanium dioxide. [25] Due to rounding, values do not sum to 100%. Titanium is always bonded to other elements in nature. It is the ninth-most abundant element in the Earth's crust (0. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 63% by mass)[5] and the seventh-most abundant metal. Mass is a fundamental concept in Physics, roughly corresponding to the Intuitive idea of how much Matter there is in an object It is present in most igneous rocks and in sediments derived from them (as well as in living things and natural bodies of water). Igneous rocks (etymology from Latin ignis, fire are rocks formed by solidification of cooled Magma (molten rock Sedimentary rock is one of the three main rock types (the others being igneous and Metamorphic rock) [18][2] In fact, of the 801 types of igneous rocks analyzed by the United States Geological Survey, 784 contained titanium. The United States Geological Survey ( USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. [5] Its proportion in soils is approximately 0. 5 to 1. 5%. [5] It is widely distributed and occurs primarily in the minerals anatase, brookite, ilmenite, perovskite, rutile, titanite (sphene), as well in many iron ores. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition a highly ordered atomic structure and specific Anatase is one of the three Mineral forms of Titanium dioxide, the other two being Brookite and Rutile. Brookite is a Mineral consisting of Titanium Oxide, TiO2 and hence identical with Rutile and Anatase in composition but Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic titanium-iron oxide Mineral which is iron-black or steel-gray A perovskite is any material with the same type of Crystal structure as Calcium titanium oxide (CaTiO3 known as the perovskite structure Rutile is a Mineral composed primarily of Titanium dioxide, Ti[[oxygen O]]2 Titanite or sphene is a Calcium Titanium nesosilicate Mineral, Ca[[titanium Ti]] Si[[oxygen O]]5 Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Of these minerals, only rutile and ilmenite have any economic importance, yet even they are difficult to find in high concentrations. [3] Significant titanium-bearing ilmenite deposits exist in western Australia, Canada, China, New Zealand, Norway, and Ukraine. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Large quantities of rutile are also mined in North America and South Africa and help contribute to the annual production of 90,000 tonnes of the metal and 4. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa This article is about the tonne or metric ton For other tons see Ton. 3 million tonnes of titanium dioxide. Total known reserves of titanium are estimated to exceed 600 million tonnes. [8] Titanium is contained in meteorites and has been detected in the sun and in M-type stars;[2] the coolest type of star with a surface temperature of 3,200 °C (5,792 °F). A meteorite is a natural object originating in Outer space that survives an impact with the Earth 's surface The Sun (Sol is the Star at the center of the Solar System. In Astronomy, stellar classification is a classification of Stars based initially on photospheric temperature and its associated Spectral characteristics A star is a massive luminous ball of plasma. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the Energy on Earth [8] Rocks brought back from the moon during the Apollo 17 mission are composed of 12. In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere 1% TiO2. [2] It is also found in coal ash, plants, and even the human body. Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus ## Production and fabrication Titanium (Mineral Concentrate) The processing of titanium metal occurs in 4 major steps:[26] reduction of titanium ore into "sponge", a porous form; melting of sponge, or sponge plus a master alloy to form an ingot; primary fabrication, where an ingot is converted into general mill products such as billet, bar, plate, sheet, strip, and tube; and secondary fabrication of finished shapes from mill products. Because the metal reacts with oxygen at high temperatures it cannot be produced by reduction of its dioxide. Redox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction describes all Chemical reactions in which atoms have their Oxidation number ( Oxidation state Titanium metal is therefore produced commercially by the Kroll process, a complex and expensive batch process. The Kroll process is a Pyrometallurgical industrial process used to produce metallic Titanium. The primary characteristic of batch production is that all components are completed at a workstation before they move to the next one (The relatively high market value of titanium is mainly due to its processing, which sacrifices another expensive metal, magnesium. [5]) In the Kroll process, the oxide is first converted to chloride through carbochlorination, whereby chlorine gas is passed over red-hot rutile or ilmenite in the presence of carbon to make TiCl4. Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and Rutile is a Mineral composed primarily of Titanium dioxide, Ti[[oxygen O]]2 Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic titanium-iron oxide Mineral which is iron-black or steel-gray Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Titanium tetrachloride or titanium(IV chloride is the Chemical compound with the formula TiCl4 This is condensed and purified by fractional distillation and then reduced with 800 °C molten magnesium in an argon atmosphere. Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts or fractions such as in separating Chemical compounds by their Boiling point by heating Redox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction describes all Chemical reactions in which atoms have their Oxidation number ( Oxidation state Magnesium (mægˈniːziəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Mg, Atomic number 12 Atomic weight 24 This article pertains to the chemical element For other uses see Argon (disambiguation. [6] A more recently developed method, the FFC Cambridge process,[27] may eventually replace the Kroll process. The FFC Cambridge Process is an Electrochemical method in which solid metal compounds particularly Oxides are cathodically reduced to the respective metals This method uses titanium dioxide powder (which is a refined form of rutile) as feedstock to make the end product which is either a powder or sponge. Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring Oxide of Titanium, chemical formula Ti[[oxygen Rutile is a Mineral composed primarily of Titanium dioxide, Ti[[oxygen O]]2 If mixed oxide powders are used, the product is an alloy manufactured at a much lower cost than the conventional multi-step melting process. The FFC Cambridge process may render titanium a less rare and expensive material for the aerospace industry and the luxury goods market, and could be seen in many products currently manufactured using aluminium and specialist grades of steel. This article is about the field of research and industry for the corporation see The Aerospace Corporation Aerospace comprises the WikipediaNaming Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Common titanium alloys are made by reduction. An alloy is a Solid solution or Homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a Metal, which itself has For example, cuprotitanium (rutile with copper added is reduced), ferrocarbon titanium (ilmenite reduced with coke in an electric furnace), and manganotitanium (rutile with manganese or manganese oxides) are reduced. Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic titanium-iron oxide Mineral which is iron-black or steel-gray Coke is a solid Carbonaceous material derived from Destructive distillation of low-ash low-sulfur Bituminous coal. Rutile is a Mineral composed primarily of Titanium dioxide, Ti[[oxygen O]]2 [24] 2TiFeO3 + 7Cl2 + 6C (900 °C) → 2TiCl4 + 2FeCl3 + 6CO TiCl4 + 2Mg (1100 °C) → 2MgCl2 + Ti About 50 grades of titanium and titanium alloys are designated and currently used, although only a couple of dozen are readily available commercially. Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic titanium-iron oxide Mineral which is iron-black or steel-gray Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Titanium tetrachloride or titanium(IV chloride is the Chemical compound with the formula TiCl4 Iron chloride redirects here For Iron(II chloride see Iron(II chloride. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas. Titanium tetrachloride or titanium(IV chloride is the Chemical compound with the formula TiCl4 Magnesium (mægˈniːziəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Mg, Atomic number 12 Atomic weight 24 Magnesium chloride is the name for the Chemical compounds with the formulas MgCl2 and its various hydrates MgCl2(H2Ox [28] The ASTM International recognizes 31 Grades of titanium metal and alloys, of which Grades 1 through 4 are commercially pure (unalloyed). ASTM International ( ASTM) originally known as the American Society for Testing and Materials is an international Standards organization that develops and publishes These four are distinguished by their varying degrees of tensile strength, as a function of oxygen content, with Grade 1 being the most ductile (lowest tensile strength with an oxygen content of 0. Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the 18%), and Grade 4 the least (highest tensile strength with an oxygen content of 0. 40%). [20] The remaining grades are alloys, each designed for specific purposes, be it ductility, strength, hardness, electrical resistivity, creep resistance, resistance to corrosion from specific media, or a combination thereof. Creep is the tendency of a solid material to slowly move or deform permanently under the influence of stresses It occurs as a result of long term exposure to levels of [29] The grades covered by ASTM and other alloys are also produced to meet Aerospace and Military specifications (SAE-AMS, MIL-T), ISO standards, and country-specific specifications, as well as proprietary end-user specifications for aerospace, military, medical, and industrial applications. [30] In terms of fabrication, all welding of titanium must be done in an inert atmosphere of argon or helium in order to shield it from contamination with atmospheric gases such as oxygen, nitrogen, or hydrogen. Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials usually Metals or Thermoplastics by causing coalescence. This article pertains to the chemical element For other uses see Argon (disambiguation. Helium ( He) is a colorless odorless tasteless non-toxic Inert Monatomic Chemical Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 [5] Contamination will cause a variety of conditions, such as embrittlement, which will reduce the integrity of the assembly welds and lead to joint failure. Commercially pure flat product (sheet, plate) can be formed readily, but processing must take into account the fact that the metal has a "memory" and tends to spring back. This is especially true of certain high-strength alloys. [31][32] The metal can be machined using the same equipment and via the same processes as stainless steel. In Metallurgy, stainless steel is defined as a Steel Alloy with a minimum of 11 [5] ## Applications Titanium is used in steel as an alloying element (ferro-titanium) to reduce grain size and as a deoxidizer, and in stainless steel to reduce carbon content. Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Ferrotitanium is a Ferroalloy, an alloy of Iron and Titanium with between 10-20 A crystallite is a domain of solid-state matter that has the same structure as a single Crystal. In Metallurgy, stainless steel is defined as a Steel Alloy with a minimum of 11 Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 [18] Titanium is often alloyed with aluminium (to refine grain size), vanadium, copper (to harden), iron, manganese, molybdenum, and with other metals. WikipediaNaming Vanadium (vəˈneɪdiəm is a Chemical element that has the symbol V and Atomic number 23 Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Manganese (ˈmæŋgəniːz is a Chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. Molybdenum (məˈlɪbdənəm from the Greek word for the metal " Lead " is a Group 6 Chemical element with the symbol Mo [33] Applications for titanium mill products (sheet, plate, bar, wire, forgings, castings) can be found in industrial, aerospace, recreational, and emerging markets. Powdered titanium is used in pyrotechnics as a source of bright-burning particles. The term "pyrotechnics" can also be used for Fireworks events ### Pigments, Additives and Coatings Titanium dioxide is the most commonly used compound of titanium About 95% of titanium ore extracted from the Earth is destined for refinement into titanium dioxide (TiO2), an intensely white permanent pigment used in paints, paper, toothpaste, and plastics. Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring Oxide of Titanium, chemical formula Ti[[oxygen Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the For the drug referred to as "pigment" see Black tar heroin. Paint is any Liquid, liquifiable or mastic composition which after application to a substrate in a thin layer is converted to an opaque Solid Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging Toothpaste is a Paste or Gel Dentifrice used to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of Teeth. Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products [34] It is also used in cement, in gemstones, as an optical opacifier in paper,[35] and a strengthening agent in graphite composite fishing rods and golf clubs. In the most general sense of the word a cement is a binder a substance which sets and hardens independently and can bind other materials together A gemstone or gem, also called a precious or semi-precious stone, is a piece of attractive Mineral, which &mdash when cut and polished &mdash Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging TiO2 powder is chemically inert, resists fading in sunlight, and is very opaque: this allows it to impart a pure and brilliant white color to the brown or gray chemicals that form the majority of household plastics. [3] In nature, this compound is found in the minerals anatase, brookite, and rutile. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition a highly ordered atomic structure and specific Anatase is one of the three Mineral forms of Titanium dioxide, the other two being Brookite and Rutile. Brookite is a Mineral consisting of Titanium Oxide, TiO2 and hence identical with Rutile and Anatase in composition but Rutile is a Mineral composed primarily of Titanium dioxide, Ti[[oxygen O]]2 [18] Paint made with titanium dioxide does well in severe temperatures, is somewhat self-cleaning, and stands up to marine environments. [3] Pure titanium dioxide has a very high index of refraction and an optical dispersion higher than diamond. The refractive index (or index of Refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves is reduced inside the medium In Optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the Phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency In Mineralogy, diamond is the allotrope of carbon where the carbon atoms are arranged in [2] Recently, it has been put to use in air purifiers (as a filter coating), or in film used to coat windows on buildings which when exposed to UV light (either solar or man-made) and moisture in the air produces reactive redox species like hydroxyl radicals that can purify the air or keep window surfaces clean. Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays [36] ### Aerospace and marine The four engines alone on the Airbus A380 use about 26 metric tons (57,000 pounds) of titanium Due to their high tensile strength to density ratio,[6] high corrosion resistance[2], and ability to withstand moderately high temperatures without creeping, titanium alloys are used in aircraft, armor plating, naval ships, spacecraft, and missiles. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Tensile strength \sigma_{UTS} or S_U is the Stress at which a material breaks or permanently deforms Creep is the tendency of a solid material to slowly move or deform permanently under the influence of stresses It occurs as a result of long term exposure to levels of An alloy is a Solid solution or Homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a Metal, which itself has For body armour see Armour, for armoured forces see Armoured warfare, for other uses see Armour (disambiguation. A spacecraft is a Vehicle or machine designed for Spaceflight. A missile (see also pronunciation differences) is a self-propelled explosive Projectile used as a weapon towards a target [3][2] For these applications titanium alloyed with aluminium, vanadium, and other elements is used for a variety of components including critical structural parts, fire walls, landing gear, exhaust ducts (helicopters), and hydraulic systems. In Aviation, the undercarriage or landing gear is the structure (usually wheels that supports an Aircraft on the ground and allows it to taxi In fact, about two thirds of all titanium metal produced is used in aircraft engines and frames. [20] The SR-71 "Blackbird" was one of the first aircraft to make extensive use of titanium within its structure, paving the way for its use in modern fighter and commercial aircraft. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout An estimated 59 metric tons (130,000 pounds) are used in the Boeing 777, 45 in the 747, 18 in the 737, 32 in the Airbus A340, 18 in the A330, and 12 in the A320. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The A380 may use 146 metric tons, including about 26 tons in the engines. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout [37] In engine applications, titanium is used for rotors, compressor blades, hydraulic system components, and nacelles. The word nacelle is derived from the Old French nacele, which means a small Boat or Dinghy, which was in turn derived from the The titanium 6AL-4V alloy accounts for almost 50% of all alloys used in aircraft applications. Titanium 6AL-4V is one of the most common and available grades of Titanium. [38] Due to its high corrosion resistance to sea water, titanium is used to make propeller shafts and rigging and in the heat exchangers of desalination plants;[2] in heater-chillers for salt water aquariums, fishing line and leader, and for divers' knives. Seawater is Water from a Sea or Ocean. On average seawater in the world's oceans has a Salinity of about 3 A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient Heat transfer from one medium to another whether the media are separated by a solid wall so that they never mix or the media Desalination, desalinization, or desalinisation refers to any of several processes that remove excess salt and other Minerals from Water An aquarium (plural aquariums or aquaria) is a Vivarium consisting of at least one transparent side in which Water -dwelling Plants Titanium is used to manufacture the housings and other components of ocean-deployed surveillance and monitoring devices for scientific and military use. The former Soviet Union developed techniques for making submarines largely out of titanium, which became both the fastest and deepest diving submarines ever made. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 [39] Titanium commercial aerospace requirements (including engine components [e. g. , blades, discs, rings and engine cases] and airframe components [e. g. , bulkheads, tail sections, landing gear, wing supports and fasteners]) for the manufacture of: Boeing (including both the airframes and engines) • B787 – 295,000 pounds (133. 8 tonne) of titanium • B777 – 130,000 pounds (59 tonne) of titanium • B747 – 100,000 pounds (45. 4 tonne) of titanium • B737 – 40,000 pounds (18. 1 tonne) of titanium Airbus (including both the airframes and engines) • A380 – 320,000 pounds (145. 1 tonne) of titanium • A350 – 165,000 pounds (74. 8 tonne) of titanium (estimated minimal requirement) • A340 – 70,000 pounds (31. 8 tonne) of titanium • A330 – 40,000 pounds (18. 1 tonne) of titanium • A320 – 26,000 pounds (11. 8 tonne) of titanium Source: TIMET 2007 Form 10-K (converted from metric tons to pounds) ### Industrial Welded titanium pipe and process equipment (heat exchangers, tanks, process vessels, valves) are used in the chemical and petrochemical industries primarily for corrosion resistance. Specific alloys are used in downhole and nickel hydrometallurgy applications due to their high strength (titanium Beta C), corrosion resistance, or combination of both. Nickel (ˈnɪkəl is a metallic Chemical element with the symbol Ni and Atomic number 28 Hydrometallurgy is part of the field of Extractive metallurgy involving the use of Aqueous chemistry for the recovery of metals from ores concentrates and recycled The pulp and paper industry uses titanium in process equipment exposed to corrosive media such as sodium hypochlorite or wet chlorine gas (in the bleachery). The global pulp and paper industry is dominated by North American ( United States, Canada) Northern European ( Finland, Sweden [40] Other applications include: ultrasonic welding, wave soldering,[41] and sputtering targets. Ultrasonic welding is an industrial technique whereby high-frequency Ultrasonic acoustic Vibrations are locally applied to workpieces Wave soldering is a large-scale Soldering process by which Electronic components are soldered to a Printed circuit board (PCB to form an electronic assembly [42] ### Consumer and architectural The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is sheathed in titanium panels. The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a modern and contemporary art Museum designed by Canadian-American architect Frank Gehry, built by Ferrovial and located A Titanium Bracelet Watch with titanium cover Titanium metal is used in automotive applications, particularly in automobile or motorcycle racing, where weight reduction is critical while maintaining high strength and rigidity. bracelet is an article of Jewelry which is worn around the Wrist. The metal is generally too expensive to make it marketable to the general consumer market, other than high-end products. Late model Corvettes have been available with titanium exhausts,[43] and racing bikes are frequently outfitted with titanium mufflers. The Chevrolet Corvette is a Sports car that has been manufactured by General Motors since 1953 Titanium alloy is used for the connecting rods in the engine of the 2006 and later Corvette Z06. Other automotive uses include piston rods and hardware (bolts, nuts, etc. ). The Parker Pen Company used titanium to form the T-1 fountain pen, later expanded to T-1 ball pens and rollerballs. The Parker Pen Company is a manufacturer of pens founded in 1891 by George Safford Parker in Janesville Wisconsin, United The T-1 fountain pen was introduced in 1970 and the T-1 rollerball and ball pen in 1971. Production was stopped in 1972 due to the high cost of manufacturing titanium. Parker T-1's are prized for their collectibility by collectors. Hammer heads made of titanium were introduced in 1999. A hammer is a tool meant to deliver an impact to an object The most common uses are for driving nails fitting parts and breaking up objects Their light weight allows for a longer handle which increases the velocity of the head and results in more energy being delivered to the nail, all while decreasing arm fatigue. Titanium also decreases the shock transferred to the user because a titanium head generates about 3% recoil compared to a steel head that generates about 27%. Titanium is used in many sporting goods: tennis rackets, golf clubs, lacrosse stick shafts; cricket, hockey, lacrosse, and football helmet grills; and bicycle frames and components. A racquet (or racket) is a sports implement consisting of a handled frame with an open hoop across which a network of cord is stretched tightly Golf clubs are used in the sport of Golf to hit a Golf ball. Each club is composed of a shaft with a lance(grip and a clubhead Lacrosse is a full contact Team sport played using a solid rubber ball and long handled racket called a crosse or Lacrosse stick. Cricket is a bat-and-ball team Sport that originated in England and is now played in more than 100 countries The bicycle, cycle, or bike is a pedal-driven, human-powered vehicle with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind Titanium alloys are also used in spectacle frames. Glasses, also called eyeglasses or spectacles, are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the Eyes normally for vision correction, This results in a rather expensive, but highly durable and long lasting frame which is light in weight and causes no skin allergies. Many backpackers use titanium equipment, including cookware, eating utensils, lanterns, and tent stakes. Backpacking (in US tramping, trekking, or bushwalking in other countries combines Hiking and camping in a single Though slightly more expensive than traditional steel or aluminium alternatives, these titanium products can be significantly lighter without compromising strength. Titanium is also favored for use by farriers, since it is lighter and more durable than steel when formed into horseshoes. A farrier is a specialist in Equine hoof care including the trimming and balancing of a horse's hoof and the placing of shoes to the horse's Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Horseshoes is an outdoor Game played between two people (or two teams of two people using four horseshoes and two stakes Titanium horseshoes can be found in horse racing, and are used by many Amish horse owners, who rely entirely on horse-drawn carriages for transportation. This article is about the sport For other uses see Horserace (drinking game or Horse race (politics. The Amish (ˈɑːmɪʃ are members of an Anabaptist Christian denomination best known for Simple living, Plain dress and resisting modern conveniences Titanium has even become somewhat popular for use in jewelry, such as rings and body piercings. Because of its durability, titanium has become more popular for designer jewelry in recent years, whereas until recently the metal was too difficult to work into the intricate shapes with the precision necessary for fine jewelry. Jewellery (also spelled jewelry, see spelling differences) is a personal Ornament, such as a necklace ring or bracelet made from Gemstones Today, titanium rings — including engagement rings and wedding bands — are one of the fastest growing segments of the titanium jewelry market, in part due to the ability of the metal to be grooved, inlaid, and carved without losing strength. In Western tradition an engagement ring is a ring worn by a woman indicating her Engagement to be married. A wedding ring or wedding band consists of a Metal ring, often set with diamonds or other precious stones Some titanium jewelry also incorporates diamonds or other gemstones, typically in close settings such as bezels, flush, or tension designs. In Mineralogy, diamond is the allotrope of carbon where the carbon atoms are arranged in Its inertness again makes it a good choice for those with allergies or those who will be wearing the jewelry in environments such as swimming pools. Titanium is used in watchmaking for the production of watch cases. A watch is a timepiece that is made to be worn on a person The term now usually refers to a wristwatch, which is worn on the wrist with a strap or Bracelet. Watchmakers appreciate titanium for its durability, light weight, dent- and corrosion- resistance. Titanium watches are often coated with a protective material to make the surface more scratch-resistant. [44] Titanium has occasionally been used in architectural applications: the 120 foot (40 m) memorial to Yuri Gagarin, the first man to travel in space, in Moscow, is made of titanium for the metal's attractive color and association with rocketry. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of [45] The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao and the Cerritos Millennium Library were the first buildings in Europe and North America, respectively, to be sheathed in titanium panels. The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a modern and contemporary art Museum designed by Canadian-American architect Frank Gehry, built by Ferrovial and located The Cerritos Millennium Library, the New Cerritos Library, or the Cerritos Public Library is the civic Library for the City Other construction uses of titanium sheathing include the Frederic C. Hamilton Building in (Denver, Colorado)[46] and the 350 foot (107 m) Monument to the Conquerors of Space in Moscow. The City and County of Denver (pronounced /ˈdɛnvɚ/ is the Capital and the most populous city of Colorado, in the United States The State of Colorado ( or chiefly by nonresidents) is a state located in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States of America. The Monument "To the Conquerors of Space" (Монумент «Покорителям космоса» was erected in Moscow in 1964 to celebrate achievements Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of Due to its superior strength and light weight when compared to other metals traditionally used in firearms (steel, stainless steel, and aluminium), and advances in metal-working techniques, the use of titanium has become more widespread in the manufacture of firearms. Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 In Metallurgy, stainless steel is defined as a Steel Alloy with a minimum of 11 WikipediaNaming Primary uses include pistol frames and revolver cylinders. rEVOLVEr is the fourth studio album by Swedish metal band The Haunted. ### Medical A titanium hip prosthesis, with a ceramic head and polyethylene acetabular cup. The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός ( keramikos) Polyethylene or polythene ( IUPAC name poly(ethene) is a Thermoplastic commodity heavily used in consumer products (notably the This left lateral cephalametric radiograph shows a profile of the human skull. For medical radiography see Radiology Radiography is the use of X-rays to view unseen or hard-to-image objects A fracture of the eye socket was repaired by stabilizing the fractured bones with small titanium plates and screws. In Anatomy, the orbital bone is the cavity or socket of the Skull in which the Eye and its appendages are situated Because it is biocompatible (non-toxic and is not rejected by the body), titanium is used in a gamut of medical applications including surgical implements and implants, such as hip balls and sockets (joint replacement) that can stay in place for up to 20 years. Joint replacement is one of the most common and successful operations in modern Orthopaedic surgery. Titanium has the inherent property to osseointegrate, enabling use in dental implants that can remain in place for over 30 years. Osseointegration is the direct structural and functional connection between living Bone and the surface of a load-bearing artificial implant, typically made of A dental implant is an Artificial tooth root replacement and is used in prosthetic Dentistry to support restorations that resemble a tooth or group of teeth This property is also useful for orthopedic implant applications. [8] Since titanium is non-ferromagnetic, patients with titanium implants can be safely examined with magnetic resonance imaging (convenient for long-term implants). Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as Iron) form Permanent magnets and/or exhibit strong interactions with Magnets it Preparing titanium for implantation in the body involves subjecting it to a high-temperature plasma arc which removes the surface atoms, exposing fresh titanium that is instantly oxidized. In Physics and Chemistry, plasma is an Ionized Gas, in which a certain proportion of Electrons are free rather than being bound [8] Titanium is also used for the surgical instruments used in image-guided surgery, as well as wheelchairs, crutches, and any other products where high strength and low weight are important. A surgical instrument is a specially designed tool or device for performing specific actions of carrying out desired effects during a Surgery or operation such as modifying Image-guided surgery is the general term used for any surgical procedure where the Surgeon uses indirect visualization to operate i Its inertness and ability to be attractively colored makes it a popular metal for use in body piercing. Body piercing is the practice of puncturing or cutting a part of the Human body, creating an opening in which jewelry may be worn [47] Titanium may be anodized to produce various colors. Anodizing, or anodising, is an electrolytic Passivation process used to increase the thickness of the natural Oxide layer on the surface of metal [48] A number of artists work with titanium to produce artworks such as sculptures, decorative objects, and furniture. ## Compounds The +4 oxidation state dominates in titanium chemistry, but compounds in the +3 oxidation state are also common. In Chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of Oxidation of an Atom in a Chemical compound. In Chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of Oxidation of an Atom in a Chemical compound. Because of this high oxidation state, many titanium compounds have a high degree of covalent bonding. Star sapphires and rubies get their asterism from the titanium dioxide impurities present in them. Sapphire (antique greek hyacinthos refers to gem varieties of the mineral Corundum, an Aluminium oxide (Al2O3 when it is a color other than A Ruby is a pink to blood-red Gemstone, a variety of the Mineral Corundum ( Aluminium oxide) In Gemmology, an asterism is an Optical phenomenon displayed by some rubies, Sapphires and other gems (i Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring Oxide of Titanium, chemical formula Ti[[oxygen [8] Titanates are compounds made with titanium dioxide. Titanic acid refers to the Chemical compound with the formula H2TiO3 Barium titanate has piezoelectric properties, thus making it possible to use it as a transducer in the interconversion of sound and electricity. Barium titanate is an Oxide of Barium and Titanium with the Chemical formula BaTiO3 Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials (notably Crystals and certain Ceramics including bone to generate an Electric potential in response to Sound' is Vibration transmitted through a Solid, Liquid, or Gas; particularly sound means those vibrations composed of Frequencies [6] Esters of titanium are formed by the reaction of alcohols and titanium tetrachloride and are used to waterproof fabrics. Esters are a class of Chemical compounds and Functional groups Esters consist of an inorganic or organic Acid in which at least In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. [6] TiN coated drill bit Titanium nitride (TiN) is often used to coat cutting tools, such as drill bits. Titanium nitride ( (sometimes known as Tinite or TiNite is an extremely hard Ceramic material often used as a coating on Titanium alloy, Steel, For the ficitonal character see Drill Bit (Transformers. Drill bits are cutting tools used to create cylindrical holes It also finds use as a gold-coloured decorative finish, and as a barrier metal in semiconductor fabrication. Copper-based chips are Semiconductor Integrated circuits usually Microprocessors which use Copper for Interconnections Since copper Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create chips the Integrated circuits that are present in everyday Electrical and electronic Titanium tetrachloride (titanium(IV) chloride, TiCl4, sometimes called "Tickle") is a colourless liquid which is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of titanium dioxide for paint. Titanium tetrachloride or titanium(IV chloride is the Chemical compound with the formula TiCl4 It is widely used in organic chemistry as a Lewis acid, for example in the Mukaiyama aldol condensation. Organic chemistry is a discipline within Chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure properties composition reactions, and preparation The Mukaiyama aldol addition is an Organic reaction and a type of Aldol reaction between a Silyl enol ether and an Aldehyde catalyzed by a Titanium also forms a lower chloride, titanium(III) chloride (TiCl3), which is used as a reducing agent. Titanium(III chloride is the Chemical compound with the formula TiCl3 A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is the element or a compound in a Redox (reduction-oxidation reaction (see Electrochemistry Titanocene dichloride is an important catalyst for carbon-carbon bond formation. Titanocene dichloride, or di Cyclopentadienyl Titanium di Chloride is ( η5 -C5H52TiCl2 (commonly Titanium isopropoxide is used for Sharpless epoxidation. Titanium isoproxide is a Chemical compound with the formula Ti{OCH(CH32}4 The Sharpless epoxidation reaction is an enantioselective Chemical reaction to prepare 23-epoxyalcohols from primary and secondary allylic alcohols This Other compounds include titanium bromide (used in metallurgy, superalloys, and high-temperature electrical wiring and coatings) and titanium carbide (found in high-temperature cutting tools and coatings). Titanium tetrabromide is the Chemical compound with the formula TiBr4 A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an Alloy that exhibits excellent mechanical strength and creep resistance at high temperatures good surface Titanium carbide, Ti[[Carbon C]] is an extremely hard ( Mohs 9-9 [3] ## Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of titanium Naturally occurring titanium is composed of 5 stable isotopes: 46Ti, 47Ti, 48Ti, 49Ti, and 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73. Naturally occurring Titanium ( Ti) is composed of 5 stable Isotopes 46Ti 47Ti 48Ti 49Ti and 50Ti Isotopes (Greek isos = "equal" tópos = "site place" are any of the different types of atoms ( Nuclides 8% natural abundance). In Chemistry, natural abundance (NA refers to the abundance Isotopes of a Chemical element as naturally found on a planet Eleven radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being 44Ti with a half-life of 63 years, 45Ti with a half-life of 184. A radionuclide is an Atom with an unstable nucleus, which is a nucleus characterized by excess energy which is available to be imparted either to a newly-created Half-Life (computer-game page here It's already listed in the disambiguation page 8 minutes, 51Ti with a half-life of 5. 76 minutes, and 52Ti with a half-life of 1. 7 minutes. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 33 seconds and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than half a second. Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable Atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles and Radiation. [7] The isotopes of titanium range in atomic weight from 39. The atomic mass (ma is the Mass of an atom most often expressed in unified atomic mass units The atomic mass may be considered to be the total mass 99 u (40Ti) to 57. The unified atomic mass unit ( u) or Dalton ( Da) or sometimes universal mass unit, is an unit of Mass used to express 966 u (58Ti). The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 48Ti, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta emission. Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable Atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles and Radiation. Electron capture (sometimes called inverse beta decay) is a Decay mode for Isotopes that will occur when there are too many Protons in the In Nuclear physics, beta decay is a type of Radioactive decay in which a Beta particle (an Electron or a Positron) is emitted The primary decay products before 48Ti are element 21 (scandium) isotopes and the primary products after are element 23 (vanadium) isotopes. In Nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope or daughter nuclide, is a Nuclide Scandium (ˈskændiəm is a Chemical element that has the symbol Sc and Atomic number 21 Vanadium (vəˈneɪdiəm is a Chemical element that has the symbol V and Atomic number 23 [7] ## Precautions Nettle contains up to 80 parts per million of titanium Titanium is non-toxic even in large doses and does not play any natural role inside the human body. The human body is the entire physical and mental structure of a Human Organism. An estimated 0. 8 milligrams of titanium is ingested by humans each day but most passes through without being absorbed. It does, however, have a tendency to bio-accumulate in tissues that contain silica. Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate greater than that at ftudruinsubstance is lost The Chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica or silox (from the Latin " Silex " is an Oxide An unknown mechanism in plants may use titanium to stimulate the production of carbohydrates and encourage growth. Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. Carbohydrates (from ' Hydrates of Carbon ' or saccharides ( Greek σάκχαρον meaning " Sugar " are the most This may explain why most plants contain about 1 part per million (ppm) of titanium, food plants have about 2 ppm, and horsetail and nettle contain up to 80 ppm. "Parts-per" notation is used especially in Science and Engineering, to denote Ratios (relative proportions in measured quantities particularly Equisetum is a genus of Vascular plants that reproduce by spores rather than seeds Nettle is the common name for between 30-45 species of Flowering plants of the genus Urtica in the family Urticaceae, with a cosmopolitan though [8] As a powder or in the form of metal shavings, titanium metal poses a significant fire hazard and, when heated in air, an explosion hazard. Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five Water and carbon dioxide-based methods to extinguish fires are ineffective on burning titanium; Class D dry powder fire fighting agents must be used instead. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Ordinary combustibles "Ordinary combustible" fires are the most common type of fire and are designated "Class A" under both systems [3] Even bulk titanium metal is susceptible to fire, when it is heated to its melting point. A number of titanium fires occur during breaking down devices containing titanium parts with cutting torches. Concerning a. " for the verdict on this matter --> Oxy-fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding When used in the production or handling of chlorine, care must be taken to use titanium only in locations where it will not be exposed to dry chlorine gas which can result in a titanium/chlorine fire. Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and Care must be taken even when titanium is used in wet chlorine due to possible unexpected drying brought about by extreme weather conditions. Titanium can catch fire when a fresh, non-oxidized surface gets in contact with liquid oxygen. Such surfaces can appear when the oxidized surface is struck with a hard object, or when a mechanical strain causes the emergence of a crack. This poses the possible limitation for its use in liquid oxygen systems, such as those found in the aerospace industry. Salts of titanium are often considered to be relatively harmless, but its chlorine compounds, such as TiCl2, TiCl3, and TiCl4, have presented several unusual hazards. Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants Titanium(II chloride is the Chemical compound with the formula TiCl2 Titanium(III chloride is the Chemical compound with the formula TiCl3 Titanium tetrachloride or titanium(IV chloride is the Chemical compound with the formula TiCl4 The dichloride takes the form of pyrophoric black crystals, and the tetrachloride is a volatile fuming liquid. A pyrophoric substance will ignite spontaneously that is its Autoignition temperature is below Room temperature. All of titanium's chlorides are corrosive. ## See also ## References 1. ^ a b c "Titanium". Titanium alloys are Metallic Materials which contain a mixture of Titanium and other Chemical elements Such alloys have very high Tensile Titanium nitride ( (sometimes known as Tinite or TiNite is an extremely hard Ceramic material often used as a coating on Titanium alloy, Steel, Titanium mining in Africa has been beset by environmental problems due to the polluting nature of processing Rutile, a principal titanium Ore. VSMPO-AVISMA Corporation () (ВСМПО-АВИСМА where VSMPO stands for V erkhnesaldinskoye m etallurgicheskoye p roizvodstvennoye Titanium Metals Corporation, founded in 1950 is a leading manufacturer of Titanium -based metals products focusing primarily on the Aerospace industry Encyclopædia Britannica Concise. (2007). 2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Titanium. Los Alamos National Laboratory (2004). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL (previously known at various times as Site Y, Los Alamos Laboratory, and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory) is a Retrieved on 2006-12-29. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1170 - Thomas Becket: Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury is assassinated inside Canterbury Cathedral by followers of King Henry II 3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Krebs, Robert E. (2006). The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements: A Reference Guide (2nd edition). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Westport is a coastal town located on Long Island Sound in Fairfield County, Connecticut, 47 miles north of New York City in the United ISBN 0313334382. 4. ^ Matthew J. Donachie, Jr. (1988). TITANIUM: A Technical Guide. Metals Park, OH: ASM International, p. 11. ISBN 0871703092. 5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Barksdale, Jelks (1968). The Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements. Skokie, Illinois: Reinhold Book Corporation, 732-38 "Titanium". Skokie (formerly Niles Center is a Village in Cook County, Illinois, United States. LCCCN 68-29938. 6. ^ a b c d e f g h "Titanium". Columbia Encyclopedia (6th edition). The Columbia Encyclopedia is a highly regarded one-volume Encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. (2000 – 2006). New York: Columbia University Press. Columbia University Press is a University press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University. ISBN 0787650153. 7. ^ a b c Barbalace, Kenneth L. (2006). Periodic Table of Elements: Ti - Titanium. Retrieved on 2006-12-26. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. 8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Emsley, John (2001). Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 451 – 53. ISBN 0-19-850341-5. 9. ^ Origins of the Element Names: Names Derived from Mythology or Superstition 10. ^ van Arkel, A. E.; de Boer, J. Anton Eduard van Arkel, ( 's-Gravenzande Netherlands, November 19, 1893 &ndash Leiden, March 14 1976) was a H. (1925). "Preparation of pure titanium, zirconium, hafnium, and thorium metal". Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 148: 345 – 50. 11. ^ Yanko, Eugene; Omsk VTTV Arms Exhibition and Military Parade JSC (2006). Submarines: general information. Retrieved on 2006-12-26. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. 12. ^ Stainless Steel World. "VSMPO Stronger Than Ever", KCI Publishing B. V. , July/August 2001, pp. 16–19. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 366 - The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers invading the Roman Empire. 13. ^ NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems (CETS), National Research Council (1983). Titanium: Past, Present, and Future. Washington, DC: national Academy Press, R9. NMAB-392. 14. ^ Titanium Metals Corporation. Answers.com. Encyclopedia of Company Histories,. Answers Corporation (2006). Retrieved on 2007-01-02. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 366 - The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers invading the Roman Empire. 15. ^ Defense National Stockpile Center (2006). The Defense National Stockpile Center ( DNSC) is a branch of the Defense Logistics Agency whose purpose it is to store secure and sell Raw materials Strategic and Critical Materials Report to the Congress. Operations under the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act during the Period October 2004 through September 2005. United States Department of Defense, § 3304. The United States Department of Defense ( DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government 16. ^ Bush, Jason. "Boeing's Plan to Land Aeroflot", BusinessWeek, 2006-02-15. BusinessWeek is a business Magazine published by McGraw-Hill. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 590 - Khosrau II is crowned as king of Persia 1637 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor Retrieved on 2006-12-29. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1170 - Thomas Becket: Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury is assassinated inside Canterbury Cathedral by followers of King Henry II 17. ^ DuPont (2006-12-09). E I du Pont de Nemours and Company (,) is an American chemical company that was founded in July 1802 as a Gunpowder mill by Eleuthère Irénée Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 536 - Byzantine General Belisarius enters Rome while the Ostrogothic garrison peacefully leaves the city U.S. Defense Agency Awards$5.7 Million to DuPont and MER Corporation for New Titanium Metal Powder Process. Retrieved on 2006-12-26. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht.
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19. ^ Matthew J. Donachie, Jr. (1988). TITANIUM: A Technical Guide. Metals Park, OH: ASM International, Appendix J, Table J. 2. ISBN 0871703092.
20. ^ a b c Emsley, John (2001). Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 455. ISBN 0-19-850341-5.
21. ^ Sikka, S. K. ; Vohra, Y. K. , Chidambaram, R. (1982). "Omega phase in materials". Progress in Materials Science 27: 245 – 310.
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25. ^ Cordellier, Serge; Didiot, Béatrice (2004). L'état du monde 2005: annuaire économique géopolitique mondial. Paris: La Découverte.
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27. ^ Chen, George Zheng; Fray, Derek J. ; Farthing, Tom W. (2000). "Direct electrochemical reduction of titanium dioxide to titanium in molten calcium chloride". Nature 407: 361 – 64. Nature is a prominent Scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869 doi:10.1038/35030069. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.   Abstract
28. ^ Matthew J. Donachie, Jr. (1988). TITANIUM: A Technical Guide. Metals Park, OH: ASM International, p. 16, Appendix J. ISBN 0871703092.
29. ^ ASTM International (2006). ASTM International ( ASTM) originally known as the American Society for Testing and Materials is an international Standards organization that develops and publishes Annual Book of ASTM Standards (Volume 02. 04: Non-ferrous Metals). West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, section 2. West Conshohocken is a borough in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. ISBN 080314086X.   ASTM International (1998). ASTM International ( ASTM) originally known as the American Society for Testing and Materials is an international Standards organization that develops and publishes Annual Book of ASTM Standards (Volume 13. 01: Medical Devices; Emergency Medical Services). West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, sections 2 & 13. West Conshohocken is a borough in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. ISBN 080312452X.
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31. ^ American Welding Society (2006). The American Welding Society ( AWS) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to advancing the Science, technology and application of Welding and allied joining AWS G2. 4/G2. 4M:2007 Guide for the Fusion Welding of Titanium and Titanium Alloys. Miami: American Welding Society.   Abstract
32. ^ Titanium Metals Corporation (1997). Titanium Metals Corporation, founded in 1950 is a leading manufacturer of Titanium -based metals products focusing primarily on the Aerospace industry Titanium design and fabrication handbook for industrial applications. Dallas: Titanium Metals Corporation.
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35. ^ Smook, Gary A. (2002). Handbook for Pulp & Paper Technologists (3rd edition). Angus Wilde Publications, p.  223. ISBN 0-9694628-5-9.
36. ^ Stevens, Lisa; Lanning, John A. ; Anderson, Larry G. ; Jacoby, William A. ; Chornet, Nicholas (June 14 – 18, 1998). "Photocatalytic Oxidation of Organic Pollutants Associated with Indoor Air Quality". Air & Waste Management Association 91st Annual Meeting & Exhibition, San Diego. Retrieved on 2006-12-26. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht.
37. ^ Sevan, Vardan (2006-09-23). Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Rosoboronexport controls titanium in Russia. Sevanco Strategic Consulting. Retrieved on 2006-12-26. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht.
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39. ^ GlobalSecurity. GlobalSecurity.org (April 2006). GlobalSecurityorg, launched in 2000 is a Public policy organization whose mission is to be a reliable source of background information and developing News stories Retrieved on 2008-04-23. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at
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43. ^ National Corvette Museum (2006). Titanium Exhausts. Retrieved on 2006-12-26. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht.
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45. ^ "Yuri Gagarin". Microsoft Encarta. Encarta is a Digital Multimedia Encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. (2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-26. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht.
46. ^ Denver Art Museum, Frederic C. Hamilton Building. SPG Media (2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-26. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht.
47. ^ Body Piercing Safety. Retrieved on 2006-12-30. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1460 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield. 1816 - The Treaty of St
48. ^ Alwitt, Robert S. (2002). Electrochemistry Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2006-12-30. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1460 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield. 1816 - The Treaty of St
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