|Saint Thomas More|
Portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger (1527).
|Born||February 7, 1478, London, England|
|Died||6 July 1535 (aged 57), London, England|
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church, Anglican Communion|
|Beatified||1886, near London Hill by Pope Leo XIII|
|Canonized||1935, Rome by Pope Pius XI|
|Feast||June 22 (Roman Catholic), July 6 (Anglican & Traditional Roman Catholics)|
|Attributes||Martyr; Axe; dressed in a Chancellor's robe with a neck chain of office|
|Patronage||Adopted children, Arlington, Virginia, civil servants, court clerks, difficult marriages, large families, Pensacola-Tallahassee, Florida, lawyers, politicians and statesmen, stepparents, widowers, Ateneo de Manila Law School, University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Arts and Letters|
Saint Thomas More (7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535), also Sir Thomas More, was an English lawyer, author, and statesman who in his lifetime earned a reputation as a leading humanist scholar, and occupied many public offices, including Lord Chancellor (1529–1532). The term martyr ( Greek μάρτυς martys "witness" is most commonly used today to describe an individual who sacrifices their life (or personal freedom Events 457 - Leo I becomes emperor of the Byzantine Empire. 1074 - Battle of Montesarchio in which the Prince London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Events 1044 - The Battle of Ménfő takes place 1189 - Richard the Lionheart is crowned King of England London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland See also Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is an international association of national Anglican churches Beatification (from Latin beatus, blessed via Greek μακάριος makarios) is a recognition accorded by the Catholic church Pope Leo XIII ( March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903) born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope Canonization is the act by which a particular Christian church declares a deceased person to be a Saint and is included in the canon or list of recognized saints Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Pope Pius XI ( Latin: Pius PP XI; Italian: Pio XI; May 31 1857 &ndash February 10 1939) born The Calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a Liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more Saints Events 217 BC - Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV of Egypt defeats Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom. Events 1044 - The Battle of Ménfő takes place 1189 - Richard the Lionheart is crowned King of England Traditionalist Catholics are Roman Catholics, or people who identify as Roman Catholics who believe that there should be a restoration of many or all of the liturgical Christianity has used symbols from its very beginnings Each Saint has a story and a reason why he or she led an exemplary life A Christian martyr is one who is killed for believing in Christianity The axe, or ax, is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape split and cut Wood, Harvest timber, as a Weapon The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor is a senior and important functionary in the Government of the United Kingdom. The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members The Roman Catholic Diocese of Pensacola-Tallahassee ( Latin: Dioecesis Pensacolensis-Talloseiensis) is a Roman Catholic Diocese in Florida A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law as an attorney, Counsel or Solicitor; a person A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person A statesman or stateswoman or statesperson is usually a Politician or other notable figure of State who has had a long and respected career in The Ateneo de Manila Law School is the Law school of the Ateneo de Manila University, a private Jesuit university in the Philippines. The University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Arts and Letters, popularly known as UST Artlets or simply UST AB, is the Liberal arts college of the Events 457 - Leo I becomes emperor of the Byzantine Empire. 1074 - Battle of Montesarchio in which the Prince Events 1044 - The Battle of Ménfő takes place 1189 - Richard the Lionheart is crowned King of England England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law as an attorney, Counsel or Solicitor; a person Reputation is the opinion (more technically a social evaluation of the public toward a Person, a group of people, or an Organization. Renaissance Humanism was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor is a senior and important functionary in the Government of the United Kingdom. Sir Thomas coined the word "utopia", a name he gave to an ideal, imaginary island nation whose political system he described in the eponymous book published in 1516. Utopia is a name for an ideal community taken from the title of a book written in 1516 by Sir Thomas More describing a fictional Island in the An island (ˈaɪlənd or isle (/ˈaɪl/ is any piece of land that is completely surrounded by water in two dimensions above high tide and isolated from other significant De Optimo Republicae Statu deque Nova Insula Utopia (translated On the Best State of a Republic and on the New Island of Utopia) or more simply
In 1935, four hundred years after his death, Pope Pius XI canonized St Thomas More in the Roman Catholic Church; More was declared Patron Saint of politicians and statesmen by Pope John Paul II in 1980. Year 1935 ( MCMXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Pope Pius XI ( Latin: Pius PP XI; Italian: Pio XI; May 31 1857 &ndash February 10 1939) born Canonization is the act by which a particular Christian church declares a deceased person to be a Saint and is included in the canon or list of recognized saints The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members Pope  St Thomas More shares his feast day, June 22 on the Roman Catholic calendar of saints, with Saint John Fisher. Events 217 BC - Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV of Egypt defeats Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom. For earlier forms of the General Roman Calendar see the Tridentine Calendar, the General Roman Calendar as in 1954, General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius John Cardinal Fisher (c1469 &ndash 22 June, 1535) from 1935 Saint John Fisher, was an English Catholic bishop cardinal and In 1980, Sir Thomas More was added to the Church of England's calendar of saints. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican In a Catholic sense the term "saint" refers to any person in Heaven&mdashhowever since the 10th century the title "Saint" is only given to persons who have been officially Traditional Roman Catholics continue celebrating his feast day on July 6, the day of his martyrdom. Traditionalist Catholics are Roman Catholics, or people who identify as Roman Catholics who believe that there should be a restoration of many or all of the liturgical The Calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a Liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more Saints Events 1044 - The Battle of Ménfő takes place 1189 - Richard the Lionheart is crowned King of England The term martyr ( Greek μάρτυς martys "witness" is most commonly used today to describe an individual who sacrifices their life (or personal freedom He was voted thirty-seventh of the historical 100 Greatest Britons.
From 1510 to 1518, Thomas More was one of the two undersheriffs of the city of London, a position of much responsibility, wherein he earned a reputation as an honest and effective public servant. An undersheriff is an office derived from ancient British practice and still extant in among other places the United Kingdom and the United States though somewhat different forms For London as a whole see the main article London. The City of London is a geographically Honesty is the human quality of communicating and acting Truthfully related to Truth as a value See also Bureaucrat The term civil service has two distinct meanings Branch of governmental service in which individuals are hired on the basis In 1517 More entered the King's service as counselor and personal servant. After a diplomatic mission to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, he was knighted, and made under-treasurer in 1521. The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states Charles V (24 February 1500 &ndash 21 September 1558 was Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. As secretary and personal advisor to King Henry VIII, Sir Thomas became governmentally influential (welcoming diplomats, drafting official documents) and liaison between the King and his Lord Chancellor Thomas Cardinal Wolsey, the Archbishop of York. A secretary is either an administrative assistant in business office administration, or a certain type of mid- or high-level governmental position such as a Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor is a senior and important functionary in the Government of the United Kingdom. Thomas Cardinal Wolsey (c1470–1471 – November 28 or November 29 1530 who was born in Ipswich Suffolk England was an English Statesman and a cardinal The Archbishop of York is a high-ranking cleric in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury.
In 1523 More became the Speaker of the House of Commons. As such, he expressed the first known request by a Speaker of the House for free speech.  He later was high steward for the universities of Oxford and of Cambridge. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the In 1525, he was chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, a position holding administrative and judicial control of much of northern England. The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is in modern times a Sinecure office in the Government of the United Kingdom. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State Northern England, The North, The North of England or (less commonly The North Country refers to the parts of England north of an ill-defined line
In 1505, aged twenty-seven, More married his first wife, Jane Colt, ten years his junior. According to his son-in-law and first biographer William Roper, More wanted to marry Jane's second sister, but felt Jane would be humiliated if a younger sister married first. Biographers are Authors who write an account of another person's life while autobiographers are authors who write their own Biography. William Roper (1496 - 1578 Biographer, son of a Kentish gentleman married Margaret, daughter of Sir Thomas More. Humiliation (also called stultification) is the abasement of pride mortification Their marriage was happy and bore four children; three daughters and a son — Margaret (Meg, his favourite), Elizabeth (Beth), Cicely (Cecy), and John (Jack); besides his children, More adopted an orphan girl, Margaret Giggs. NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS ************** Margaret Roper née More (1505&ndash1544 translator was the daughter of Thomas More and wife of William Roper. An orphan (from the Greek ὀρφανός) is a child whose natural parents are absent or dead and who are not there to bring him up As a very devoted father, he asked his children write to him when away, even if they had nothing particular to say, and did not beat them. Unusual for the era, he educated his daughters as he did his son, saying that women were just as intelligent as men, taking particular pride in eldest daughter Meg's achievements. Intelligence (also called intellect) is an Umbrella term used to describe a property of the Mind that encompasses many related abilities such as the capacities
Jane Colt died in 1511, and More remarried almost immediately, so his children would have a mother. His second wife, Alice Middleton, was a widow seven years his senior; they bore no children, although he adopted her daughter, Alice; of wife Alice, he said: "nec bella, nec puella" — neither a pearl, nor a girl. Erasmus cruelly described her nose as "the hooked beak of the harpy". In Greek mythology, a harpy ("snatcher" from harpȳia ἅρπυια harpūia) was any one of the mainly winged death-spirits best known for constantly Despite very different characters, More and Alice were affectionate, though he was unable to educate her as he had educated Jane and his daughters. In his epitaph, which he wrote himself, More praised Jane for bearing him four children, and Alice for being a loving stepmother. An epitaph (in Greek, &mdash literally " on the gravestone " is a short text honoring a deceased person strictly speaking that inscribed on He declared that he could not tell whom he loved best, and expressed the hope that they would all be reunited in death.
|Sir John More|
|Saint Thomas More|
|Thomas Granger (or Grainger)|
|Agnes Granger (or Grainger)|
Despite his busy political career, he was a prolific scholar and literary man. Scholarly method &mdash or as it is more commonly called scholarship &mdash is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter His writing and scholarship earned him great reputation as a Christian Renaissance humanist in continental Europe, and his friend Erasmus of Rotterdam dedicated to him the masterpiece, In Praise of Folly; (the book's title puns More's name, "moria" is folly in Greek. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appealing to universal The Praise of Folly ( Greek title Morias Enkomion (Μωρίας Εγκώμιον, Latin: Stultitiae Laus, sometimes translated as ) In his communications with other humanists, Erasmus described him as a model Man of Letters and as an omnium horarum homo. The humanistic project embraced by Erasmus and Thomas More sought re-examination and revitalization of Christian theology by studying the Bible and the writings of the Church Fathers in light of classical Greek literary and philosophic tradition. The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca More and Erasmus collaborated on a Latin translation of the works of Lucian, published in Paris in 1506. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Lucian of Samosata (Λουκιανός ὁ Σαμοσατεύς Lucianus c Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city
Between 1513 and 1518, More worked on a History of King Richard III, an unfinished historiography, based on Sir Robert Honorr's Tragic Deunfall of Richard II, Suvereign of Britain (1485), that also greatly influenced William Shakespeare's play Richard III. William Shakespeare ( baptised Richard III is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in approximately 1591 Both More's and Shakespeare's works are controversial to contemporary historians for their unflattering portrait of King Richard III, a bias partly due to both authors' allegiance to the reigning Tudor dynasty that wrested the throne from Richard III with the Wars of the Roses. Bias is a term used to describe a Tendency or Preference towards a particular perspective, Ideology or result especially when the tendency interferes The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was an English royal Dynasty that lasted 118 years from 1485 to 1603 a period known as the Tudor period The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485 were a series of dynastic Civil wars fought in England between supporters of the Houses of Lancaster and York More's work, however, little mentions King Henry VII, the first Tudor king, perhaps for having persecuted his father, Sir John More. Some historians see an attack on royal tyranny, rather than on Richard III, himself, or on the House of York. The House of York was a branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet, three of whom became English kings in the late 15th century
The History of King Richard III is a Renaissance historiography, remarkable more for its literary skill and adherence to classical precepts than for its historical accuracy. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere More's work, and that of contemporary historian Polydore Vergil, reflects a move from mundane medieval chronicles to a dramatic writing style, for example, the shadowy King Richard is an outstanding, archetypal tyrant drawn from the pages of Sallust, and should be read as a meditation on power and corruption as well as a history of the reign of Richard III. Polydore Vergil or Virgil (c 1470 &ndash April 18 1555) was an English Historian, of Italian birth otherwise known as For the philosopher see Sallustius; for other uses see Sallust (disambiguation. The 'History of King Richard III was written and published in both English and Latin, each written separately, and with information deleted from the Latin edition to suit a European readership. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
In 1516 More wrote his most famous and controversial work, Utopia, a novel wherein a traveller, Raphael Hythloday (in Greek, his name and surname allude to archangel Raphael, purveyor of truth, and mean "speaker of nonsense"), describes the political arrangements of the imaginary island country of Utopia (Greek pun ou-topos [no place], eu-topos [good place]) to himself and to Peter Giles. De Optimo Republicae Statu deque Nova Insula Utopia (translated On the Best State of a Republic and on the New Island of Utopia) or more simply This novel presents the city of Amaurote as "of them all this is the worthiest and of most dignity".
Utopia contrasts the contentious social life of European states with the perfectly orderly, reasonable social arrangements of Utopia and its environs (Tallstoria, Nolandia, and Aircastle). In Utopia, private property does not exist, and there is almost complete religious toleration. Religious toleration is the condition of accepting or permitting others' religious beliefs and practices which disagree with one's own The novel's principal message is the social need for order and discipline, rather than liberty. The country of Utopia tolerates different religious practices, but does not tolerate atheists. More theorizes that if a man did not believe in a god or in an afterlife he could never be trusted, because, logically, he would not acknowledge any authority or principle outside himself.
More used the novel describing an imaginary nation as means of freely discussing contemporary controversial matters; speculatively, More based Utopia on monastic communalism, based upon the Biblical communalism in the Acts of the Apostles. The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament.
Utopia is a forerunner of the utopian literary genre, wherein ideal societies and perfect cities are detailed. Although Utopianism typically is a Renaissance movement, combining the classical concepts of perfect societies of Plato and Aristotle with Roman rhetorical finesse (cf. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice Cicero, Quintilian, epideictic oratory), it continued into the Enlightenment. Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (ca 35 – ca 100 was a Roman Rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and Epideictic or praise and blame Rhetoric is one of the three branches or "species" (eidē of rhetoric as outlined in Aristotle 's Rhetoric The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Utopia 's original edition included the symmetrical "Utopian alphabet", that was omitted from later editions; it is a notable, early attempt at cryptography that might have influenced the development of shorthand. Cryptography (or cryptology; from Greek grc κρυπτός kryptos, "hidden secret" and grc γράφω gráphō, "I write"
Utopia is evidence that he greatly valued harmony and a strict hierarchy. In Western music, harmony is the use of different pitches simultaneously and chords actual or implied in Music. @@@ main@@@ - title Hierarchy@@@ keywords structure; sociology; information@@@ review@@@ - All challenges to uniformity and hierarchy were perceived as dangers; practically, the greatest danger he saw was the challenge that heretics posed to the established faith. Faith is a Belief in the trustworthiness of an Idea. Formal usage of the word "faith" is usually reserved for concepts of Religion, as in For Thomas More, the most important thing was maintaining the unity of Christendom; to his mind, the Lutheran Reformation's fragmentation and discord were dreadful. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time
His personal counter-attack began in the manner expected from a writer. He assisted Henry VIII with writing the Defence of the Seven Sacraments (1521), a polemic response to Martin Luther's On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of The Defence of the Seven Sacraments (in Latin, Assertio Septem Sacramentorum) is a book written by King Henry VIII of England in Polemics (pəˈlɛmɪks/ /poʊ- is the practice of disputing or controverting religious, philosophical, or political matters Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer Prelude on the Babylonian Captivity of the Church (October 1520 was the second of the three major treatises published by Martin Luther in 1520 coming after the Address When Luther replied with Contra Henricum Regem Anglie (Against Henry, King of the English), More was tasked with writing a counter-response, Responsio ad Lutherum (Reply to Luther). This violent exchange had many intemperate personal insults; it deepened More's commitment to the order and discipline outlined in Utopia. An ad hominem argument, also known as argumentum ad hominem ( Latin: "argument to the man" "argument against the man"
More, until then fully devoted to Henry and to the cause of royal prerogative, initially cooperated with the king's new policy, denouncing Wolsey in Parliament and proclaiming the opinion of the theologians at Oxford and Cambridge that the marriage of Henry to Catherine had been unlawful. The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority privilege and immunity recognised in Common law and sometimes in Civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective But as Henry began to deny the authority of the Pope, More's qualms grew.
For More, heresy was a disease, a threat to the peace and unity of both church and society. Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief His early actions against the Protestants included aiding Cardinal Wolsey in preventing Lutheran books from being imported into England. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Thomas Cardinal Wolsey (c1470–1471 – November 28 or November 29 1530 who was born in Ipswich Suffolk England was an English Statesman and a cardinal He also assisted in the production of a Star Chamber edict against heretical preaching. For the online trading card game see Star Chamber The Harbinger Saga. Many literary polemics appeared under his name, as listed above. After becoming Lord Chancellor of England, More set himself the following task:
|“||Now seeing that the king's gracious purpose in this point, I reckon that being his unworthy chancellor, it appertaineth. . . to help as much as in me is, that his people, abandoning the contagion of all such pestilent writing, may be far from infection.||”|
As Lord Chancellor, More had six Lutherans burned at the stake and imprisoned as many as forty others . Execution by burning has a long history as a method of Punishment for Crimes such as Treason, Heresy and Witchcraft His chief concern in this matter was to wipe out collaborators of William Tyndale, the exiled Lutheran who in 1525 had published a Protestant translation of the Bible in English which was circulating clandestinely in England (Tyndale had also written The Practyse of Prelates (1530), opposing Henry VIII's divorce on the grounds that it was unscriptural and was a plot by Cardinal Wolsey to get Henry entangled in the papal courts). Tyndale redirects here For the English family see Tyndall. For other uses see Tyndale (disambiguation. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther
In June 1530 it was decreed that offenders were to be brought before the King's Council, rather than being examined by their bishops, the practice hitherto. Actions taken by the Council became ever more severe. In 1531, one Richard Bayfield, a book peddler, was burned at Smithfield. Further burnings followed. In The Confutation of Tyndale's Answer, yet another polemic, More took particular interest in the execution of Sir Thomas Hitton, describing him as "the devil's stinking martyr. " Rumors circulated during and after More's lifetime concerning his treatment of heretics, with some, such as John Foxe (who "placed Protestant sufferings against the background of . John Foxe (1517 &ndash April 18, 1587) martyrologist is remembered as the author of what is popularly known as Foxe's Book of Martyrs . . the Antichrist" ) in his Book of Martyrs, claiming that he had often used violence or torture while interrogating them. The Book of Martyrs, by John Foxe, is an Apocalyptically oriented English Protestant account of the Persecutions of More strongly denied these allegations, swearing "As help me God," that heretics had never been given, "so much as a flyppe on the forehead. "
In 1530 More refused to sign a letter by the leading English churchmen and aristocrats asking the Pope to annul Henry's marriage to Catherine. In 1531 he attempted to resign after being forced to take an oath declaring the king the Supreme Head of the English Church "as far as the law of Christ allows. " In 1532 he asked the king again to relieve him of his office, claiming that he was ill and suffering from sharp chest pains. This time Henry granted his request.
The last straw for Henry came in 1533, when More refused to attend the coronation of Anne Boleyn as the Queen of England. A coronation is a ceremony marking the investiture of a Monarch with regal power specifically involving the placement of a crown upon his or her head and the Anne Boleyn (1501 or 1507 – 19 May 1536 was the Queen of England as the second wife of Henry VIII of England. The Kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825 became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during Technically, this was not an act of treason as More had written to Henry acknowledging Anne's queenship and expressing his desire for his happiness—but his friendship with the old queen, Catherine of Aragon, still prevented him from attending Anne's triumph. Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536 also known as Catharine, Katherine or Katharine ( Castilian Infanta Catalina His refusal to attend her coronation was widely interpreted as a snub against her.
Shortly thereafter More was charged with accepting bribes, but the patently false charges had to be dismissed for lack of any evidence. In 1534 he was accused of conspiring with Elizabeth Barton, a nun who had prophesied against the king's divorce, but More was able to produce a letter in which he had instructed Barton not to interfere with state matters. Sr Elizabeth Barton (known as The Nun of Kent, The Holy Maid of London, The Holy Maid of Kent and later The Mad Maid of Kent; 1506? &ndash
On 13 April of that year More was asked to appear before a commission and swear his allegiance to the parliamentary Act of Succession. Events 1111 - Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. 1204 - The Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople The First Succession Act of Henry VIII's reign was passed by the Parliament of England in March 1534 and removed Mary from the line of the succession More accepted Parliament's right to declare Anne the legitimate queen of England, but he refused to take the oath because of an anti-papal preface to the Act asserting Parliament's authority to legislate in matters of religion by denying the authority of the Pope, which More would not accept. The oath is written here in modern-day English. Modern English is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift, completed in roughly 1550
. . . . And at the day of the last prorogation of this present Parliament, as well the nobles spiritual and temporal as other the Commons of this present Parliament, most lovingly accepted and took such oath as then was devised in writing for maintenance and defence of the said Act, and meant and intended at that time that every other the king's subjects should be bound to accept and take the same, upon the pains contained in the said Act, the tenor of which oath hereafter ensueth:
- "Ye shall swear to bear faith, truth, and obedience alonely to the king's majesty, and to his heirs of his body of his most dear and entirely beloved lawful wife Queen Anne, begotten and to be begotten, and further to the heirs of our said sovereign lord according to the limitation in the statute made for surety of his succession in the crown of this realm, mentioned and contained, and not to any other within this realm, for foreign authority or potentate: and in case any oath be made, or has been made, by you, to any person or persons, that then ye are to repute the same as vain and annihilate; and that, to your cunning, wit, and uttermost of your power, without guile, fraud, or other undue means, you shall observe, keep, maintain, and defend the said Act of Accession, and all the whole effects and contents thereof, and all other Acts and statutes made in confirmation, or for the execution of the same, or of anything therein contained; and this ye shall do against all manner of persons, of what estate, dignity, degree, or condition soever they be, and in no wise do or attempt, nor to your power suffer to be done or attempted, directly or indirectly, any thing or things privily or apartly to the let, hindrance, damage, or derogation thereof, or of any part of the same, by any manner of means, or for any manner of pretence; so help you God, all saints, and the holy Evangelists. A parliamentary session is a period of time where the Legislature in a Parliamentary government is sitting The Parliament of England was the Legislature of the Kingdom of England. The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, are the 26 Clergymen of the established Church of England This article is about the secular members of the British House of Lords. The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords "
And forasmuch as it is convenient for the sure maintenance and defence of the same Act that the said oath should not only be authorized by authority of Parliament, but also be interpreted and expounded by the whole assent of this present Parliament, that is was meant and intended by the king's majesty, the Lords and Commons of the Parliament, at the said day of the said last prorogation, that every subject should be bounden to take the same oath, according to the tenor and effect thereof, upon the pains and penalties contained in the said Act. . . .—
Four days later he was imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he wrote his devotional Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation. Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower) is a historic monument in central London
On 1 July 1535, More was tried before a panel of judges that included the new Lord Chancellor, Sir Thomas Audley, as well as Anne Boleyn's father, brother, and uncle. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley of Walden KG, PC, KS (c1488 &ndash 30 April 1544 Lord Chancellor of England, born in Earls He was charged with high treason for denying the validity of the Act of Succession. See also Treason, High treason in the United Kingdom High treason is criminal disloyalty to one's country More believed he could not be convicted as long as he did not explicitly deny that the king was the head of the church, and he therefore refused to answer all questions regarding his opinions on the subject. Thomas Cromwell, at the time the most powerful of the king's advisors, brought forth the Solicitor General, Richard Rich, to testify that More had, in his presence, denied that the king was the legitimate head of the church. Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl of Essex (c 1485 &ndash 28 July 1540) was an English statesman who served as King Henry VIII 's chief minister Her Majesty's Solicitor General for England and Wales, often known as the Solicitor General, is one of the Law Officers of the Crown, and the deputy of the Attorney Richard Rich 1st Baron Rich (1496/7 - June 12, 1567) was Lord Chancellor during the reign of King Edward VI of England. This testimony was almost certainly perjured (witnesses Richard Southwell and Mr. Perjury, also known as forswearing, is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under Oath or Affirmation in a Sir Richard Southwell PC (c 1502/1503 &ndash 11 January[[ 564]] was an English Privy Councillor. Palmer both denied having heard the details of the reported conversation), but on the strength of it the jury voted for More's conviction.
More was tried, and found guilty, under the following section of the Treason Act 1534. Treasons Act 1534 (citation 26 Henry VIII c 13) was an Act passed by the English Parliament during the reign of King Henry VIII of England
Be it therefore enacted by the assent and consent of our sovereign lord the king, and the Lords spiritual and temporal, and Commons in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, that if any person or persons, after the first day of February next coming, do maliciously wish, will or desire, by words or writing, or by craft imagine, invent, practise, or attempt any bodily harm to be done or committed to the king's most royal person, the queen's, or their heirs apparent, or to deprive them or any of them of their dignity, title, or name of their royal estates, or slanderously and maliciously publish and pronounce, by express writing or words, that the king our sovereign lord should be heretic, schismatic, tyrant, infidel or usurper of the crown, or rebelliously do detain, keep, or withhold from our said sovereign lord, his heirs or successors, any of his or their castles, fortresses, fortalices, or holds within this realm, or in any other the king's dominions or marches, or rebelliously detain, keep, or withhold from the king's said highness, his heirs or successors, any of his or their ships, ordnances, artillery, or other munitions or fortifications of war, and do not humbly render and give up to our said sovereign lord, his heirs or successors, or to such persons as shall be deputed by them, such castles, fortresses, fortalices, holds, ships, ordnances, artillery, and other munitions and fortifications of war, rebelliously kept or detained, within six days next after they shall be commanded by our said sovereign lord, his heirs or successors, by open proclamation under the great seal:
That then every such person and persons so offending in any the premises, after the said first day of February, their aiders, counsellors, consenters, and abettors, being thereof lawfully convicted according to the laws and customs of this realm, shall be adjudged traitors, and that every such offence in any the premises, that shall be committed or done after the said first day of February, shall be reputed, accepted, and adjudged high treason, and the offenders therein and their aiders, consenters, counsellors, and abettors, being lawfully convicted of any such offence as is aforesaid, shall have and suffer such pains of death and other penalties, as is limited and accustomed in cases of high treason.
Before his sentencing, More spoke freely of his belief that "no temporal man may be the head of the spirituality". He was sentenced to be hanged, drawn, and quartered (the usual punishment for traitors) but the king commuted this to execution by beheading. To be hanged drawn and quartered was the penalty once ordained in England for the crime of High treason. Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head or beheading, is the cutting off of the head of a person or animal The execution took place on 6 July. Events 1044 - The Battle of Ménfő takes place 1189 - Richard the Lionheart is crowned King of England When he came to mount the steps to the scaffold, he is widely quoted as saying (to the officials): "See me safe up: for my coming down, I can shift for myself"; while on the scaffold he declared that he died "the king's good servant, but God's first. " Another statement he is believed to have remarked to the executioner is that his beard was completely innocent of any crime, and did not deserve the axe; he then positioned his beard so that it would not be harmed.  More's body was buried at the Tower of London, in the chapel of St Peter ad Vincula. For other churches of this dedication see St Peter ad Vincula (disambiguation. His head was placed over London Bridge for a month after which it was rescued by his daughter, Margaret Roper, before it could be thrown in the River Thames. London Bridge is a Bridge between the City of London and Southwark in London, England, over the River Thames. Margaret Roper née More (1505&ndash1544 translator was the daughter of Thomas More and wife of William Roper. The Thames ( is a major River flowing through southern England. The skull is believed to rest in the Roper Vault of St. Dunstan's, Canterbury. St Dunstan's is a church dedicated to St Dunstan in Canterbury, Kent, slightly out of the city centre
More was beatified by Pope Leo XIII in 1886 and canonized with John Fisher after a mass petition of English Catholics in 1935, as in some sense a 'patron saint of politics' in protest against the rise of secular, anti-religious Communism. Beatification (from Latin beatus, blessed via Greek μακάριος makarios) is a recognition accorded by the Catholic church Pope Leo XIII ( March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903) born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope Year 1886 ( MDCCCLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Canonization is the act by which a particular Christian church declares a deceased person to be a Saint and is included in the canon or list of recognized saints John Cardinal Fisher (c1469 &ndash 22 June, 1535) from 1935 Saint John Fisher, was an English Catholic bishop cardinal and Year 1935 ( MCMXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions His joint feast day with Fisher is 22 June. The Calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a Liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more Saints Events 217 BC - Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV of Egypt defeats Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom. Fisher was the only remaining loyal Bishop (owing to the apparent and coincident natural deaths of eight aged bishops)  during the English Reformation to maintain, at the King's mercy, allegiance to the Pope. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight The English Reformation was the series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England first broke away from the authority of the Pope An allegiance is a duty of fidelity said to be owed by a subject or a Citizen to his/her state or sovereign. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and In 2000 this trend continued, with Saint Thomas More declared the "heavenly Patron of Statesmen and Politicians" by Pope John Paul II. Pope  He even has a feast day, 6 July, in the Anglican calendar of saints. In a Catholic sense the term "saint" refers to any person in Heaven&mdashhowever since the 10th century the title "Saint" is only given to persons who have been officially
The steadfastness and courage with which More held on to his religious convictions in the face of ruin and death and the dignity with which he conducted himself during his imprisonment, trial, and execution, contributed much to More's posthumous reputation, particularly among Catholics.
More's conviction for treason was widely seen as unfair, even among Protestants. His friend Erasmus, himself no Protestant, was broadly sympathetic to reform movements within the Catholic Church, declared after his execution that More had been "more pure than any snow" and that his genius was "such as England never had and never again will have. "
Roman Catholic writer G. K. Chesterton said that More was the "greatest historical character in English history. Gilbert Keith Chesterton (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936 was an influential English writer of the early 20th century "
More was portrayed as a wise and honest statesman in the 1592 play Sir Thomas More, which was probably written in collaboration by Henry Chettle, Anthony Munday, William Shakespeare, and others, and which survives only in fragmentary form after being censored by Edmund Tylney, Master of the Revels in the government of Queen Elizabeth I (any direct reference to the Act of Supremacy was censored out). Sir Thomas More is an Elizabethan play by Anthony Munday and others that depicts the life of Thomas More. Henry Chettle (c 1564 &ndash c 1607 was an English Dramatist and miscellaneous writer of the Elizabethan era. Anthony Munday (or Monday) (1560? &ndash August 10, 1633) was an English Dramatist and miscellaneous writer William Shakespeare ( baptised The Master of the Revels was a position within the British royal household heading the "Revels Office" or "Office of the Revels" that originally
Catholic science fiction writer R. A. Lafferty wrote his novel Past Master as a modern equivalent to More's Utopia, which he saw as a satire. Raphael Aloysius Lafferty ( November 7, 1914 - March 18, 2002) was an American Science fiction and Fantasy Past Master is a novel by science fiction writer R A Lafferty. In this novel, Thomas More is brought through time to the year 2535, where he is made king of the future world of "Astrobe", only to be beheaded after ruling for a mere nine days. One of the characters in the novel compares More favorably to almost every other major historical figure: "He had one completely honest moment right at the end. I cannot think of anyone else who ever had one. " He was also greatly admired by the Anglican clergyman, Jonathan Swift. Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667
The 20th century agnostic playwright Robert Bolt portrayed More as the ultimate man of conscience in his play A Man for All Seasons. Agnosticism ( Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the Robert Oxton Bolt, CBE (August 15 1924 – February 21 1995 was an English playwright and a two-time Oscar winning screenwriter Conscience is a hypothesized Ability or faculty that distinguishes whether our actions are right or wrong A Man for All Seasons is a play by Robert Bolt. An early form of the play had been written for BBC Radio in 1954 but after Bolt's success with That title is borrowed from Robert Whittington, who in 1520 wrote of him:
In 1966, the play was made into the successful film A Man for All Seasons directed by Fred Zinnemann, adapted for the screen by the playwright himself, and starring Paul Scofield in an Oscar-winning performance. A Man for All Seasons is a 1966 film based on Robert Bolt 's play of the same name about Sir Thomas More. Fred Zinnemann ( April 29, 1907 &ndash March 14, 1997) was an Academy Award -winning Austrian American David Paul Scofield, CH, CBE ( 21 January 1922 &ndash 19 March 2008) was an English award-winning actor of stage Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role is one of the Academy Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS to recognize The film won the Academy Award for Best Picture for that year. The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS to artists working In 1988, Charlton Heston starred and directed in a made-for-television remake of the film. Charlton Heston (born John Charles Carter; October 4 1923 &ndash April 5 2008) was an American Actor of
Karl Zuchardt wrote a novel, Stirb Du Narr! ("Die you fool!"), about More's struggle with King Henry, portraying More as an idealist bound to fail in the power struggle with a ruthless ruler and an unjust world. Karl Zuchardt ( 10 February 1887 &ndash 12 November 1968) was a German Writer of Historical novels Zuchardt
As the author of Utopia, More has also attracted the admiration of modern socialists. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution While Roman Catholic scholars maintain that More's attitude in composing Utopia was largely ironic and that he was at every point an orthodox Christian, Marxist theoretician Karl Kautsky argued in the book Thomas More and his Utopia (1888) that Utopia was a shrewd critique of economic and social exploitation in pre-modern Europe and that More was one of the key intellectual figures in the early development of socialist ideas. Irony is a literary or Rhetorical device, in which there is an incongruity or Discordance between what one says or does and what one means or Karl Kautsky ( October 16 1854 - October 17 1938) was a leading theoretician of Social democracy.
A number of modern writers, such as Richard Marius, have attacked More for alleged religious fanaticism and intolerance (manifested, for instance, in his persecution of heretics). Richard Curry Marius ( July 29, 1933 &ndash November 5, 1999) was a Reformation scholar a novelist of the American South, James Wood calls him, "cruel in punishment, evasive in argument, lusty for power, and repressive in politics". James Wood (born 1965 in Durham) is an English literary critic and Novelist.  The polemicist Jasper Ridley goes much further, describing More as "a particularly nasty sadomasochistic pervert" in his book The Statesman and the Fanatic, a line of thinking also followed by Joanna Dennyn in her biography of Anne Boleyn. Jasper Godwin Ridley (1920 – 2004 was a British writer known for historical biographies
Aaron Zelman, in his nonfiction book "The State Versus the People" describes genocide and the history of governments which have acted in a totalitarian manner. Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction in whole or in part of an ethnic racial religious or national group Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private In the first chapters "Utopia" is reviewed along with Plato's "The Republic". Zelman noted facts about "Utopia" which were ridiculous in the real world, such as agriculture, and could not draw a conclusion whether More was being humorous towards his work or seriously advocating a nation-state. For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy It is pointed out, as a serious point for consideration, that "More is the only Christian saint to be honored with a statue at the Kremlin", which implies that his work had serious influence on the Soviet Union, despite its general antipathy towards organized religion. View01jpg|thumb|right|250px|Remains of the Kolomna Kremlin]] Kremlin (Кремль Kreml) is the Russian word for "fortress" "citadel" or "castle" The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
Other biographers, such as Peter Ackroyd, have offered a more sympathetic picture of More as both a sophisticated humanist and man of letters, as well as a zealous Roman Catholic who believed in the necessity of religious and political authority. Peter Ackroyd (born 5 October 1949, East Acton, London) is an English Author.
The protagonist of Walker Percy's novel, Love in the Ruins, is Dr. Walker Percy ( May 28, 1916 &ndash May 10, 1990) was an American Southern author whose interests included Philosophy Thomas More, a reluctant Catholic.
Sir Thomas More is mentioned briefly in The Shins' song, So Says I on the album Chutes Too Narrow - "Tell Sir Thomas More we've got another failed attempt 'cause if it makes them money they might just give you life this time. The Shins is an American Indie rock group comprising singer, Songwriter and Guitarist James Russell Mercer, keyboardist So Says I is a song by American Indie rock band The Shins, the third track of their second album Chutes Too Narrow. Chutes Too Narrow is The Shins' 2003 follow-up to their debut album Oh Inverted World. "
He is also the focus of the Al Stewart song A Man For All Seasons from the 1978 album Time Passages. Al Stewart (born Alastair Ian Stewart, 5 September 1945 in Glasgow) is a British Singer-songwriter and folk rock Musician. Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) Time Passages is the eighth album by Al Stewart, released in 1978
Jeremy Northam portrays More in the television series, The Tudors, where he is shown as a peaceful man—a sometime-advisor to Henry VIII, a devout Catholic, and family head. Jeremy Philip Northam (born 1 December 1961) is an award-winning English Actor. The Tudors is a historical fiction Television series created and entirely written by British screenwriter Michael Hirst. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of However, Season 1, Episode 7 hints at a different side of More, as he unabashedly expresses his loathing for Lutheranism. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Yet throughout the season, it shows a conflicted side of More: He orders that Martin Luther's books be destroyed, yet when the books are actually burned, he expresses a sense of unease and regret. In episode 10 of the same series, More is shown exercising his new power as chancellor by burning convicted heretics.
the most prominent St Thomas More church thrives in SLC, Utah
Thomas More College of Liberal Arts is a four year liberal arts college in Merrimack, NH and Rome Italy. The Thomas More College of Liberal Arts is dedicated to Classical education in the Roman Catholic intellectual tradition
Thomas More College is a private Diocesan college in Crestview Hills, Kentucky. St Thomas More School Thomas More College may refer to In Australia: St Thomas More College (Queensland in Sunnybank Hills Queensland
College of Saint Thomas More is a small, private, Catholic (but not Diocesan) college in Fort Worth, Texas. The College of Saint Thomas More is a private Catholic liberal arts college based in Fort Worth Texas.
Comunidad Educativa Tomas Moro is a laic, non-denominational private school in México City, México
Sacred Heart University in Fairfield, CT has the Thomas More Honors Program.
The Thomas More Law Center is a legal aid organization that provides law services for those arguing conservative-aligned issues, especially those dealing with religious liberty and expression. The Thomas More Law Center is a Conservative Christian, Not-for-profit law center based in Ann Arbor Michigan and active throughout the United States
Magdalen College School, Oxford's politics society is named the St Thomas More society. Magdalen College School is an independent school for boys located in Oxford, England.
The Cathedral of St. Thomas More is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Arlington, Virginia. Cathedral of Saint Thomas More is the Cathedral of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Arlington, located in Arlington County Virginia. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Arlington is a Diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the southern United States. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state
More House School is a London secondary school for girls.
In the United States there are St. Thomas More Catholic Churches in Oceanside, CA; Irvine, CA; Chicago, IL; Munster, IN; New York City (Manhattan), NY; Chapel Hill, NC; Elgin, IL; Allentown, PA; Glendale, AZ; Manhattan, KS; Houston, TX; Austin, TX; Boynton Beach, FL, Omaha, NE, Tulsa, OK; Iowa City, IA; Paducah, KY; Cherry Hill, NJ; Sarasota, FL; and in Lynchburg, VA. The Catholic chapel of Yale University is dedicated to him. The St. Thomas More Church is the church of the Queens Campus of St. John's University in New York. There is also a St. Thomas More Church in Sheldon, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
The Thomas More Building at the Royal Courts of Justice in the Strand, London, is an 11 storey office block built in January 1990 containing the courts of the Chancery Division of the High Court. See also the Royal Courts of Justice Belfast. The Royal Courts of Justice, commonly called the Law Courts, is the building in These are known as the Thomas More Courts. Universidad Thomas More, Managua, Nicaragua
Crosby Hall, located along the Chelsea embankment in London, is the still-standing home of the More family, and his crest can be seen over the main entrance. Apartment buildings and a park are built over the former locations of his gardens and orchard. One block from Crosby Hall, which is closed to the public, is Chelsea Old Church, an Anglican parish on Old Church Street whose southern chapel dates from the time of the Saint and in which he sang with his parish choir. The remainder of the church was destroyed in the Second World War as was rebuilt in 1958. This church is open to the public at specific times. Outside of Chelsea Old Church is a statue commemorating him as "saint", "scholar", and "statesman". In the same neighborhood, on Upper Cheyne Row, is the Roman Catholic Church of the Holy Savior and St. Thomas More, which honors him according to the Church he defended with his life.
Visitors to the Parliament at Westminster Palace in London will also notice a plaque in the middle of the floor of Westminster Hall commemorating his trial for treason and condemnation to execution in that original part of the Palace.
The execution site at the Tower of London may also be visited. The nearby Anglican chapel of St. Peter Ad Vincula would contain the remains of his body (minus his head, which was stuck on Traitor's Gate) in a mass grave for the condemned underneath the church.
St. Dunstan's Church in Canterbury contains in the Roper family vault in the Nicholas Chapel to the right of its main altar, More's head rescued by his daughter Margaret Roper. Visitors may see the stone marking the sealed vault below this chapel. Also within the church is impressive stained glass windows donated by Roman Catholics to commemorate the events in the Saint's life. This is an Anglican parish. Down and across the street from the parish the facade of the Roper home is maintained and demarcated by a plaque.
Sir Thomas Nevill
|Speaker of the House of Commons|
Sir Thomas Audley
Sir Richard Wingfield
|Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster|
1525 – 1529
Sir William Fitzwilliam
Thomas Cardinal Wolsey
1529 – 1532
Sir Thomas Audley
(Keeper of the Great Seal)
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||English lawyer, writer|
|DATE OF BIRTH||7 February 1478|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||London, England|
|DATE OF DEATH||6 July 1535|
|PLACE OF DEATH||London, England|