March 4, 1801 – March 4, 1809
|Vice President||Aaron Burr (1801–1805),|
George Clinton (1805–1809)
|Preceded by||John Adams|
|Succeeded by||James Madison|
March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801
|Preceded by||John Adams|
|Succeeded by||Aaron Burr|
September 26, 1789 – December 31, 1793
|Preceded by||New Office|
|Succeeded by||Edmund Randolph|
1785 – 1789
|Appointed by||Congress of the Confederation|
|Preceded by||Benjamin Franklin|
|Succeeded by||William Short|
1783 – 1784
June 1, 1779 – June 3, 1781
|Preceded by||Patrick Henry|
|Succeeded by||William Fleming|
1775 – 1776
|Born||April 13 [O.S. April 2] 1743|
|Died||July 4, 1826 (aged 83)|
|Spouse||Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson|
|Children||Martha Washington Jefferson, Jane Randolph Jefferson, Stillborn son, Mary Wayles Jefferson, Lucy Elizabeth Jefferson I, Lucy Elizabeth Jefferson II. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Year 1801 ( MDCCCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Tuesday Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Year 1809 ( MDCCCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836 the US politician This page is for the US Vice President For others of that name see George Clinton. John Adams (October 30 1735 July 4 1826 was one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States. James Madison Jr (March 16 1751 – June 28 1836 was an American Politician, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817 and one of the Founding The Vice President of the United States is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Year 1797 ( MDCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Year 1801 ( MDCCCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Tuesday This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836 the US politician The United States Secretary of State (commonly abbreviated as SecState) is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with Foreign affairs Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar dedicates a Year 1789 ( MDCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 1793 ( MDCCXCIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the Edmund Jenings Randolph ( August 10, 1753 September 12, 1813) was an American attorney, Governor of Virginia The United States has sent Ambassadors to France since the American Revolution. The Congress of the Confederation or the United States in Congress Assembled was the governing body of the United States of America from March 1, Benjamin Franklin ( April 17 1790 was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. William Short (1759–1849 had been Thomas Jefferson 's Private Secretary when he was ambassador in Paris, 1786–1789 A delegate is a member of a group representing an organization (e The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state The Congress of the Confederation or the United States in Congress Assembled was the governing body of the United States of America from March 1, The Governor of Virginia serves as the chief executive of the Commonwealth of Virginia for a four-year term Events 193 - Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is Assassinated 987 - Hugh Capet is elected Year 1779 ( MDCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaims himself Roman Emperor, entering Year 1781 ( MDCCLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Patrick Henry ( May 29, 1736 June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered for his " Colonel William Fleming ( 18 February 1729 – 5 August 1795) was a physician soldier statesman and planter who briefly served as acting A delegate is a member of a group representing an organization (e The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that met beginning in May 10 1775 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Events 1111 - Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. 1204 - The Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople Old Style (or OS) and New Style (or NS) are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year Year 1743 ( MDCCXLIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Shadwell, a Plantation in Virginia near Charlottesville, was the birthplace of Thomas Jefferson. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples For the game see 1826 (board game. Year 1826 ( MDCCCXXVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display Charlottesville is an Independent city located within the confines of Albemarle County in the Commonwealth of Virginia, United States Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson, born Martha Wayles ( – September 6, 1782) was the wife of Thomas Jefferson, who was the third President Martha Washington Jefferson Randolph ( September 27, 1772 &ndash October 10, 1836) was the daughter of Thomas Jefferson, the|
|Alma mater||The College of William & Mary|
|Occupation||Lawyer, Farmer (Planter)|
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–1809), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of republicanism in the United States. Alma mater is Latin for "nourishing mother" It was used in Ancient Rome as a title for the mother Goddess, and in Medieval The College of William and Mary (officially The College of William and Mary in Virginia, also known as William & Mary or W&M) is a Public university A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law as an attorney, Counsel or Solicitor; a person A farmer is a person who raises living organisms for food or raw materials Fundamentally a plantation is usually a large Farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country on which Cotton, Tobacco Deism is the belief that a supreme God exists and created the physical universe and that religious truths can be arrived at by the application of reason alone without dependence on revelation A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Events 1111 - Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. 1204 - The Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople Year 1743 ( MDCCXLIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples For the game see 1826 (board game. Year 1826 ( MDCCCXXVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4 1776 announcing that the thirteen American colonies then The Founding Fathers of the United States are the Political leaders who signed the Declaration of Independence or otherwise participated in the Republicanism is the Value system of Governance that has been a major part of American civic thought since the American Revolution Major events during his presidency include the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806). For the film see Louisiana Purchase (film. The Louisiana Purchase (French Vente de la Louisiane "Louisiana Sale"
As a political philosopher, Jefferson was a man of the Enlightenment and knew many intellectual leaders in Britain and France. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century He idealized the independent yeoman farmer as exemplar of republican virtues, distrusted cities and financiers, and favored states' rights and a strictly limited federal government. Yeoman is noun used to indicate a variety of positions or Social classes In the 16th century a yeoman was also a Farmer of middling social status who owned Republicanism is the Ideology of governing a nation as a Republic, with an emphasis on Liberty, Rule of law, Popular sovereignty Jefferson supported the separation of church and state and was the author of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1779, 1786). Separation of church and state is a Political and Legal Doctrine that Government and religious institutions are to be kept separate The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was written in 1779 by Thomas Jefferson. He was the eponym of Jeffersonian democracy and the co-founder and leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, which dominated American politics for a quarter-century. Jeffersonian Democracy is the set of political goals that were named after Thomas Jefferson Politics of the United States takes place in the framework of a presidential, Federal republic where the President of the United States (the Head of Jefferson served as the wartime Governor of Virginia (1779–1781), first United States Secretary of State (1789–1793) and second Vice President (1797–1801). The Governor of Virginia serves as the chief executive of the Commonwealth of Virginia for a four-year term The United States Secretary of State (commonly abbreviated as SecState) is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with Foreign affairs The Vice President of the United States is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death
A polymath, Jefferson achieved distinction as, among other things, a horticulturist, statesman, architect, archaeologist, paleontologist, author, inventor and founder of the University of Virginia. A polymath ( Greek polymathēs, πολυμαθής "having learned much" is a person whose knowledge is not restricted to one subject area Horticulture is the art and science of plant cultivation Horticulturists (or horticuluralists) work and conduct research in the fields of Plant propagation A statesman or stateswoman or statesperson is usually a Politician or other notable figure of State who has had a long and respected career in An architect is a licensed individual who leads a design team in the Planning and Design of buildings and participates in oversight of Building Construction Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos Palaeontology redirects here For the Scientific journal, see Palaeontology (journal. An author is defined both as "the person who originates or gives existence to anything" and that authorship determines responsibility for what is created An inventor is a person who creates or discovers a new method form device or other useful means The University of Virginia (also called UVa, UVA, Mr Jefferson's University, or The University) is a highly selective public research When President John F. Kennedy welcomed forty-nine Nobel Prize winners to the White House in 1962 he said, "I think this is the most extraordinary collection of talent and of human knowledge that has ever been gathered together at the White House — with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence "
Thomas Jefferson and Martin Van Buren are the only two people to accomplish a so-called "triple crown": serving as Secretary of State, Vice-President, and President. Martin Van Buren (December 5 1782 July 24 1862 was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841 The United States Secretary of State (commonly abbreviated as SecState) is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with Foreign affairs The Vice President of the United States is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by
Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743 into a family closely related to some of the most prominent individuals in Virginia, the third of eight children. Events 1111 - Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. 1204 - The Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople Year 1743 ( MDCCXLIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a His mother was Jane Randolph, daughter of Isham Randolph, a ship's captain and sometime planter, and first cousin to Peyton Randolph. Jane Randolph Jefferson (1720-1776 was the wife of Peter Jefferson, cousin of Peyton Randolph, daughter of Isham Randolph, and the mother of Thomas Isham Randolph (1685 - 1742 was the maternal grandfather of U Peyton Randolph was the first President of the Continental Congress. Jefferson's father was Peter Jefferson, a planter and surveyor plantations in Albemarle County (Shadwell, then Edge Hill, Virginia. Peter Jefferson ( February 29, 1708 &ndash August 17, 1757) was the father of President Thomas Jefferson. Albemarle County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Edge Hill is the childhood home of Thomas Jefferson in Albemarle County, Virginia, USA. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state ) He was of Welsh descent. The Welsh people ( Welsh: Cymro ("Welshman" Cymraes ("Welsh woman" Cymry ("Welshmen/women" Cymry
In 1752, Jefferson began attending a local school run by William Douglas, a Scottish minister. Rembrandt Peale ( February 22, 1778 – October 3, 1860) was a 19th century American artist that received critical acclaim for his William Douglas may refer to Earls of Douglas William Douglas 1st Earl of Douglas (c At the age of nine, Jefferson began studying Latin, Greek, and French. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people In 1757, when he was 14 years old, his father died. Jefferson inherited about 5,000 acres (20 km²) of land and dozens of slaves. Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia in 1607 and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth He built his home there, which eventually became known as Monticello. Monticello (mɒntəˈtʃɛloʊ located near Charlottesville, Virginia, was the estate of Thomas Jefferson, the principal author of the United States
After his father's death, he was taught at the school of the learned minister James Maury from 1758 to 1760. The Reverend James Maury ( 1719 – 1769) was an Irish-born educator in the American colonies  The school was in Fredericksville Parish near Gordonsville, Virginia, twelve miles (19 km) from Shadwell, and Jefferson boarded with Maury's family. Gordonsville is a town in Louisa and Orange counties in the U The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state Shadwell, a Plantation in Virginia near Charlottesville, was the birthplace of Thomas Jefferson. There he received a classical education and studied history and science. The Classical education movement advocates a form of education based in the traditions of Western culture, with a particular focus on education as understood and taught
In 1760 Jefferson entered The College of William & Mary in Williamsburg at the age of 16; he studied there for two years, graduating with highest honors in 1762. The College of William and Mary (officially The College of William and Mary in Virginia, also known as William & Mary or W&M) is a Public university Williamsburg is a city located on the Virginia Peninsula in the Hampton Roads region in southeastern Virginia At William & Mary, he enrolled in the philosophy school and studied mathematics, metaphysics, and philosophy under Professor William Small, who introduced the enthusiastic Jefferson to the writings of the British Empiricists, including John Locke, Francis Bacon, and Isaac Newton (Jefferson called them the "three greatest men the world had ever produced"). Metaphysics is the branch of Philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science William Small (October 131734&ndashFebruary 25 1775 was born in Carmyllie, Forfarshire (now Angus Scotland, the son of a Presbyterian minister In Philosophy, empiricism is a theory of Knowledge which asserts that knowledge arises from Experience. John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704 was an English Philosopher. Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban KC QC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626 was an English Philosopher, Statesman, and author Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements  He also perfected his French, carried his Greek grammar book wherever he went, practiced the violin, and read Tacitus and Homer. Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (ca 56 &ndash ca 117 was a senator and a Historian of the Roman Empire. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the A keen and diligent student, Jefferson displayed an avid curiosity in all fields and, according to the family tradition, frequently studied fifteen hours a day. His closest college friend, John Page of Rosewell, reported that Jefferson "could tear himself away from his dearest friends to fly to his studies. "
While in college, Jefferson was a member of a secret organization called the Flat Hat Club, now the namesake of the William & Mary student newspaper. The Flat Hat Club (as it was known outside its membership or F He lodged and boarded at the College in the building known today as the Sir Christopher Wren Building, attending communal meals in the Great Hall, and morning and evening prayers in the Wren Chapel. Oldest buildings in AmericaThe Wren Building is the signature Building of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. Jefferson often attended the lavish parties of royal governor Francis Fauquier, where he played his violin and developed an early love for wines. Francis Fauquier (1703 – 3 March 1768) was a Lieutenant Governor of the colony of Virginia (in what is today the United States  After graduating in 1762 with highest honors, he studied law with his friend and mentor, George Wythe, and was admitted to the Virginia bar in 1767. George Wythe (1726 &ndash June 8, 1806) was a lawyer a judge a prominent law professor and "Virginia's foremost classical scholar The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state
In 1772, Jefferson married a 23-year-old widow named Martha Wayles Skelton. Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson, born Martha Wayles ( – September 6, 1782) was the wife of Thomas Jefferson, who was the third President They had six children: Martha Jefferson Randolph (1772–1836), Jane Randolph (1774–1775), a stillborn or unnamed son (1777), Mary Wayles (1778–1804), Lucy Elizabeth (1780–1781), and Elizabeth (1782–1785). Martha Washington Jefferson Randolph ( September 27, 1772 &ndash October 10, 1836) was the daughter of Thomas Jefferson, the Martha died on September 6, 1782 and Jefferson never remarried. Events 3114 BC - According to the Proleptic Julian calendar the current era in the Maya Long Count Calendar started Year 1782 ( MDCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Jefferson may also have been the father of several children with his slave Sally Hemings, though the father may also have been one of his male relatives (see Jefferson DNA data). Sally Hemings ( Shadwell, Albemarle County Virginia, circa 1773 &ndash Charlottesville Virginia, 1835 was an American slave owned by was a long controversy regarding whether or not Thomas Jefferson could have fathered any sons by Sally Hemings.
Jefferson practiced law and, beginning in 1769, represented Albemarle County in the Virginia House of Burgesses. The Virginia House of Burgesses was the first elected lower house in the legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in Following the passage of the Intolerable Acts by the British Parliament in 1774, he wrote a set of resolutions against the acts, which were expanded into A Summary View of the Rights of British America, his first published work. The Intolerable Acts or the Coercive Acts are names used to describe a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 relating to Britain's colonies The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories The pamphlet inserted, into what had previously been a debate about constitutional issues, the radical notion that the colonists had the natural right to govern themselves.  Jefferson also introduced the idea that Parliament was the legislature of Great Britain only, and had no legislative authority in the colonies.  The paper was intended as instructions for the Virginia delegation of the First Continental Congress, but Jefferson's ideas proved to be too radical for that body. The First Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from twelve of the thirteen British North American colonies that met on September 5 1774 in  Nevertheless, the pamphlet helped provide the theoretical framework for American independence, and marked Jefferson as one of the most thoughtful patriot spokesmen.
Jefferson served as a delegate to the Second Continental Congress beginning in June 1775, soon after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War. The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that met beginning in May 10 1775 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" When Congress began considering a resolution of independence in June 1776, Jefferson was appointed to a five-man committee to prepare a declaration to accompany the resolution. The Lee Resolution, also known as the resolution of independence, was an act of the Second Continental Congress declaring the Thirteen Colonies to The Committee of Five was the group delegated by the Second Continental Congress on June 11, 1776, to draft the United States The committee selected Jefferson to write the first draft because of his reputation as a writer, and because no one else thought the task important enough to want the job.  Jefferson completed a draft in consultation with other committee members, drawing heavily on George Mason's draft of the Virginia Declaration of Rights, state and local calls for independence, his own proposed draft of the Virginia Constitution, and other sources. George Mason IV ( December 11, 1725 &ndash October 7, 1792) was a United States patriot, statesman and delegate from The Virginia Declaration of Rights is a document drafted in 1776 to proclaim the inherent Natural rights of men including the right to rebel against "inadequate" government The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Virginia is the document that defines and limits the powers of the state government and the basic rights of the citizens of the United States 
Jefferson presented a draft to the committee, which made some final revisions, and then presented it to Congress on June 28, 1776. Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a After voting in favor of the resolution of independence on July 2, Congress turned its attention to the declaration. Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival Over several days of debate, Congress made a few changes in wording and deleted nearly a fourth of the text, most notably a passage critical of the slave trade, changes that Jefferson resented. The Atlantic Slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the Colonies of the New World On July 4, 1776, the wording of the Declaration of Independence was approved. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4 1776 announcing that the thirteen American colonies then The Declaration would eventually become Jefferson's major claim to fame, and his eloquent preamble became an enduring statement of human rights.
In September 1776, Jefferson returned to Virginia and was elected to the new Virginia House of Delegates. Virginia House of Delegates is the Lower house of the Virginia General Assembly. During his term in the House, Jefferson set out to reform and update Virginia's system of laws to reflect its new status as a democratic state. He drafted 126 bills in three years, including laws to abolish primogeniture, establish freedom of religion, and streamline the judicial system. Primogeniture is the Common law right of the Firstborn son to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings Freedom of religion is the freedom of an individual or community in public or private to manifest religion or belief in teaching practice worship and observance In 1778, Jefferson's "Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge" led to several academic reforms at his alma mater, including an elective system of study — the first in an American university.
While in state legislature Jefferson proposed a bill to eliminate all crimes punishable to death in Virginia, except murder and treason. Capital punishment is legal in the US Commonwealth of Virginia. Murder is the unlawful killing of another human person with Malice aforethought, as defined in Common Law countries In Law, treason is the Crime that covers some of the more serious acts of disloyalty to one's sovereign or Nation. His effort to reform death penalty law, however, was defeated by just one vote. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Virginia retained such crimes as rape as punishable to death until 1960s. Rape, also referred to as Sexual assault, is an Assault by a person involving Sexual intercourse with or Sexual penetration of another person The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969
Jefferson served as governor of Virginia from 1779–1781. The Governor of Virginia serves as the chief executive of the Commonwealth of Virginia for a four-year term As governor, he oversaw the transfer of the state capital from Williamsburg to the more central location of Richmond in 1780. This article is about the city of Richmond the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia. He continued to advocate educational reforms at the College of William and Mary, including the nation's first student-policed honor code. "Code of honor" redirects here for the first season episode of Star Trek The Next Generation see Code of Honor. In 1779, at Jefferson's behest, William and Mary appointed George Wythe to be the first professor of law in an American university. George Wythe (1726 &ndash June 8, 1806) was a lawyer a judge a prominent law professor and "Virginia's foremost classical scholar Dissatisfied with the rate of changes he wanted to push through, he later became the founder of the University of Virginia, which was the first university in the United States at which higher education was completely separate from religious doctrine.
Virginia was invaded twice by the British during Jefferson's term as governor. He, along with Patrick Henry and other leaders of Virginia, were but ten minutes away from being captured by Banastre Tarleton, a British colonel leading a cavalry column that was raiding the area in June 1781. Patrick Henry ( May 29, 1736 June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered for his " General Sir Banastre Tarleton 1st Baronet, GCB ( 21 August 1754 &ndash 16 January 1833) was a British  Public disapproval of his performance delayed his future political prospects, and he was never again elected to office in Virginia. 
Because Jefferson served as minister to France from 1785 to 1789, he was not able to attend the Philadelphia Convention. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Philadelphia Convention (now also known as the Constitutional Convention, the Federal Convention, or the " Grand Convention at Philadelphia He generally supported the new constitution despite the lack of a bill of rights and was kept informed by his correspondence with James Madison. A Bill of Rights is a list or summary of rights that are considered important and essential by a group of people James Madison Jr (March 16 1751 – June 28 1836 was an American Politician, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817 and one of the Founding
While in Paris, he lived in a residence on the Champs-Élysées. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city The Avenue des Champs-Élysées (ʃɑ̃zeliˈze) is the most prestigious avenue in Paris.
After returning from France, Jefferson served as the first Secretary of State under George Washington (1789–1793). Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton began sparring over national fiscal policy, especially the funding of the debts of the war, with Hamilton believing that the debts should be equally shared, and Jefferson believing that each state should be responsible for its own debt (Virginia had not accumulated much debt during the Revolution). Fiscal policy, taking the scope of Budgetary policy, refers to government policy that attempts to influence the direction of the economy through changes in government taxes In further sparring with the Federalists, Jefferson came to equate Hamilton and the rest of the Federalists with Tories and monarchists who threatened to undermine republicanism. He equated Federalism with "Royalism," and made a point to state that "Hamiltonians were panting after. . . and itching for crowns, coronets and mitres. " Jefferson and James Madison founded and led the Democratic-Republican Party. James Madison Jr (March 16 1751 – June 28 1836 was an American Politician, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817 and one of the Founding He worked with Madison and his campaign manager John J. Beckley to build a nationwide network of Republican allies to combat Federalists across the country. John James Beckley ( August 4, 1757 &ndash April 8, 1807) political campaign manager and the first U
Jefferson strongly supported France against Britain when war broke out between those nations in 1793. Historian Lawrence S. Kaplan notes Jefferson's "visceral support for the French cause," while agreeing with Washington that the nation should not get involved in the fighting.  The arrival in 1793 of an aggressive new French minister, Edmond-Charles Genêt, caused a crisis for the Secretary of State, as he watched Genêt try to violate American neutrality, manipulate public opinion, and even go over Washington's head in appealing to the people; projects that Jefferson helped to thwart. Edmond-Charles Genêt ( January 8, 1763 &ndash July 14, 1834) also known as Citizen Genêt, was a French ambassador According to Schachner, Jefferson believed that political success at home depended on the success of the French army in Europe:
Jefferson at the end of 1793 retired to Monticello where he continued to orchestrate opposition to Hamilton and Washington. However, the Jay Treaty of 1794, orchestrated by Hamilton, brought peace and trade with Britain — while Madison, with strong support from Jefferson, wanted, Miller says, "to strangle the former mother country" without actually going to war. The Jay Treaty, also known as the Treaty of London of 1794, between the United States and Great Britain averted war solved many issues left over from "It became an article of faith among Republicans that 'commercial weapons' would suffice to bring Great Britain to any terms the United States chose to dictate. " Jefferson, in retirement, strongly encouraged Madison. 
As the Democratic-Republican candidate in 1796 he lost to John Adams, but had enough electoral votes to become Vice President (1797–1801). John Adams (October 30 1735 July 4 1826 was one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States. The Vice President of the United States is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death He wrote a manual of parliamentary procedure, but otherwise avoided the Senate. Parliamentary procedure is the body of Rules Ethics, and Customs governing meetings and other operations of Clubs Organizations
With the Quasi-War, an undeclared naval war with France, underway, the Federalists under John Adams started a navy, built up the army, levied new taxes, readied for war, and enacted the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798. Rembrandt Peale ( February 22, 1778 – October 3, 1860) was a 19th century American artist that received critical acclaim for his The Quasi-War was an Undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800 The term " federalist " describes several political beliefs around the world The Alien and Sedition Acts were four bills passed in 1798 by the Federalists in the United States Congress —who were waging an undeclared naval war with France Jefferson interpreted the Alien and Sedition Acts as an attack on his party more than on dangerous enemy aliens; they were used to attack his party, with the most notable attacks coming from Matthew Lyon, congressman of Vermont. Matthew Lyon ( July 14, 1749 - August 1, 1822) (father of Chittenden Lyon and great-grandfather of William Peters Hepburn Vermont ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. He and Madison rallied support by anonymously writing the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which declared that the federal government had no right to exercise powers not specifically delegated to it by the states. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (or Resolves) were important political statements in favor of States' rights written secretly by Vice President Thomas The Resolutions meant that, should the federal government assume such powers, its acts under them could be voided by a state. The Resolutions presented the first statements of the states' rights theory, that later led to the concepts of nullification and interposition. States' rights refers to the idea in US politics and constitutional law, that U Interposition, in the context of the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, refers to an asserted right of U
Working closely with Aaron Burr of New York, Jefferson rallied his party, attacking the new taxes especially, and ran for the Presidency in 1800. In the United States Presidential election of 1800, sometimes referred to as the “Revolution of 1800” Vice President Thomas Jefferson defeated President John Adams This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836 the US politician In the United States Presidential election of 1800, sometimes referred to as the “Revolution of 1800” Vice President Thomas Jefferson defeated President John Adams Consistent with the traditions of the times, he did not formally campaign for the position. Prior to the passage of the 12th Amendment, a problem with the new union's electoral system arose. The Twelfth Amendment ( Amendment XII) to the United States Constitution provides the procedure by which the President and Vice President are He tied with Burr for first place in the Electoral College, leaving the House of Representatives (where the Federalists still had some power) to decide the election. An electoral college is a set of many electors who are empowered to elect a candidate to a particular Office. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate.
After lengthy debate within the Federalist-controlled House, Hamilton convinced his party that Jefferson would be a lesser political evil than Burr and that such scandal within the electoral process would undermine the still-young regime. The issue was resolved by the House, on 17 February 1801 after thirty-six ballots, when Jefferson was elected President and Burr Vice President. Events 1500 - Battle of Hemmingstedt. 1600 - Philosopher Giordano Bruno is burned alive at Campo de' Fiori Year 1801 ( MDCCCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Tuesday Burr's refusal to remove himself from consideration created ill will with Jefferson, who dropped Burr from the ticket in 1804 after Burr killed Hamilton in a duel.
|The Jefferson Cabinet|
|President||Thomas Jefferson||1801 – 1809|
|Vice President||Aaron Burr||1801 – 1805|
|George Clinton||1805 – 1809|
|Secretary of State||James Madison||1801 – 1809|
|Secretary of Treasury||Samuel Dexter||1801|
|Albert Gallatin||1801 – 1809|
|Secretary of War||Henry Dearborn||1801 – 1809|
|Attorney General||Levi Lincoln, Sr.||1801 – 1804|
|John Breckinridge||1805 – 1806|
|Caesar A. Rodney||1807 – 1809|
|Secretary of the Navy||Benjamin Stoddert||1801|
|Robert Smith||1801 – 1809|
Jefferson appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:
After leaving the Presidency, Jefferson continued to be active in public affairs. He also became increasingly concerned with founding a new institution of higher learning, specifically one free of church influences where students could specialize in many new areas not offered at other universities. The University of Virginia (also called UVa, UVA, Mr Jefferson's University, or The University) is a highly selective public research Jefferson believed educating people was a good way to establish an organized society, and also felt schools should be paid for by the general public, so less wealthy people could obtain student membership as well.  A letter to Joseph Priestley, in January, 1800, indicated that he had been planning the University for decades before its establishment. Joseph Priestley (13 March 1733 ( Old
His dream was realized in 1819 with the founding of the University of Virginia. The University of Virginia (also called UVa, UVA, Mr Jefferson's University, or The University) is a highly selective public research Upon its opening in 1825, it was then the first university to offer a full slate of elective courses to its students. One of the largest construction projects to that time in North America, it was notable for being centered about a library rather than a church. In fact, no campus chapel was included in his original plans. Until his death, Jefferson invited students and faculty of the school to his home; Edgar Allan Poe was among those students. Edgar Allan Poe (January 19 1809 – October 7 1849 was an American poet, short-story Writer, editor and Literary critic,
Jefferson is widely recognized for his architectural planning of the University of Virginia grounds, an innovative design that is a powerful representation of his aspirations for both state sponsored education and an agrarian democracy in the new Republic. The University of Virginia (also called UVa, UVA, Mr Jefferson's University, or The University) is a highly selective public research His educational idea of creating specialized units of learning is physically expressed in the configuration of his campus plan, which he called the "Academical Village. The Lawn (part of Thomas Jefferson 's Academical Village) is a large terraced grassy court at the historic center of Jefferson's academic community at the " Individual academic units are expressed visually as distinct structures, represented by Pavilions, facing a grassy quadrangle, with each Pavilion housing classroom, faculty office, and residences. Though unique, each is visually equal in importance, and they are linked together with a series of open air arcades that are the front facades of student accommodations. Gardens and vegetable plots are placed behind surrounded by serpentine walls, affirming the importance of the agrarian lifestyle. Serpentine refers to the curved shape of an object or design which resembles the letter S, a Sine wave or a Snake; the latter is the derivation
His highly ordered site plan establishes an ensemble of buildings surrounding a central rectangular quadrangle, named The Lawn, which is lined on either side with the academic teaching units and their linking arcades. The quad is enclosed at one end with the library, the repository of knowledge, at the head of the table. The remaining side opposite the library remained open-ended for future growth. The lawn rises gradually as a series of stepped terraces, each a few feet higher than the last, rising up to the library set in the most prominent position at the top, while also suggesting that the Academical Village facilitates easier movement to the future.
Stylistically, Jefferson was a proponent of the Greek and Roman styles, which he believed to be most representative of American democracy by historical association. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Each academic unit is designed with a two story temple front facing the quadrangle, while the library is modeled on the Roman Pantheon. The Pantheon ( Latin Pantheon, from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheon, meaning "Temple of all the gods" is a building in Rome The ensemble of buildings surrounding the quad is an unmistakable architectural statement of the importance of secular public education, while the exclusion of religious structures reinforces the principal of separation of church and state. The campus planning and architectural treatment remains today as a paradigm of the ordering of manmade structures to express intellectual ideas and aspirations. A survey of members of the American Institute of Architects identified Jefferson's campus as the most significant work of architecture in America. The American Institute of Architects (AIA is a professional organization for Architects in the United States.
The University was designed as the capstone of the educational system of Virginia. In his vision, any citizen of the commonwealth could attend school with the sole criterion being ability. Four of the constituent states of the United States officially designate themselves Commonwealths: Kentucky, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania
Jefferson died on the Fourth of July, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. In the United States, Independence Day, commonly known as the Fourth of July (or the Fourth) is a Federal holiday commemorating the adoption He died a few hours before the death of John Adams, his compatriot in their quest for independence, then great political rival, and later friend and correspondent. John Adams (October 30 1735 July 4 1826 was one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States. Adams is often rumored to have referenced Jefferson in his last words, unaware of his passing. 
Although he was born into one of the wealthiest families in the United States, Thomas Jefferson was deeply in debt when he died. His possessions were sold at auction. In 1831, Jefferson's 552 acres (223 hectares) were sold for $7,000 to James T. Barclay. Thomas Jefferson is buried on his Monticello estate, in Charlottesville, Virginia. Charlottesville is an Independent city located within the confines of Albemarle County in the Commonwealth of Virginia, United States In his will, he left Monticello to the United States to be used as a school for orphans of navy officers. His epitaph, written by him with an insistence that only his words and "not a word more" be inscribed, reads:
Below the epitaph on a separate panel is written:
The initials O. S. are a notation for Old Style and that is a reference to the change of dating that occurred during Jefferson's life time from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar under the British Calendar (New Style) Act 1750. Old Style (or OS) and New Style (or NS) are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year The Julian calendar, a reform of the Roman calendar, was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 Ab urbe condita The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today See also Old Style and New Style dates See also Gregorian calendar, Julian calendar The Calendar (New Style Act 1750 (also known as 
Jefferson has been described by many people as a thin, tall man, who stood at approximately six feet and remarkably straight. 
"The Sage of Monticello" cultivated an image that earned him the other nickname, "Man of the People. " He affected a popular air by greeting White House guests in homespun attire like a robe and slippers. Dolley Madison, wife of James Madison (Jefferson's secretary of state), and Jefferson's daughters relaxed White House protocol and turned formal state dinners into more casual and entertaining social events. Dorothea Payne Todd "Dolley" Madison (May 20 1768 &ndash July 12 1849 was the wife of the 4th President of the United States, James Madison, and was  Although a foremost defender of a free press, Jefferson at times sparred with partisan newspapers and appealed to the people. 
Jefferson's writings were utilitarian and evidenced great intellect, and he had an affinity for languages. He learned Gaelic in order to translate Ossian, and sent to James Macpherson for the originals. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. Ossian is the narrator and supposed author of a cycle of poems which the Scottish poet James Macpherson claimed to have translated from ancient sources in the James Macpherson (Seumas Mac a' Phearsain 27 October 1736 17 February 1796) was a Scottish Poet, known as the "translator"
As President, he discontinued the practice of delivering the State of the Union Address in person, instead sending the address to Congress in writing (the practice was eventually revived by Woodrow Wilson); he gave only two public speeches during his Presidency. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28 1856—February 3 1924 was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. Jefferson had a lisp and preferred writing to public speaking partly because of this. A lisp ( OE wlisp, stammering is a Speech impediment, historically also known as sigmatism. He burned all of his letters between himself and his wife at her death, creating the portrait of a man who at times could be very private. Indeed, he preferred working in the privacy of his office than the public eye. 
Jefferson was an accomplished architect who was extremely influential in bringing the Neo-Palladian style—popular among the Whig aristocracy of Britain—to the United States. An architect is a licensed individual who leads a design team in the Planning and Design of buildings and participates in oversight of Building Construction PLEASE DO NOT ADD AN INFO BOX TO THIS PAGE --> Palladian architecture is a European style of Architecture derived from the designs of the Italian The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to The style was associated with Enlightenment ideas of republican civic virtue and political liberty. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Jefferson designed his famous home, Monticello, near Charlottesville, Virginia; it included automatic doors, the first swivel chair, and other convenient devices invented by Jefferson. Monticello (mɒntəˈtʃɛloʊ located near Charlottesville, Virginia, was the estate of Thomas Jefferson, the principal author of the United States Charlottesville is an Independent city located within the confines of Albemarle County in the Commonwealth of Virginia, United States The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state A swivel or revolving chair is a chair with a single central leg that allows the seat to spin around Nearby is the only university ever to have been founded by a U. S. president, the University of Virginia, of which the original curriculum and architecture Jefferson designed. The University of Virginia (also called UVa, UVA, Mr Jefferson's University, or The University) is a highly selective public research In formal education a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses and their content offered at a School or University. Today, Monticello and the University of Virginia are together one of only four man-made World Heritage Sites in the United States of America. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Jefferson also designed Poplar Forest, near Lynchburg, in Bedford County, Virginia, as a private retreat from a very public life. Poplar Forest was Thomas Jefferson 's Plantation and Plantation house in what is now Forest Virginia, near historic Lynchburg Virginia Lynchburg is an Independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Bedford County is a county located in the US state of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Jefferson is also credited with the architectural design of the Virginia State Capitol building, which was modeled after the Maison Carrée at Nîmes in southern France, an ancient Roman temple. The Virginia State Capitol is the seat of state government in the Commonwealth of Virginia located in Richmond, the third State Capital of Virginia. The Maison Carrée at Nîmes in southern France is one of the best preserved temples to be found anywhere in the territory of the former Roman Empire. Fanum At the temples Romans prayed and made Ritual Worship Offerings of a small gift or Animal sacrifices to their Roman Jefferson's buildings helped initiate the ensuing American fashion for Federal architecture. Chester TownshipJPG|thumb|right|A federal style colonial home in Chester Township New Jersey]] Federal-style architecture occurred in the United States between 1780
Jefferson's interests included archeology, a discipline then in its infancy. He has sometimes been called the "father of archeology" in recognition of his role in developing excavation techniques. When exploring an Indian burial mound on his Virginia estate in 1784, Jefferson avoided the common practice of simply digging downwards until something turned up. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States Instead, he cut a wedge out of the mound so that he could walk into it, look at the layers of occupation, and draw conclusions from them.
Thomas Jefferson enjoyed his fish pond at Monticello. It was around three feet (1 m) deep and mortar lined. He used the pond to keep fish that were recently caught as well as to keep eels fresh. This pond has been restored and can be seen from the west side of Monticello.
In 1780, he joined Benjamin Franklin's American Philosophical Society. The American Philosophical Society is a discussion group founded in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin as an offshoot of his earlier club the Junto. He served as president of the society from 1797 to 1815.
Jefferson was an avid wine lover and noted gourmet. Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice During his years in France (1784–1789) he took extensive trips through French and other European wine regions and sent the best back home. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. He is noted for the bold pronouncement: "We could in the United States make as great a variety of wines as are made in Europe, not exactly of the same kinds, but doubtless as good. " While there were extensive vineyards planted at Monticello, a significant portion were of the European wine grape Vitis vinifera and did not survive the many vine diseases native to the Americas. Vitis vinifera ( Common Grape Vine) is a species of Vitis, native to the Mediterranean region, central Europe, and
In 1801, he published A Manual of Parliamentary Practice that is still in use. In 1812 Jefferson published a second edition.
After the British burned Washington, D. C. and the Library of Congress in August 1814, Jefferson offered his own collection to the nation. The Library of Congress is the De facto National library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress In January 1815, Congress accepted his offer, appropriating $23,950 for his 6,487 books, and the foundation was laid for a great national library. Today, the Library of Congress' website for federal legislative information is named THOMAS, in honor of Jefferson. The Library of Congress is the De facto National library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress  His two-volume 1764 edition of the Qur'an was used by Rep. Keith Ellison in 2007 for his swearing in to the House of Representatives. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Keith Maurice Ellison (born August 4, 1963) is an American Lawyer and Politician belonging to the Democratic-Farmer-Labor In mid- November 2006 it was reported that Keith Ellison, the first Muslim elected to the United States Congress (for Minnesota 's 5th The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. 
Jefferson was a leader in developing republicanism in the United States. He insisted that the British aristocratic system was inherently corrupt and that Americans' devotion to civic virtue required independence. In the 1790s he repeatedly warned that Hamilton and Adams were trying to impose a British-like monarchical system that threatened republicanism. He supported the War of 1812, hoping it would drive away the British military and ideological threat from Canada. The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies Jefferson's vision for American virtue was that of an agricultural nation of yeoman farmers minding their own affairs. It stood in contrast to the vision of Alexander Hamilton, who envisioned a nation of commerce and manufacturing, which Jefferson said offered too many temptations to corruption. Jefferson's deep belief in the uniqueness and the potential of America made him the father of American exceptionalism. American exceptionalism (cf " Exceptionalism " refers to the belief that the United States differs qualitatively from other Developed nations In particular, he was confident that an under-populated America could avoid what he considered the horrors of class-divided, industrialized Europe.
Jefferson's republican political principles were heavily influenced by the Country Party of 18th century British opposition writers. He was influenced by John Locke (particularly relating to the principle of inalienable rights). Historians find few traces of any influence by his French contemporary, Jean-Jacques Rousseau. 
His opposition to the Bank of the United States was fierce: "I sincerely believe, with you, that banking establishments are more dangerous than standing armies; and that the principle of spending money to be paid by posterity, under the name of funding, is but swindling futurity on a large scale. " Nevertheless Madison and Congress, seeing the financial chaos caused by the lack of a national bank in the War of 1812, disregarded his advice and created the Second Bank of the United States in 1816. The Second Bank of the United States was a bank chartered in 1816 five years after the expiration of the First Bank of the United States.
Jefferson believed that each individual has "certain inalienable rights. " That is, these rights exist with or without government; man cannot create, take, or give them away. It is the right of "liberty" on which Jefferson is most notable for expounding. Liberty, the freedom to act or believe without being stopped by unnecessary force He defines it by saying "rightful liberty is unobstructed action according to our will within limits drawn around us by the equal rights of others. I do not add 'within the limits of the law,' because law is often but the tyrant’s will, and always so when it violates the rights of the individual. " Hence, for Jefferson, though government cannot create a right to liberty, it can indeed violate it. And the limit of an individual's rightful liberty is not what law says it is but is simply a matter of stopping short of prohibiting other individuals from having the same liberty. A proper government, for Jefferson, is one that not only prohibits individuals in society from infringing on the liberty of other individuals, but also restrains itself from diminishing individual liberty.
Jefferson's commitment to equality was expressed in his successful efforts to abolish primogeniture in Virginia, the rule by which the first born son inherited all the land. 
Jefferson believed that individuals have an innate sense of morality that prescribes right from wrong when dealing with other individuals—that whether they choose to restrain themselves or not, they have an innate sense of the natural rights of others. Morality (from the Latin la moralitas "manner character proper behavior" has three principal meanings He even believed that moral sense to be reliable enough that an anarchist society could function well, provided that it was reasonably small. Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i On several occasions, he expressed admiration for tribal, communal way of living of Native Americans: In fact, Jefferson is sometimes seen as a philosophical anarchist. A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally consists of a Social group existing before the development of or outside of States Many anthropologists use Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States Philosophical anarchism is an Anarchist school of thought which contends that the State lacks moral legitimacy but does not advocate revolution to eliminate 
He said in a letter to Colonel Carrington: "I am convinced that those societies (as the Indians) which live without government, enjoy in their general mass an infinitely greater degree of happiness than those who live under the European governments. " However, Jefferson believed anarchism to be "inconsistent with any great degree of population. " Hence, he did advocate government for the American expanse provided that it exists by "consent of the governed. "
In the Preamble to his original draft of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson wrote:
|“||We hold these truths to be sacred & undeniable; that all men are created equal & independent, that from that equal creation they derive rights inherent & inalienable, among which are the preservation of life, & liberty, & the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these ends, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government shall become destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, & to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles & organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety & happiness. ||”|
Jefferson's dedication to "consent of the governed" was so thorough that he believed that individuals could not be morally bound by the actions of preceding generations. This included debts as well as law. He said that "no society can make a perpetual constitution or even a perpetual law. The earth belongs always to the living generation. " He even calculated what he believed to be the proper cycle of legal revolution: "Every constitution then, and every law, naturally expires at the end of nineteen years. If it is to be enforced longer, it is an act of force, and not of right. " He arrived at nineteen years through calculations with expectancy of life tables, taking into account what he believed to be the age of "maturity"—when an individual is able to reason for himself.  He also advocated that the national debt should be eliminated. Government debt (also known as public debt or national debt) is Money (or credit) owed by any level of government either Central government He did not believe that living individuals had a moral obligation to repay the debts of previous generations. He said that repaying such debts was "a question of generosity and not of right. "
Jefferson's very strong defense of States' rights, especially in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798, set the tone for hostility to expansion of federal powers. However, some of his foreign policies did in fact strengthen the government. Most important was the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, when he used the implied powers to annex a huge foreign territory and all its French and Indian inhabitants. His enforcement of the Embargo Act of 1807, while it failed in terms of foreign policy, demonstrated that the federal government could intervene with great force at the local level in controlling trade that might lead to war. The Embargo Act " was a series of laws passed by the Congress of the United States between the years 1806-1808 during the second term of President Thomas
Jefferson’s commitment to liberty extended to many areas of individual freedom. In his "Commonplace Book," he copied a passage from Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria related to the issue of gun control. Commonplace books (or commonplaces) emerged in the 15th century with the availability of cheap paper for Writing, mainly in England. Beccaria redirects here This article is about the philosopher and politician Gun politics is a set of legal issues surrounding the ownership use and regulation of firearms as well as safety issues related to firearms both through their direct use and through The quote reads, "Laws that forbid the carrying of arms . . . disarm only those who are neither inclined nor determined to commit crimes . . . Such laws make things worse for the assaulted and better for the assailants; they serve rather to encourage than to prevent homicides, for an unarmed man may be attacked with greater confidence than an armed man. " He also once stated, "The strongest reason for the people to retain the right to bear arms is, as a last resort, to protect themselves against tyranny in government. "
Jefferson’s quote, "I hope we shall crush . . . in its birth the aristocracy of our moneyed corporations, which dare already to challenge our government to a trial of strength and bid defiance to the laws of our country" is often attributed to being a strong warning against corporations and their function in American government and society. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business
Trained as a lawyer, Jefferson was a great writer but never a good speaker or advocate and never comfortable in court. He believed that judges should be technical specialists but should not set policy. He denounced the 1801 Supreme Court ruling in Marbury v. Madison as a violation of democracy, but he did not have enough support in Congress to propose a Constitutional amendment to overturn it. Marbury v Madison, is a Landmark case in United States law. It formed the basis for the exercise of Judicial review in the United States under He continued to oppose the doctrine of judicial review:
|“||To consider the judges as the ultimate arbiters of all constitutional questions [is] a very dangerous doctrine indeed, and one which would place us under the despotism of an oligarchy. Judicial review is the power of the courts to annul the acts of the executive and/or the legislative power where it finds them incompatible with a higher norm Our judges are as honest as other men and not more so. They have with others the same passions for party, for power, and the privilege of their corps. Their maxim is boni judicis est ampliare jurisdictionem [good justice is broad jurisdiction], and their power the more dangerous as they are in office for life and not responsible, as the other functionaries are, to the elective control. The Constitution has erected no such single tribunal, knowing that to whatever hands confided, with the corruptions of time and party, its members would become despots. It has more wisely made all the departments co-equal and co-sovereign within themselves. ||”|
Concerning the Shays' Rebellion after he had heard of the bloodshed, Jefferson wrote to William S. Smith, John Adams's son-in-law, "What signify a few lives lost in a century or two? The tree of liberty must from time to time be refreshed with the blood of patriots and tyrants. Shays' Rebellion was an armed uprising in Central and Western Massachusetts from 1786 to 1787 William Stephens Smith ( November 8, 1755 &ndash June 10, 1816) was a United States Representative from New York. It is its natural manure. "
|“||I never had an opinion in politics or religion which I was afraid to own. Francis Hopkinson (September 21 1737 May 9 1791 an American author was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence as a delegate from New A costive reserve on these subjects might have procured me more esteem from some people, but less from myself.||”|
Though his religious views diverted widely from the orthodox Christianity of his day, throughout his life Jefferson was intensely interested in theology, spirituality, and biblical study.  His religious commitment is probably best summarized in his own words as he proclaimed that he belonged to a sect with just one member.
Jefferson's conclusions about the Bible are noteworthy. He considered much of the new testament of the Bible to be lies. He described these as "so much untruth, charlatanism and imposture". He described the "roguery of others of His disciples", and called them a "band of dupes and impostors" describing Paul as the "first corrupter of the doctrines of Jesus", and wrote of "palpable interpolations and falsifications". He also described the Book of Revelation to be "merely the ravings of a maniac, no more worthy nor capable of explanation than the incoherences of our own nightly dreams". While living in the White House, Jefferson began to make his own condensed version of the Gospels, omitting Jesus' virgin birth, miracles, divinity, and resurrection, primarily leaving only Jesus' moral philosophy, of which he approved. This compilation was published after his death and became known as the Jefferson Bible. The Jefferson Bible, or The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth as it is formally titled was Thomas Jefferson's effort to extract the doctrine 
Jefferson was raised in the Church of England at a time when it was the established church in Virginia and only denomination funded by Virginia tax money. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or Creed officially Avery Dulles, a leading Catholic theologian reports, "In his college years at William and Mary [Jefferson] came to admire Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton, and John Locke as three great paragons of wisdom. Avery Dulles SJ (born August 24, 1918) is a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and currently the Laurence J Under the influence of several professors he converted to the deist philosophy. " Dulles concludes:
|“||In summary, then, Jefferson was a deist because he believed in one God, in divine providence, in the divine moral law, and in rewards and punishments after death; but did not believe in supernatural revelation. He was a Christian deist because he saw Christianity as the highest expression of natural religion and Jesus as an incomparably great moral teacher. He was not an orthodox Christian because he rejected, among other things, the doctrines that Jesus was the promised Messiah and the incarnate Son of God. For conservative political views within Christianity see Christian right. Jefferson's religion is fairly typical of the American form of deism in his day.||”|
Before the Revolution, Jefferson was a vestryman in his local church, a lay position that was informally tied to political office at the time. A vestryman is a member of his local church's Vestry, or leading body He also had friends who were clergy, and he supported some churches financially.
It appears that Jefferson employed deist terminology in the United States Declaration of Independence where he wrote the words "Creator" and "Nature's God. The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4 1776 announcing that the thirteen American colonies then " Jefferson believed, furthermore, it was this Creator that endowed humanity with a number of inalienable rights, such as "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. "
In 1776 Jefferson also proposed a motto for the United States Seal. His proposal was, "Rebellion to tyrants is Obedience to God. " He suggested that the seal should feature an image of the Biblical Hebrews being rescued by God via the Red Sea.
For Jefferson, separation of church and state was a necessary reform of the religious "tyranny" whereby a religion received state endorsement, and those not of that religion were denied rights, and even punished.
Following the Revolution, Jefferson played a leading role in the disestablishment of religion in Virginia. Previously the Anglican Church had tax support. As he wrote in his Notes on Virginia, a law was in effect in Virginia that "if a person brought up a Christian denies the being of a God, or the Trinity . . . he is punishable on the first offense by incapacity to hold any office . . . ; on the second by a disability to sue, to take any gift or legacy . . . , and by three year' imprisonment. " Prospective officer-holders were required to swear that they did not believe in the central Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation. See also Eucharist (Catholic Church On the related belief that Christ is present in the Eucharist in body blood soul and divinity see Real Presence.
From 1784 to 1786, Jefferson and James Madison worked together to oppose Patrick Henry's attempts to again assess taxes in Virginia to support churches. Patrick Henry ( May 29, 1736 June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered for his " Instead, in 1786, the Virginia General Assembly passed Jefferson's Bill for Religious Freedom, which he had first submitted in 1779 and was one of only three accomplishments he put in his own epitaph. The Virginia General Assembly is the legislative body of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was written in 1779 by Thomas Jefferson. The law read:
|“||No man shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship, place, or ministry whatsoever, nor shall be enforced, restrained, molested, or burdened in his body or goods, nor shall otherwise suffer, on account of his religious opinions or belief; but that all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinions in matters of religion, and that the same shall in no wise diminish, enlarge, or affect their civil capacities. ||”|
In his 1787 Notes on the State of Virginia, Jefferson stated: "Millions of innocent men, women and children, since the introduction of Christianity, have been burned, tortured, fined and imprisoned. What has been the effect of this coercion? To make half the world fools and half hypocrites; to support roguery and error all over the world. . . "
Jefferson sought what he called a "wall of separation between Church and State," which he believed was a principle expressed by the First Amendment. The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is part of the United States Bill of Rights that expressly prohibits the United States Congress This phrase has been cited several times by the Supreme Court in its interpretation of the Establishment Clause. The Establishment Clause of the First Amendment refers to the first of several pronouncements in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, stating that "  In an 1802 letter to the Danbury Baptist Association, he wrote:
|“||Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies solely between man and his God, that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship, that the legislative powers of government reach actions only, and not opinions, I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should "make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof," thus building a wall of separation between church and State. Baptist is a term describing individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. The Separation of church and state is a legal and political principle derived from the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, which reads "Congress ||”|
Also offering insight into his thinking on the separation of Church and State, is the following quote from Notes on the State of Virginia.
|“||The legitimate powers of government extend to such acts only as are injurious to others. But it does me no injury for my neighbour to say there are twenty gods, or no god. It neither picks my pocket nor breaks my leg.||”|
Jefferson refused to issue proclamations calling for days of prayer and thanksgiving during his Presidency, yet he did do so as Governor in Virginia. His private letters indicate he was skeptical of too much interference by clergy in matters of civil government. Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion. His letters contain the following observations: "History, I believe, furnishes no example of a priest-ridden people maintaining a free civil government," and, "In every country and in every age, the priest has been hostile to liberty. He is always in alliance with the despot, abetting his abuses in return for protection to his own. Despotism is a Form of government by a single authority either an individual or tightly knit group, which rules with absolute political power " "May it be to the world, what I believe it will be, (to some parts sooner, to others later, but finally to all), the signal of arousing men to burst the chains under which monkish ignorance and superstition had persuaded them to bind themselves, and to assume the blessings and security of self-government. " While opposed to the institutions of organized religion, Jefferson invoked the notion of divine justice in his opposition to slavery: "Can the liberties of a nation be thought secure when we have removed their only firm basis, a conviction in the minds of the people that these liberties are of the gift of God? That they are not to be violated but with his wrath? Indeed I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just: that his justice can not sleep forever: that considering numbers, nature and natural means only, a revolution of the wheel of fortune, an exchange of situation is among possible events: that it may become probable by supernatural interference!"
While the debate over Jefferson's understanding over the separation of Church and state is far from being settled, as are his particular religious tenets, his dependence on divine Providence is not nearly as ambiguous. As he stated, in his second inaugural address:
|“||I shall need, too, the favor of that Being in whose hands we are, who led our fathers, as Israel of old, from their native land and planted them in a country flowing with all the necessaries and comforts of life; who has covered our infancy with His providence and our riper years with His wisdom and power, and to whose goodness I ask you to join in supplications with me that He will so enlighten the minds of your servants, guide their councils, and prosper their measures that whatsoever they do shall result in your good, and shall secure to you the peace, friendship, and approbation of all nations. ||”|
During the presidential campaign of 1800, the Federalists attacked Jefferson as an infidel, claiming that Jefferson's intoxication with the religious and political extremism of the French Revolution disqualified him from public office. But Jefferson wrote at length on religion and many scholars agree with the claim that Jefferson was a deist, a common position held by intellectuals in the late 18th century, at least for much of his life.
During his Presidency, Jefferson attended the weekly church services held in the House of Representatives. He also permitted church services in executive branch buildings throughout his administration, believing that Christianity was a prop for republican government. 
|“||[The Jefferson Bible] is a document in proof that I am a real Christian, that is to say, a disciple of the doctrines of Jesus, very different from the Platonists, who call me infidel and themselves Christians and preachers of the gospel, while they draw all their characteristic dogmas from what its author never said nor saw. ||”|
His experience in France just before the French Revolution made him deeply suspicious of Catholic priests and bishops as a force for reaction and ignorance. Similarly, his experience in America with inter-denominational intolerance served to reinforce this skeptical view of religion. In an 1820 letter to Willam Short, Jefferson wrote: "the serious enemies are the priests of the different religious sects, to whose spells on the human mind its improvement is ominous. William Short (1759–1849 had been Thomas Jefferson 's Private Secretary when he was ambassador in Paris, 1786–1789 "
Jefferson also expressed general agreement with his friend Joseph Priestley's Unitarianism, that is the rejection of the doctrine of Trinity. Unitarianism as a theology is the belief in the single personality of God in contrast to the doctrine of the Trinity (three persons in one God In an 1822 letter to a pioneer in Ohio he wrote, "I rejoice that in this blessed country of free inquiry and belief, which has surrendered its conscience to neither kings or priests, the genuine doctrine of only one God is reviving, and I trust that there is not a young man now living in the United States who will not die a Unitarian. "
Jefferson did not believe in the divinity of Jesus, but he had high esteem for Jesus' moral teachings, which he viewed as the "principles of a pure deism, and juster notions of the attributes of God, to reform [prior Jewish] moral doctrines to the standard of reason, justice & philanthropy, and to inculcate the belief of a future state. " Jefferson did not believe in miracles. Biographer Merrill Peterson summarizes Jefferson's theology:
|“||First, that the Christianity of the churches was unreasonable, therefore unbelievable, but that stripped of priestly mystery, ritual, and dogma, reinterpreted in the light of historical evidence and human experience, and substituting the Newtonian cosmology for the discredited Biblical one, Christianity could be conformed to reason. Second, morality required no divine sanction or inspiration, no appeal beyond reason and nature, perhaps not even the hope of heaven or the fear of hell; and so the whole edifice of Christian revelation came tumbling to the ground. ||”|
on the U.S. Nickel
Jefferson owned many slaves over his lifetime. The United States five- cent Coin, commonly called a nickel, is a unit of Currency equaling one-twentieth or five hundredths of a Some find it baffling that Thomas Jefferson owned slaves yet was outspoken in saying that slavery was immoral and it should be abolished. Biographers point out that Jefferson was deeply in debt and had encumbered his slaves by notes and mortgages; he chose not to free them until he finally was debt-free, which he never was.  Jefferson seems to have suffered pangs and trials of conscience as a result.  He wrote about slavery, "We have the wolf by the ears; and we can neither hold him, nor safely let him go. Justice is in one scale, and self-preservation in the other. "
During his long career in public office, Jefferson attempted numerous times to abolish or limit the advance of slavery. According to a biographer, Jefferson "believed that it was the responsibility of the state and society to free all slaves. " In 1769, as a member of the House of Burgesses, Jefferson proposed for that body to emancipate slaves in Virginia, but he was unsuccessful.  In his first draft of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson condemned the British crown for sponsoring the importation of slavery to the colonies, charging that the crown "has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere. Human nature is the concept that there are a set of logical characteristics including ways of thinking feeling and acting that all 'normal' human beings have in common The Western Hemisphere, also Western hemisphere or western hemisphere, is a geographical term for the half of the Earth that lies West " However, this language was dropped from the Declaration at the request of delegates from South Carolina and Georgia. South Carolina ( is a state in the southern region ( Deep South) of the United States of America. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule
In 1778, the legislature passed a bill he proposed to ban further importation of slaves into Virginia; although this did not bring complete emancipation, in his words, it "stopped the increase of the evil by importation, leaving to future efforts its final eradication. Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies " In 1784, Jefferson's draft of what became the Northwest Ordinance stipulated that "there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude" in any of the new states admitted to the Union from the Northwest Territory. The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as the Freedom For the Canadian territory see Northwest Territories. For the northwestern corner of the Lower 48 see Northwestern United States.  In 1807, he signed a bill abolishing the slave trade. The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history Jefferson attacked the institution of slavery in his Notes on the State of Virginia (1784):
|“||There must doubtless be an unhappy influence on the manners of our people produced by the existence of slavery among us. Notes on the State of Virginia was a Book written by Thomas Jefferson. The whole commerce between master and slave is a perpetual exercise of the most boisterous passions, the most unremitting despotism on the one part, and degrading submissions on the other. ||”|
In this same work, Jefferson advanced his suspicion that black people were inferior to white people "in the endowments both of body and mind. " However, Jefferson did also write in this same work that a black person could have the right to live free in any country where people judge them by their nature and not as just being good for labor as well.  He also wrote, "Nothing is more certainly written in the book of fate than that these people are to be free. [But] the two races. . . cannot live in the same government. Nature, habit, opinion has drawn indelible lines of distinction between them. " According to historian Stephen Ambrose: "Jefferson, like all slaveholders and many other white members of American society, regarded Negroes as inferior, childlike, untrustworthy and, of course, as property. Stephen Edward Ambrose ( January 10, 1936 – October 13, 2002) was an American Historian and Biographer of U Jefferson, the genius of politics, could see no way for African Americans to live in society as free people. " His solution seems to have been for slaves to be freed then deported peacefully, failing which the same result would be imposed by war and that, in Jefferson's words, "human nature must shudder at the prospect held up. We should in vain look for an example in the Spanish deportation or deletion of the Moors. This precedent would fall far short of our case. "
|“||Sir,--I have received the favor of your letter of August 17th, and with it the volume you were so kind to send me on the "Literature of Negroes. Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor Year 1809 ( MDCCCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year For the 20th-century Belgian Byzantinologist see Henri Grégoire (historian Henri Grégoire (often referred to as Abbé Grégoire " Be assured that no person living wishes more sincerely than I do, to see a complete refutation of the doubts I have myself entertained and expressed on the grade of understanding allotted to them by nature, and to find that in this respect they are on a par with ourselves. My doubts were the result of personal observation on the limited sphere of my own State, where the opportunity for the development of their genius were not favorable and those of exercising it still less so. I expressed them therefore with great hesitation; but whatever be their degree of talent it is no measure of their rights. Because Sir Isaac Newton was superior to others in understanding, he was not therefore lord of the person or property of others. On this subject they are gaining daily in the opinions of nations, and hopeful advances are making toward their re-establishment on an equal footing with the other colors of the human family. I pray you therefore to accept my thanks for the many instances you have enabled me to observe of respectable intelligence in that race of men, which cannot fail to have effect in hastening the day of their relief; and to be assured of the sentiments of high and just esteem and consideration which I tender to yourself with all sincerity. ||”|
The downturn in land prices after 1819 pushed Jefferson further into debt. Jefferson finally emancipated his five most trusted slaves; the others were sold after his death to pay his debts. 
Whether Jefferson fathered children with Sally Hemings is the subject of considerable controversy. Sally Hemings ( Shadwell, Albemarle County Virginia, circa 1773 &ndash Charlottesville Virginia, 1835 was an American slave owned by Regarding marriage between blacks and whites, Jefferson wrote that "[t]he amalgamation of whites with blacks produces a degradation to which no lover of his country, no lover of excellence in the human character, can innocently consent. Miscegenation (Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind" is the mixing of different racial groups, that is marrying, cohabiting " In addition, Hemings was likely the half-sister of Jefferson's deceased wife Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson (John Wayles had a reputation for relations with his slaves). The allegation that Jefferson fathered children with Hemings first gained widespread public attention in 1802, when controversial journalist James T. Callender, wrote in a Richmond newspaper, ". James Callender (1758-1803 was a political Pamphleteer and newspaper writer who initiated controversies in his native Scotland and the United States. . . [Jefferson] keeps and for many years has kept, as his concubine, one of his slaves. Concubinage is the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status Her name is Sally. " Jefferson never responded publicly about this issue but is said to have denied it in his private correspondence. 
A 1998 DNA study concluded that there was a DNA link between some of Hemings descendants and the Jefferson family, but it did not conclusively prove that Jefferson himself was their ancestor. (He belonged to the Haplogroup 'T' DNA group. Haplogroup T (M70 M184 M193 M272 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ) Three studies were released in the early 2000s, following the publication of the DNA evidence. In 2000, the Thomas Jefferson Foundation, which runs Monticello, appointed a multi-disciplinary, nine-member in-house research committee of Ph.D.s and an M.D. to study the matter of the paternity of Hemings's children. "PhD" redirects here for other uses see PhD (disambiguation. Doctor of Medicine ( MD or MD, from the Latin Medicinæ Doctor meaning "Teacher of Medicine" is a doctoral The committee concluded "it is very unlikely that any Jefferson other than Thomas Jefferson was the father of [Hemings's six] children. "
In 2001, the Thomas Jefferson Heritage Society commissioned a study by an independent 13-member Scholars Commission. The commission concluded that the Jefferson paternity thesis was not persuasive. On April 12, 2001, they issued a report; at 565 pages, it was far longer than the Foundation report, though many of those pages were devoted to a review of the evidence that the Thomas Jefferson Foundation study examined. Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. The conclusion of most of the Scholars Commission was that "the Jefferson-Hemings allegation is by no means proven"; those members' individual conclusions ranged from "serious skepticism about the charge" to "a conviction that it is almost certainly false. " The majority suggested the most likely alternative is that Randolph Jefferson, Thomas's younger brother, was the father of Eston. Randolph Jefferson ( October 1, 1755 &ndash August 7, 1815) was the younger brother of Thomas Jefferson.
The National Genealogical Society Quarterly then published articles reviewing the evidence from a genealogical perspective and concluded that the link between Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings was credible. 
|Governor of Virginia|
1779 – 1781
as United States Secretary for Foreign Affairs
|United States Secretary of State|
September 26, 1789 – December 31, 1793
|Vice President of the United States|
March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801
|President of the United States|
March 4, 1801 – March 4, 1809
|Party political offices|
|New political party||Democratic-Republican Party presidential candidate|
1796¹, 1800, 1804
|United States Minister Plenipotentiary to France|
1785 – 1789
|Notes and references|
|1. Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to Digitize, archive and distribute Cultural works Patrick Henry ( May 29, 1736 June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered for his " The Governor of Virginia serves as the chief executive of the Commonwealth of Virginia for a four-year term Colonel William Fleming ( 18 February 1729 – 5 August 1795) was a physician soldier statesman and planter who briefly served as acting John Jay (December 12 1745 – May 17 1829 was an American Politician, Statesman, revolutionary, Diplomat, a Supreme Court The United States Secretary of Foreign Affairs was a position that existed in the United States government from January 10, 1781 to September The United States Secretary of State (commonly abbreviated as SecState) is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with Foreign affairs Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar dedicates a Year 1789 ( MDCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 1793 ( MDCCXCIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Edmund Jenings Randolph ( August 10, 1753 September 12, 1813) was an American attorney, Governor of Virginia John Adams (October 30 1735 July 4 1826 was one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States. The Vice President of the United States is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Year 1797 ( MDCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Year 1801 ( MDCCCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Tuesday This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836 the US politician The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Year 1801 ( MDCCCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Tuesday Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Year 1809 ( MDCCCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year James Madison Jr (March 16 1751 – June 28 1836 was an American Politician, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817 and one of the Founding The United States presidential election of 1796 was the first contested American presidential election and the first one to elect a President and Vice-President from opposing tickets In the United States Presidential election of 1800, sometimes referred to as the “Revolution of 1800” Vice President Thomas Jefferson defeated President John Adams The United States presidential election of 1804 pitted incumbent Democratic-Republican President Thomas Jefferson against Federalist Charles Cotesworth James Madison Jr (March 16 1751 – June 28 1836 was an American Politician, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817 and one of the Founding Benjamin Franklin ( April 17 1790 was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. The United States has sent Ambassadors to France since the American Revolution. William Short (1759–1849 had been Thomas Jefferson 's Private Secretary when he was ambassador in Paris, 1786–1789 Prior to the passage of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804, each Presidential elector would cast two ballots; the highest vote-getter would become President and the runner-up would become Vice President. The Twelfth Amendment ( Amendment XII) to the United States Constitution provides the procedure by which the President and Vice President are Thus, in 1796, the Republican Party fielded Jefferson as a Presidential candidate, but he came in second and therefore became Vice President.|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||American President|
|DATE OF BIRTH||April 13, 1743|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Albemarle County, Virginia|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 4, 1826|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Charlottesville, Virginia|
Events 1111 - Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. 1204 - The Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople Year 1743 ( MDCCXLIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Albemarle County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples For the game see 1826 (board game. Year 1826 ( MDCCCXXVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display Charlottesville is an Independent city located within the confines of Albemarle County in the Commonwealth of Virginia, United States