|Thomas Alva Edison|
"Genius is one percent inspiration, ninety-nine percent perspiration. " - Thomas Alva Edison, Harper's Monthly (September 1932)
|Born||February 11, 1847|
|Died||October 18, 1931 (aged 84)|
West Orange, New Jersey
|Spouse||Mary Edison, Mina Edison|
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph and a long lasting light bulb. Harper's Magazine (also Harper's) is a monthly general-interest Magazine of literature politics culture finance and the arts Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Year 1847 ( MDCCCXLVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Milan is a village in Erie and Huron counties in the US state of Ohio. Events 1009 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid Year 1931 ( MCMXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. West Orange is a township in central Essex County, New Jersey, United States. An inventor is a person who creates or discovers a new method form device or other useful means An entrepreneur is a person who has possession over a company enterprise, or Venture, and assumes significant accountability for the inherent risks and the outcome Deism is the belief that a supreme God exists and created the physical universe and that religious truths can be arrived at by the application of reason alone without dependence on revelation Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Year 1847 ( MDCCCXLVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Events 1009 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid Year 1931 ( MCMXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the An inventor is a person who creates or discovers a new method form device or other useful means A businessperson (also businessman or businesswoman) is someone who is employed at usually a profit-oriented enterprise, or more specifically someone The phonograph, or gramophone, was the most common device for playing recorded Sound from the 1870s through the 1980s The incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is a source of electric Light that works by Incandescence, (a general Dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park" by a newspaper reporter, he was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production to the process of invention, and therefore is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory. A magician, wizard, sorcerer or a person known under one of many other possible terms in fiction is someone who uses or practices magic Edison Township (usually known as Edison) is a township in Middlesex County New Jersey, United States. Mass production (also called flow production, repetitive flow production, series production, or serial production) is the production of An invention is a new form composition of matter device or Process. A laboratory (informally lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific Research, Experiments and
Edison is considered one of the most prolific inventors in history, holding 1,093 U. Below is a list of Edison patents. Thomas Edison was an inventor who it is said accumulated 1500-plus patents Worldwide for his Inventions Nearly 1100 S. patents in his name, as well as many patents in the United Kingdom, France and Germany. A patent is a set of Exclusive rights granted by a State to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
Thomas Edison was born in Milan, Ohio, and was raised in Port Huron, Michigan. Milan is a village in Erie and Huron counties in the US state of Ohio. Port Huron is a city in the US state of Michigan. As of the 2000 census the city had a population of 32338 with a 2006 estimate of 31302 He was the seventh and last child of Samuel Ogden Edison, Jr. (1804–1896) (born in Marshalltown, Nova Scotia, Canada) and Nancy Matthews Edison nee Elliott (1810–1871). Marshalltown is a rural community located just west of Digby, on Digby Neck an isthmus of Nova Scotia, Canada, between the Bay of Fundy and Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page His family was of Dutch origin. 
In school, the young Edison's mind often wandered, and his teacher, the Reverend Engle, was overheard calling him "addled. " This ended Edison's three months of official schooling. He recalled later, "My mother was the making of me. She was so true, so sure of me; and I felt I had something to live for, someone I must not disappoint. " His mother then home schooled him. Homeschooling (also called home education) home learning or homeschool  – is the education of children at home typically by parents or professional  Much of his education came from reading R. G. Parker's School of Natural Philosophy and The Cooper Union. Richard Green Parker's School of Natural Philosophy is the Scientific Textbook credited with inspiring the inventor Thomas Edison. The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art (commonly referred to simply as The Cooper Union or Cooper Union) is a privately-funded college in
Edison developed hearing problems at an early age. The cause of Edison's deafness has been attributed to a bout of scarlet fever during childhood and recurring untreated middle ear infections. Scarlet fever is a disease caused by an Exotoxin released by Streptococcus pyogenes. Around the middle of his career Edison attributed the hearing loss to being struck on the ears by a train conductor when his chemical lab in a boxcar caught fire, and was thrown off the train in Smiths Creek, Michigan, along with his apparatus and chemicals. Kimball Township is a Civil township of St Clair County in the U In his later years he modified the story to say the injury occurred when the conductor, in helping him onto a moving train, lifted him by the ears. 
Edison's family was forced to move to Port Huron, Michigan, when the railroad bypassed Milan in 1854, but his life there was bittersweet. Port Huron is a city in the US state of Michigan. As of the 2000 census the city had a population of 32338 with a 2006 estimate of 31302 Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. He sold candy and newspapers on trains running from Port Huron to Detroit, as well as vegetables that he sold to supplement his income. This began Edison's long streak of entrepreneurial ventures as he discovered his talents as a businessman. These talents would eventually lead him to found General Electric, which is still a publicly traded company, and 13 other companies.
Edison became a telegraph operator after he saved three-year-old Jimmie MacKenzie from being struck by a runaway train. Jimmie's father, station agent J. U. MacKenzie of Mount Clemens, Michigan, was so grateful that he trained Edison as a telegraph operator. Mount Clemens is a city in the US state of Michigan. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 17312 Edison's first telegraphy job away from Port Huron was at Stratford Junction, Ontario, on the Grand Trunk Railway. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec The Grand Trunk Railway (GTR was a railway system which operated in the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario, as well as the American  In 1866, at the age of 19, Thomas Edison moved to Louisville, Kentucky, where as an employee of Western Union he worked the Associated Press bureau news wire. The Western Union Company ( is a financial services and communications company based in the United States. The Associated Press ( AP) is an American News agency. The AP is a Cooperative owned by its contributing Newspapers radio Edison requested the night shift at work which allowed him plenty of time to spend at his two favorite pastimes -- reading and experimenting. Eventually, the latter pre-occupation cost him his job. One night in 1867, he was working with a battery when he spilled sulphuric acid onto the floor. Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French Physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of Rechargeable battery. It ran between the floorboards and onto his boss' desk below. The next morning he was fired. 
One of his mentors during those early years was a fellow telegrapher and inventor named Franklin Leonard Pope, who allowed the impoverished youth to live and work in the basement of his Elizabeth, New Jersey, home. Franklin Leonard Pope ( 2 December 1840 &ndash 13 October 1895) was an American engineer explorer and inventor Elizabeth is a city in Union County, New Jersey, in the United States. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States.
Some of Edison's earliest inventions were related to telegraphy, including a stock ticker. Ticker tape was used by ticker tape machines, the Ticker tape timer stock ticker machines, or just stock tickers. His first patent was for the electric vote recorder, (U. A patent is a set of Exclusive rights granted by a State to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an S. Patent 90,646), which was granted on June 1, 1869. Events 193 - Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is Assassinated 987 - Hugh Capet is elected Year 1869 ( MDCCCLXIX) is a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year 
On December 25, 1871, at the age of 24, Edison married 16-year-old Mary Stilwell, whom he had met two months earlier. Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Year 1871 ( MDCCCLXXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common They had three children:
Mary Edison died on August 9, 1884. Events 48 BC - Caesar's civil war: Battle of Pharsalus - Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus Year 1884 ( MDCCCLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year
On February 24, 1886, at the age of 39, Edison married 20-year-old Mina Miller in Akron, Ohio. Events 303 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Year 1886 ( MDCCCLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Akron is a city in the US state of Ohio and the County seat of Summit County.  She was the daughter of inventor Lewis Miller, co-founder of the Chautauqua Institution and a benefactor of Methodist charities. Lewis Miller ( July 24, 1829 &ndash February 17, 1899) was an Ohio businessman and philanthropist who made a fortune in the late 19th The Chautauqua Institution is a non-profit adult education center and summer resort located on 750 acres (3 km² in Chautauqua New York, 17 miles (27 km northwest of Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations They also had three children:
Mina outlived Thomas Edison, dying on August 24, 1947. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar 's General Gaius Scribonius Curio is defeated in the Second Battle of the Bagradas River Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
Thomas Edison began his career as an inventor in Newark, New Jersey, with the automatic repeater and his other improved telegraphic devices, but the invention which first gained him fame was the phonograph in 1877. Newark is the largest city in New Jersey, United States and the County seat of Essex County. The phonograph, or gramophone, was the most common device for playing recorded Sound from the 1870s through the 1980s This accomplishment was so unexpected by the public at large as to appear almost magical. Edison became known as "The Wizard of Menlo Park," New Jersey, where he lived. His first phonograph recorded on tinfoil around a grooved cylinder and had poor sound quality. Tin is a Chemical element with the symbol Sn (stannum and Atomic number 50 The tinfoil recordings could only be replayed a few times. In the 1880s, a redesigned model using wax-coated cardboard cylinders was produced by Alexander Graham Bell, Chichester Bell, and Charles Tainter. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Chichester Bell (2001- 2008 was a cousin to Alexander Graham Bell and instrumental in developing improved versions of the Phonograph. Charles Sumner Tainter ( April 25, 1854 - April 20, 1940) was an American engineer and inventor best known for his collaborations This was one reason that Thomas Edison continued work on his own "Perfected Phonograph. "
|Mary Had a Little Lamb|
|Thomas Edison saying "Mary Had a Little Lamb"=Ogg|
Edison's major innovation was the first industrial research lab, which was built in Menlo Park, New Jersey. Edison Township (usually known as Edison) is a township in Middlesex County New Jersey, United States. It was the first institution set up with the specific purpose of producing constant technological innovation and improvement. Edison was legally attributed with most of the inventions produced there, though many employees carried out research and development work under his direction. His staff was generally told to carry out his directions in conducting research, and he drove them hard to produce results. The large research group, which included engineers and other workers, based much of their research on work done by others before them.
William J. Hammer, a consulting electrical engineer, began his duties as a laboratory assistant to Edison in December 1879. William Joseph Hammer ( February 26, 1858 &ndash March 24, 1934) was an associate of Thomas Edison and an early Aviation Electrical engineering, sometimes referred to as electrical and electronic engineering, is a field of Engineering that deals with the study and application of Year 1879 ( MDCCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common He assisted in experiments on the telephone, phonograph, electric railway, iron ore separator, electric lighting, and other developing inventions. Basic principle A traditional landline telephone system also known as "plain old telephone service" (POTS, commonly handles both signaling and audio information The phonograph, or gramophone, was the most common device for playing recorded Sound from the 1870s through the 1980s Railway electrification supplies electrical energy to railway Locomotives and Multiple units so they can operate without having a Reciprocating Iron ores are rocks and Minerals from which Metallic Iron can be economically extracted The incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is a source of electric Light that works by Incandescence, (a general However, Hammer worked primarily on the incandescent electric lamp and was put in charge of tests and records on that device. In 1880, he was appointed chief engineer of the Edison Lamp Works. Year 1880 ( MDCCCLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year In his first year, the plant under General Manager Francis Robbins Upton turned out 50,000 lamps. Francis Robbins Upton (1852 in Peabody Massachusetts – March 10 1921 in Orange New Jersey) was an American Physicist and Mathematician According to Edison, Hammer was "a pioneer of incandescent electric lighting. "
Nearly all of Edison's patents were utility patents, which were protected for a 17 year period and included inventions or processes that are electrical, mechanical, or chemical in nature. About a dozen were design patents, which protect an ornamental design for up to a 14 year period. Like most patents, the inventions he described were improvements over prior art. Prior art (also known as or State of the art, which also has other meanings in most systems of Patent law constitutes all Information that The phonograph patent, on the other hand, was unprecedented as the first device to record and reproduce sounds.  Edison did not invent the first electric light bulb, but instead invented the first commercially practical incandescent light. Several designs had already been developed by earlier inventors including the patent he purchased from Henry Woodward and Mathew Evans, Moses G. Farmer, Joseph Swan, James Bowman Lindsay, William E. Sawyer, Sir Humphry Davy, and Heinrich Göbel. Henry Woodward was an early pioneer in the development of the Incandescent lamp. Matthew Evans is one of two Canadians who developed and patented an incandescent light bulb on July 24, 1874, five years before Thomas Edison 's U Moses Gerrish Farmer ( February 9, 1820 – May 25, 1893) was an Electrical engineer and Inventor. Sir Joseph Wilson Swan ( October 31, 1828 – May 27, 1914) was an English Physicist and Chemist, most famous James Bowman Lindsay ( September 8 1799 - June 29 1862) was a Scottish inventor and author William Edward Sawyer was an American inventor whose contribution was primarily in the field of electric engineering and electric lighting Sir Humphry Davy 1st Baronet FRS MRIA (17 December 1778 &ndash 29 May 1829 was a British Chemist and inventor Heinrich Göbel, or later Henry Goebel ( April 20, 1818 - December 4, 1893) born in Germany was a precision mechanic and Some of these early bulbs had such flaws as extremely short life, high expense to produce, and high current draw, making them difficult to apply on a large scale commercially. In 1878, Edison applied the term filament to the element of glowing wire carrying the current, although English inventor Joseph Swan had used the term prior to this. An electrical filament is a thread of Metal, usually Tungsten, which is used to convert Electricity into light in Incandescent light bulbs (as developed The concept of electrical elements is used in the analysis of Electrical networks. Sir Joseph Wilson Swan ( October 31, 1828 – May 27, 1914) was an English Physicist and Chemist, most famous Edison took the features of these earlier designs and set his workers to the task of creating longer-lasting bulbs. By 1879, he had produced a new concept: a high resistance lamp in a very high vacuum, which would burn for hundreds of hours. While the earlier inventors had produced electric lighting in laboratory conditions, dating back to a demonstration of a glowing wire by Alessandro Volta in 1800, Edison concentrated on commercial application, and was able to sell the concept to homes and businesses by mass-producing relatively long-lasting light bulbs and creating a complete system for the generation and distribution of electricity. Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta was a Lombard physicist known especially for the development of the first electric cell in
The Menlo Park research lab was made possible by the sale of the quadruplex telegraph that Edison invented in 1874, which could send four simultaneous telegraph signals over the same wire. The Quadruplex telegraph is a type of Electrical telegraph which allows a total of four separate signals to be transmitted and received on a single wire at the same time (two When Edison asked Western Union to make an offer, he was shocked at the unexpectedly large amount that Western Union offered; the patent rights were sold for $10,000. The Western Union Company ( is a financial services and communications company based in the United States. The quadruplex telegraph was Edison's first big financial success.
In just over a decade Edison's Menlo Park laboratory had expanded to consume two city blocks. Edison said he wanted the lab to have "a stock of almost every conceivable material. " A newspaper article printed in 1887 reveals the seriousness of his claim, stating the lab contained "eight thousand kinds of chemicals, every kind of screw made, every size of needle, every kind of cord or wire, hair of humans, horses, hogs, cows, rabbits, goats, minx, camels. . . silk in every texture, cocoons, various kinds of hoofs, shark's teeth, deer horns, tortoise shell. . . cork, resin, varnish and oil, ostrich feathers, a peacock's tail, jet, amber, rubber, all ores. . . " and the list goes on. 
Over his desk, Edison displayed a placard with Sir Joshua Reynolds' famous quote: "There is no expedient to which a man will not resort to avoid the real labor of thinking. " This slogan was reputedly posted at several other locations throughout the facility.
With Menlo Park, Edison had created the first industrial laboratory concerned with creating knowledge and then controlling its application.
In 1877-1878, Edison invented and developed the carbon microphone used in all telephones along with the Bell receiver until the 1980s. The carbon Microphone, also known as a carbon button microphone (or sometimes just a button microphone) or a carbon transmitter, is a sound-to-electrical After protracted patent litigation, in 1892 a federal court ruled that Edison -- and not Emile Berliner -- was the inventor of the carbon microphone. Emile Berliner ( May 20, 1851 – August 3, 1929) was a German -born American Inventor, best known for developing (Josephson, p146). The carbon microphone was also used in radio broadcasting and public address work through the 1920s.
After many experiments with platinum and other metal filaments, Edison returned to a carbon filament. The incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is a source of electric Light that works by Incandescence, (a general Platinum (ˈplætɪnəm is a Chemical element with the Atomic symbol Pt and an Atomic number of 78 Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 The first successful test was on October 22, 1879; and lasted 13. Events 202 BC - Hannibal Barca, leader of the Carthaginians, is defeated by the Roman legions under Scipio Africanus Year 1879 ( MDCCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common 5 hours. Edison continued to improve this design and by November 4, 1879, filed for U. S. patent 223,898 (granted on January 27, 1880) for an electric lamp using "a carbon filament or strip coiled and connected . . . to platina contact wires. " Although the patent described several ways of creating the carbon filament including "cotton and linen thread, wood splints, papers coiled in various ways," it was not until several months after the patent was granted that Edison and his team discovered a carbonized bamboo filament could last over 1200 hours. Carbonization or Carbonisation is the term for the conversion of an Organic substance into Carbon or a carbon-containing residue through Pyrolysis Bamboo is a group of Woody perennial Evergreen Plants in the True grass family Poaceae, subfamily
Edison bought light bulb U. S. patent 181,613 of Henry Woodward that was issued August 29, 1876 and obtained an exclusive license to Woodward's Canadian patent. Henry Woodward was an early pioneer in the development of the Incandescent lamp. These patents covered a carbon filament in a rarefied gas bulb.
In 1878, Edison formed the Edison Electric Light Company in New York City with several financiers, including J. P. Morgan and the members of the Vanderbilt family. John Pierpont Morgan ( April 17, 1837 &ndash March 31, 1913) was an American financier banker and art collector who This article details the family of Cornelius Vanderbilt For other uses see Vanderbilt (disambiguation. Edison made the first public demonstration of his incandescent light bulb on December 31, 1879, in Menlo Park. The incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is a source of electric Light that works by Incandescence, (a general It was during this time that he said, "We will make electricity so cheap that only the rich will burn candles. A candle is a Light source and sometimes a Heat source consisting of a solid block of Fuel and an embedded wick. "
George Westinghouse's company bought Philip Diehl's competing induction lamp patent rights (1882) for $25,000, forcing the holders of the Edison patent to charge a more reasonable rate for the use of the Edison patent rights and lowering the price of the electric lamp. George Westinghouse Jr ( 6 October 1846 &ndash 12 March 1914) was an American Entrepreneur and Engineer Philip H Diehl ( 29 January 1847 &ndash 7 April 1913) was a German - American Engineer and Inventor 
On October 8, 1883, the U. Events 314 - Roman Emperor Licinius is defeated by his colleague Constantine I at the Battle of Cibalae, and loses Year 1883 ( MDCCCLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common S. patent office ruled that Edison's patent was based on the work of William Sawyer and was therefore invalid. Litigation continued for nearly six years, until October 6, 1889, when a judge ruled that Edison's electric light improvement claim for "a filament of carbon of high resistance" was valid. Events 105 BC - Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus Year 1889 ( MDCCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common To avoid a possible court battle with Joseph Swan, whose British patent had been awarded a year before Edison's, he and Swan formed a joint company called Ediswan to manufacture and market the invention in Britain. Sir Joseph Wilson Swan ( October 31, 1828 – May 27, 1914) was an English Physicist and Chemist, most famous Sir Joseph Wilson Swan ( October 31, 1828 – May 27, 1914) was an English Physicist and Chemist, most famous
The Mahen Theatre in Brno in what is now the Czech Republic, was the first public building in the world to use Edison's electric lamps, with the installation supervised by Edison's assistant in the invention of the lamp, Francis Jehl. Brno ( IPA:; Brünn is the second-largest City in the Czech Republic. Francis Jehl ( September 6, 1860 - February 11, 1941) was a laboratory assistant of Thomas Edison. 
Edison patented an electric distribution system in 1880, which was essential to capitalize on the invention of the electric lamp. Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery (before retail) of Electricity to end users On December 17, 1880, Edison founded the Edison Electric Illuminating Company. Events 546 - Gothic War (535–554: The Ostrogoths of King Totila Year 1880 ( MDCCCLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year The Edison Illuminating Company was established by Thomas Edison on December 17, 1880, to construct electrical generating stations initially in New The company established the first investor-owned electric utility in 1882 on Pearl Street Station, New York City. Pearl Street Station was the first central power plant in the United States The City of New York It was on September 4, 1882, that Edison switched on his Pearl Street generating station's electrical power distribution system, which provided 110 volts direct current (DC) to 59 customers in lower Manhattan. Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself Year 1882 ( MDCCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Pearl Street is a street in the Lower section of the New York City borough of Manhattan, running northeast from Battery Park to the The volt (symbol V) is the SI derived unit of electric Potential difference or Electromotive force. Direct current ( DC) is the unidirectional flow of Electric charge. Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York
Earlier in the year, in January 1882 he had switched on the first steam generating power station at Holborn Viaduct in London. Holborn Viaduct is a bridge in London and the name of the street which crosses it (which is a section of the A40) London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The DC supply system provided electricity supplies to street lamps and several private dwellings within a short distance of the station. On January 19, 1883, the first standardized incandescent electric lighting system employing overhead wires began service in Roselle, New Jersey. Events 1419 - Hundred Years' War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England completing his reconquest of Normandy. Year 1883 ( MDCCCLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Roselle is a Borough in Union County, New Jersey, United States.
Edison's true success, like that of his friend Henry Ford, was in his ability to maximize profits through establishment of mass-production systems and intellectual property rights. This dampened the success of less profitable work by others who were focused on inventing longer-lasting high-efficiency technology.  George Westinghouse and Edison became adversaries because of Edison's promotion of direct current for electric power distribution instead of the more easily transmitted alternating current (AC) system invented by Nikola Tesla and promoted by Westinghouse. George Westinghouse Jr ( 6 October 1846 &ndash 12 March 1914) was an American Entrepreneur and Engineer An alternating current ( AC) is an Electric current whose direction reverses cyclically as opposed to Direct current, whose direction remains constant There have already been discussions about Tesla's ethnicity on the talk page Unlike DC, AC could be stepped up to very high voltages with transformers, sent over thinner and less expensive wires, and stepped down again at the destination for distribution to users. A transformer is a device that transfers Electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled Electrical conductors Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery (before retail) of Electricity to end users
In 1887 there were 121 Edison power stations in the United States that delivered DC electricity to customers. Year 1887 ( MDCCCLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common When the limitations of Direct Current (DC) were discussed by the public, Edison launched a propaganda campaign to convince people that Alternating Current (AC) was far too dangerous to use. Direct current ( DC) is the unidirectional flow of Electric charge. An alternating current ( AC) is an Electric current whose direction reverses cyclically as opposed to Direct current, whose direction remains constant The problem with DC was that the power plants could only economically deliver DC electricity to customers about one and a half miles from the generating station, so it was only suitable for central business districts. When George Westinghouse suggested using high-voltage AC instead, as it could carry electricity hundreds of miles with marginal loss of power, Edison waged a "War of Currents" to prevent AC from being adopted. George Westinghouse Jr ( 6 October 1846 &ndash 12 March 1914) was an American Entrepreneur and Engineer In the "War of Currents" era (sometimes "War of the Currents" or "Battle of Currents") in the late 1880s George Westinghouse
Despite Edison's contempt for capital punishment, the war against AC led Edison to become involved in the development and promotion of the electric chair as a demonstration of AC's greater lethal potential versus the "safer" DC. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Execution by electrocution (usually referred to after its method of implementation as the Electric Chair) is an execution method originating in the United States in which the Edison went on to carry out a brief but intense campaign to ban the use of AC or to limit the allowable voltage for safety purposes. As part of this campaign, Edison's employees publicly electrocuted animals  to demonstrate the dangers of AC, even though protection from electrocution by AC or DC is essentially the same. "Electrocute" redirects here For the band see Electrocute (band. One of the more notable occasions when Edison electrocuted animals was when in 1903, his workers electrocuted Topsy the elephant at Luna Park, near Coney Island, after she had killed several men and her owners wanted her put to death. Year 1903 ( MCMIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting Topsy (born circa 1875 died January 4, 1903) was a domesticated Elephant with the Forepaugh Circus at Coney Island's Luna Coney Island is a Peninsula, formerly an island in southernmost Brooklyn, New York City, USA with a Beach on the Atlantic Ocean  His company filmed the electrocution.
AC replaced DC in most instances of generation and power distribution, enormously extending the range and improving the efficiency of power distribution. Though widespread use of DC ultimately lost favor for distribution, it exists today primarily in long-distance high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems. HVDC or high-voltage Direct current Electric power transmission systems contrast with the more common Alternating current systems as a means Low voltage DC distribution continued to be used in high density downtown areas for many years and was replaced by AC low voltage network distribution in many central business districts. DC had the advantage that large battery banks could maintain continuous power through brief interruptions of the electric supply from generators and the transmission system. In electronics a battery is a combination of two or more Electrochemical cells which store chemical Energy which can be converted into electrical energy Utilities such as Commonwealth Edison in Chicago had rotary converters, also known as motor-generator sets , which could change DC to AC and AC to various frequencies in the early to mid 20th century. Commonwealth Edison (or "ComEd" is the largest electric utility in Illinois, serving the Chicago and Northern Illinois area Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. A motor-generator (an M-G set or a dynamotor for Dynamo -motor is a device for converting electrical power to another form Utilities supplied rectifiers to convert the low voltage AC to DC for such DC loads as elevators, fans and pumps. There were still 1,600 DC customers in downtown New York City as of 2005, and service was only finally discontinued on November 14, 2007. Events 1533 - Conquistadors from Spain under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro arrive in Cajamarca, Inca Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.  The New York City Subway system is still run by DC power to this day. The New York City Subway is a Rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency
Edison is credited with designing and producing the first commercially available fluoroscope, the machine that takes radiographs (colloquially known as "X-rays"). Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique commonly used by Physicians to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of a patient through the use of a fluoroscope Until Edison discovered that calcium tungstate fluoroscopy screens produced brighter images than the barium platinocyanide screens originally used by Wilhelm Röntgen, the technology was only capable of producing very faint images. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (27 March 1845 &ndash 10 February 1923 was a German physicist, who on 8 November 1895 produced and detected Electromagnetic The fundamental design of Edison's fluoroscope is still in use today, despite the fact that Edison himself abandoned the project after nearly losing his own eyesight and seriously maiming his assistant, Clarence Dally. Clarence Madison Dally (1865-1904 was an American Glassblower, noted as an assistant to Thomas Edison in his work on X-rays and as an early victim of Dally had made himself an enthusiastic human guinea pig for the fluoroscopy project and in the process been exposed to a poisonous dose of radiation. He later died of injuries related to the exposure. In 1903, a shaken Edison said "Don't talk to me about X-rays, I am afraid of them. Year 1903 ( MCMIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting "
Frank J. Sprague, a competent mathematician and former naval officer, was recruited by Edward H. Johnson and joined the Edison organization in 1883. Frank Julian Sprague ( July 25, 1857 in Milford Connecticut - October 25, 1934) was an American naval officer Edward Hibberd Johnson (1846-1917 was an Inventor and business associate of American Inventor Thomas Alva Edison. One of Sprague's significant contributions to the Edison Laboratory at Menlo Park was to expand Edison's mathematical methods. Despite the common belief that Edison did not use mathematics, analysis of his notebooks reveal that he was an astute user of mathematical analysis, for example, determining the critical parameters of his electric lighting system including lamp resistance by a sophisticated analysis of Ohm's Law, Joule's Law and economics). Ohm's law applies to Electrical circuits it states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the Joule's laws are a pair of laws concerning the heat produced by a current and the energy dependence of an Ideal gas to that of pressure volume and temperature respectively Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. A key to Edison's success was an holistic rather than reductionist approach to invention, making extensive use of trial and error. Distinguish from the suffix -holism, which describes addictions Reductionism can either mean (a an approach to understanding the nature of complex things by reducing them to the interactions of their parts or to simpler or more fundamental things The Edisonian approach to innovation is characterized by Trial and error discovery rather than a systematic theoretical approach Trial and error, or trial by error, is a general method of Problem solving for obtaining Knowledge, both Propositional knowledge and Know-how Since Sprague joined Edison in 1883 and Edison's output of patents peaked in 1880, it could be interpreted that the shift towards a reductionist analytical approach may not have been a positive move for Edison). Sprague's important analytical contributions, including correcting Edison's system of mains and feeders for central station distribution, form a counter argument to this. In 1884, Sprague decided his interests in the exploitation of electricity lay elsewhere, and he left Edison to found the Sprague Electric Railway & Motor Company. Frank Julian Sprague ( July 25, 1857 in Milford Connecticut - October 25, 1934) was an American naval officer However, Sprague, who later developed many electrical innovations, always credited Edison for their work together).
Another of Edison's assistants was Nikola Tesla, who claimed that Edison promised him $50,000 if he succeeded in making improvements to his DC generation plants. There have already been discussions about Tesla's ethnicity on the talk page Tesla claimed that several months later, when he had finished the work and asked to be paid, Edison said, "When you become a full-fledged American you will appreciate an American joke. " Tesla immediately resigned. This anecdote is somewhat doubtful) since at Tesla's salary of $18 per week the bonus would have amounted to over 53 years pay, and the amount was equal to the initial capital of the company. Tesla resigned when he was refused a raise to $25 per week.  Although Tesla accepted an Edison Medal later in life and professed a high opinion of Edison as an inventor and engineer, he remained bitter). The Edison Medal is presented by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE "for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science electrical The day after Edison died, the New York Times contained extensive coverage of Edison's life, with the only negative opinion coming from Tesla who was quoted as saying, "He had no hobby, cared for no sort of amusement of any kind and lived in utter disregard of the most elementary rules of hygiene" and that, "His method was inefficient in the extreme, for an immense ground had to be covered to get anything at all unless blind chance intervened and, at first, I was almost a sorry witness of his doings, knowing that just a little theory and calculation would have saved him 90 percent of the labour. But he had a veritable contempt for book learning and mathematical knowledge, trusting himself entirely to his inventor's instinct and practical American sense. " When Edison was a very old man and close to death, he said, in looking back, that the biggest mistake he had made was that he never respected Tesla or his work. 
There were 28 men recognized as Edison Pioneers. History of the Edison Pioneers There were only twenty-eight men who were honored with membership to the group called the Edison Pioneers
The key to Edison's fortunes was telegraphy. With knowledge gained from years of working as a telegraph operator, he learned the basics of electricity. This allowed him to make his early fortune with the stock ticker, the first electricity-based broadcast system. Ticker tape was used by ticker tape machines, the Ticker tape timer stock ticker machines, or just stock tickers. Edison patented the sound recording and reproducing phonograph (or gramophone in British English) in 1878. Edison was also granted a patent for the motion picture camera or "Kinetograph". He did the electromechanical design, while his employee W.K.L. Dickson, a photographer, worked on the photographic and optical development. William Kennedy Laurie Dickson (3 August 1860 &ndash 28 September 1935 was an Anglo - Scottish Inventor who devised an early motion picture Much of the credit for the invention belongs to Dickson.  In 1891, Thomas Edison built a Kinetoscope, or peep-hole viewer. The Kinetoscope is an early motion picture exhibition device Though not a Movie projector —it was designed for films to be viewed individually through the window This device was installed in penny arcades, where people could watch short, simple films. The kinetograph and kinetoscope were both first publicly exhibited May 20, 1891. 
On August 9, 1892, Edison received a patent for a two-way telegraph. Events 48 BC - Caesar's civil war: Battle of Pharsalus - Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus Year 1892 ( MDCCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year In April 1896, Thomas Armat's Vitascope, manufactured by the Edison factory and marketed in Edison's name, was used to project motion pictures in public screenings in New York City. Thomas J Armat ( 25 October, 1866 – September 30, 1948) was an American mechanic and Inventor, a pioneer of Vitascope is an early film projector first demonstrated in 1895 by Charles Francis Jenkins and Thomas Armat. Later he exhibited motion pictures with voice soundtrack on cylinder recordings, mechanically synchronized with the film.
Officially the kinetoscope entered in Europe when the rich American Businessman Irving T. Bush (1869-1948) bought from the Continental Commerce Company of Franck Z. Irving T Bush ( July 12 1869 - 1948 was an American businessman Maguire and Joseph D. Bachus a dozen machines. Bush placed from October 17, 1894 on the first kinetoscopes in London. Events 539 BC - King Cyrus The Great of Persia marches into the city of Babylon, releasing the Jews from almost Year 1894 ( MDCCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common At the same time the French company Kinétoscope Edison Michel et Alexis Werner bought these machines for the market in France. In the last three months of 1894 The Continental Commerce Company sold hundreds of kinetoscopes in Europe (i. e. the Netherlands and Italy). In Germany and in Austria-Hungary the kinetoscope was introduced by the Deutsche-österreichische-Edison-Kinetoscop Gesellschaft, founded by the Ludwig Stollwerck  of the Schokoladen-Süsswarenfabrik Stollwerck & Co of Cologne. The first kinetoscopes arrived in Belgium at the Fairs in early 1895. A fair is a gathering of people to display or trade produce or other goods to parade or display animals and often to enjoy associated Carnival or Funfair entertainment The Edison's Kinétoscope Français, a Belgian company, was founded in Brussels on January 15, 1895 with the rights to sell the kinetoscopes in Monaco, France and the French colonies. Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign Year 1895 ( MDCCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The main investors in this company were Belgian industrialists. On May 14, 1895 the Edison's Kinétoscope Belge was founded in Brussels. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Year 1895 ( MDCCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The businessman Ladislas-Victor Lewitzki, living in London but active in Belgium and France, took the initiative in starting this business. He had contacts with Leon Gaumont and the American Mutoscope and Biograph Co. Léon Gaumont ( May 10, 1864 – August 9, 1946) was a French inventor engineer and industrialist who was a pioneer of the motion The American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, was a motion picture company founded in 1895 and active until 1928 In 1898 he also became shareholder of the Biograph and Mutoscope Company for France. 
In 1908, Edison started the Motion Picture Patents Company, which was a conglomerate of nine major film studios (commonly known as the Edison Trust). The Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC also known as the Edison Trust) founded in December 1908 was a trust of all the major film companies ( Edison Thomas Edison was the first honorary fellow of the Acoustical Society of America, which was founded in 1929. The Acoustical Society of America (ASA is an international scientific society dedicated to increasing and diffusing the knowledge of Acoustics and its practical applications
In the 1880s, Thomas Edison bought property in Fort Myers, Florida, and built Seminole Lodge as a winter retreat. Fort Myers is the County seat and commercial center of Lee County, Florida, United States. Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the The Edison and Ford Winter Estates contain a historical Museum and 17 acre (6 Henry Ford, the automobile magnate, later lived a few hundred feet away from Edison at his winter retreat, The Mangoes. Henry Ford ( July 30, 1863 &ndash April 7, 1947) was the American founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of Edison even contributed technology to the automobile. They were friends until Edison's death.
Edison purchased a home known as "Glenmont" in 1886 as a wedding gift for Mina in Llewellyn Park in West Orange, New Jersey. Llewellyn Park is a gated residential community of 175 homes within West Orange, New Jersey. West Orange is a township in central Essex County, New Jersey, United States.
In 1901, he visited the Sudbury area as a mining prospector, and is credited with the original discovery of the Falconbridge ore body. Greater Sudbury (2006 Census population 157857 is a city in Northern Ontario, Canada. Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body Nickel Centre (1996 census population 13017 was a town in Ontario, Canada, which existed from 1973 to 2000 His attempts to actually mine the ore body were not successful, however, and he abandoned his mining claim in 1903.  A street in Falconbridge, as well as the Edison Building, which served as the head office of Falconbridge Mines, are named for him. The Edison Building is a historic building in Greater Sudbury, Ontario. Falconbridge Limited was a Toronto, Ontario -based natural resources company with operations in 18 countries involved in the exploration mining processing
In 1902, agents of Thomas Edison bribed a theater owner in London for a copy of A Trip to the Moon by Georges Méliès. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. A Trip to the Moon (French fr Le Voyage dans la lune) is a 1902 French Black and white silent Science fiction Georges Méliès ( December 8, 1861 &ndash January 21, 1938) full name Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès, was a French Edison then made hundreds of copies and showed them in New York City. The City of New York Méliès received no compensation. He was counting on taking the film to US and recapture the huge cost of it by showing it throughout the US when he realized it has already been showing in the US by Edison. This bankrupted Méliès.  Other exhibitors similarly routinely copied and exhibited each others films.  To better protect the copyrights on his films, Edison deposited prints of them on long strips of photographic paper with the U. S. copyright office]]. Many of these paper prints survived longer and in better condition than the actual films of that era. 
Edison's favourite movie was The Birth of a Nation. The Birth of a Nation (also known as The Clansman) a Silent film directed by D He thought that talkies had "spoiled everything" for him. "There isn't any good acting on the screen. They concentrate on the voice now and have forgotten how to act. I can sense it more than you because I am deaf. "
Edison became the owner of his Milan, Ohio, birthplace in 1906. Milan is a village in Erie and Huron counties in the US state of Ohio. On his last visit, in 1923, he was shocked to find his old home still lit by lamps and candles.
Edison was said to have been influenced by a fad diet that was popular in the day to that in his last few years "the only liquid he consumed was a pint of milk every three hours. " He is reported to have believed this diet would restore his health. However, this tale is doubtful. In 1930, the year before Edison died, Mina said in an interview about Edison that "Correct eating is one of his greatest hobbies. " She also said that during one of his periodic "great scientific adventures", Edison would be up at 7:00, have breakfast at eight, and be rarely home for lunch or dinner, implying that he continued to have all three. 
Edison was active in business right up to the end. Just months before his death in 1931, the Lackawanna Railroad implemented electric trains in suburban service from Hoboken to Gladstone, Montclair and Dover in New Jersey. Hoboken is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. Gladstone is an unincorporated area within Peapack-Gladstone in Somerset County, New Jersey, United States. Montclair (mɒnʔ kɫeɚ or maŋ kleɚ is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. Dover is a Town in Morris County, New Jersey on the Rockaway River. Transmission was by means of an overhead catenary system, with the entire project under the guidance of Thomas Edison. To the surprise of many, Thomas Edison was at the throttle of the very first MU (Multiple-Unit) train to depart Lackawanna Terminal in Hoboken, driving the train all the way to Dover. As another tribute to his lasting legacy, the same fleet of cars Edison deployed on the Lackawanna in 1931 served commuters until their retirement in 1984. A special plaque commemorating the joint achievement of both the railway and Edison, can be seen today in the waiting room of Lackawanna Terminal in Hoboken, presently operated by New Jersey Transit. 
Thomas Edison died on October 18, 1931, in his home, "Glenmont" in Llewellyn Park in West Orange, New Jersey, which he had purchased in 1886 as a wedding gift for Mina. Events 1009 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid Year 1931 ( MCMXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Llewellyn Park is a gated residential community of 175 homes within West Orange, New Jersey. West Orange is a township in central Essex County, New Jersey, United States. 
Mina died in 1947. The Edison and Ford Winter Estates contain a historical Museum and 17 acre (6 Fort Myers is the County seat and commercial center of Lee County, Florida, United States. Edison's last breath is reportedly contained in a test tube at the Henry Ford Museum. Henry Ford ( July 30, 1863 &ndash April 7, 1947) was the American founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of Ford reportedly convinced Charles Edison to seal a test tube of air in the inventor's room shortly after his death, as a memento. A plaster death mask was also made. In Western cultures a death mask is a Wax or Plaster cast made of a person's face following Death. 
Historian Paul Israel has characterized Edison as a "freethinker. Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that Beliefs should be formed on the basis of Science and Logic and should not be influenced " Edison was heavily influenced by Thomas Paine's Age of Reason.  Edison defended Paine's "scientific deism," saying, "He has been called an atheist, but atheist he was not. Paine believed in a supreme intelligence, as representing the idea which other men often express by the name of deity. " In an October 2, 1910 interview in the New York Times Magazine, Edison stated:
Nature is what we know. The New York Times Magazine is a supplement to the Sunday The New York Times newspaper We do not know the gods of religions. And nature is not kind, or merciful, or loving. If God made me -- the fabled God of the three qualities of which I spoke: mercy, kindness, love -- He also made the fish I catch and eat. And where do His mercy, kindness, and love for that fish come in? No; nature made us -- nature did it all -- not the gods of the religions. 
Edison was accused of atheism for these remarks, and although he did not allow himself to be drawn into the controversy publicly, he defended himself in a private letter. "You have misunderstood the whole article, because you jumped to the conclusion that it denies the existence of God. There is no such denial, what you call God I call Nature, the Supreme intelligence that rules matter. All the article states is that it is doubtful in my opinion if our intelligence or soul or whatever one may call it lives hereafter as an entity or disperses back again from whence it came, scattered amongst the cells of which we are made. "
Several places have been named after Edison, most notably the town of Edison, New Jersey. Edison Township (usually known as Edison) is a township in Middlesex County New Jersey, United States. Thomas Edison State College, a nationally-known college for adult learners, is in Trenton, New Jersey. Thomas Edison State College is a public institution of Higher education located in Trenton New Jersey. Trenton is the Capital of the US state of New Jersey and the County seat of Mercer County. Two community colleges are named for him: Edison College in Fort Myers, Florida, and Edison Community College in Piqua, Ohio. Piqua is a city in Miami County, Ohio, United States. The population was 20738 at the 2000 census.  There are numerous high schools named after Edison; see Edison High School. Edison High School is the name of many schools named after Thomas Edison: Schools with the full name Thomas A
The City Hotel, in Sunbury, Pennsylvania, was the first building to be lit with Edison's three-wire system. Sunbury (pronounced Sunberry is a city in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, United States. The hotel was re-named The Hotel Edison, and retains that name today.
Three bridges around the United States have been named in his honor (see Edison Bridge).
The Thomas Alva Edison Memorial Tower and Museum is in the town of Edison. The Thomas Alva Edison Memorial Tower and Museum, also known as the Menlo Park Museum, is a memorial to Inventor and businessman Thomas Edison, located The 13. 5 acre (5. 5 ha) Glenmont property where the remains of Edison and his wife, Mina, buried is maintained by the National Park Service as the Edison National Historic Site. The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation The Edison National Historic Site preserves Thomas Edison 's laboratory and residence Glenmont, in West Orange New Jersey.
In Beaumont, Texas, there is an Edison Museum, though Edison never visited there. Beaumont is a city in and the County seat of Jefferson County, Texas, United States, within the Beaumont&ndash Port Arthur Metropolitan
The Port Huron Museum, in Port Huron, Michigan, restored the original depot that Thomas Edison worked out of as a young newsbutcher. The Port Huron Museum is a series of five Museums located in Port Huron Michigan, USA. Port Huron is a city in the US state of Michigan. As of the 2000 census the city had a population of 32338 with a 2006 estimate of 31302 The depot has been named the Thomas Edison Depot Museum. The Thomas Edison Depot Museum is located underneath the Blue Water Bridge connecting Port Huron Michigan to Sarnia Ontario, Canada The town has many Edison historical landmarks, including the graves of Edison's parents, and a monument along the Saint Clair River. Edison's influence can be seen throughout this city of 32,000.
In Detroit, the Edison Memorial Fountain in Grand Circus Park was created to honor his achievements. The limestone fountain was dedicated October 21, 1929. Events 1512 - Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg. Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The Edison Medal was created on February 11, 1904, by a group of Edison's friends and associates. The Thomson-Houston Electric Company was formed in 1883 when a group of Lynn Massachusetts investors led by Charles A Commonwealth Edison (or "ComEd" is the largest electric utility in Illinois, serving the Chicago and Northern Illinois area Exelon Corporation ( is an electricity generating and distributing company headquartered in Chicago. Consolidated Edison Inc is one of the largest investor-owned energy companies in the United States with approximately $13 billion in annual revenues and $30 billion in assets Edison International ( is a Public utility holding company based in Rosemead California. Southern California Edison (or SCE Corp the largest subsidiary of Edison International ( is the primary electricity supply company for much of Southern California Detroit Edison, founded in 1903 is an investor-owned electric utility which serves most of Southeast Michigan. DTE Energy Co ( is a Detroit, Michigan -based utility incorporated in 1995 involved in the development and management of energy-related businesses and services nationwide Wisconsin Energy Corporation ( is a company based in Milwaukee Wisconsin that provides electricity and natural gas throughout Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula Wisconsin Energy Corporation ( is a company based in Milwaukee Wisconsin that provides electricity and natural gas throughout Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula FirstEnergy Corp ( is a diversified energy company headquartered in Akron Ohio Edison SpA (EDN Milan Stock Exchange) is the second largest energy company in Italy in the field of electricity and Natural gas. NSTAR was also the name of the Ion Engine tested on NASA 's space probe Deep Space 1. NSTAR was also the name of the Ion Engine tested on NASA 's space probe Deep Space 1. WEEI is a sports Radio station in Boston Massachusetts that broadcasts on 850 kHz from a transmitter in Needham Massachusetts. The Edison Medal is presented by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE "for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science electrical Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Year 1904 ( MCMIV) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting on Four years later the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE), later IEEE, entered into an agreement with the group to present the medal as its highest award. The American Institute of Electrical Engineers was a United States based organization of Electrical engineers that existed between 1884 and 1963 (when it merged with The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (read eye-triple-e) is an international Non-profit, professional organization The first medal was presented in 1909 to Elihu Thomson and, in a twist of fate, was awarded to Nikola Tesla in 1917. Elihu Thomson ( March 29, 1853  – March 13, 1937) was an engineer and Inventor who was instrumental in the founding There have already been discussions about Tesla's ethnicity on the talk page It is the oldest award in the area of electrical and electronics engineering, and is presented annually "for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts. Electrical engineering, sometimes referred to as electrical and electronic engineering, is a field of Engineering that deals with the study and application of "
In the Netherlands, the major music awards are named the Edison Award after him. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The Edison Award is the oldest and most prestigious Dutch Music Prize presented since 1960
In 1887, Edison won the Matteucci Medal. The Matteucci Medal was established to award Physicists for their fundamental contributions
He was ranked thirty-fifth on Michael H. Hart's 1978 book The 100, a list of the most influential figures in history]]. Michael H Hart (born April 28, 1932 in New York City) is an Astrophysicist who has also written three books on History and controversial The 100 A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History is a 1978 book by Michael H Life magazine (USA), in a special double issue in 1997, placed Edison first in the list of the "100 Most Important People in the Last 1000 Years," noting that the light bulb he promoted "lit up the world. The incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is a source of electric Light that works by Incandescence, (a general " In the 2005 television series The Greatest American, he was voted by viewers as the fifteenth-greatest. The Greatest American was a four-part television series hosted by Matt Lauer in which millions of Americans nominated and elected who they thought was the greatest person
In 1983, the United States Congress, pursuant to Senate Joint Resolution 140 (Public Law 97 - 198), designated February 11, Edison's birthday, as National Inventor's Day. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Inventor's Day is a day of the year set aside by a Country to recognise the contributions of Inventors Not all countries recognise Inventors's Day.
The United States Navy named the USS Edison (DD-439), a Gleaves class destroyer, in his honor in 1940. List of Gleaves class destroyers In naval terminology a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance Warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, Convoy The ship was decommissioned a few months after the end of World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including In 1962, the Navy commissioned USS Thomas A. Edison (SSBN-610), a fleet ballistic missile nuclear-powered submarine. Ship history Her keel was laid down on 15 March 1960 by the Electric Boat Division of the General Dynamics Corporation of Groton Decommissioned on 1 December 1983, Thomas A. Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) Edison was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register on April 30, 1986. The Naval Vessel Register ( NVR) is the official inventory of ships and service craft in custody of or titled by the United States Navy. Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) She went through the Navy’s Nuclear Powered Ship and Submarine Recycling Program at Bremerton, Washington, beginning on October 1, 1996. The Ship/Submarine Recycling Program (SRP is the process the United States Navy uses to dispose of decommissioned nuclear vessels. Bremerton is a city in Kitsap County, Washington, United States. Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) When she finished the program on December 1, 1997, she ceased to exist as a complete ship and was listed as scrapped. Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar
|NAME||Edison, Thomas Alva|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||American inventor and businessman|
|DATE OF BIRTH||1847-02-11|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Milan, Ohio, United States|
|DATE OF DEATH||1931-10-18|
|PLACE OF DEATH||West Orange, New Jersey, United States|
Year 1847 ( MDCCCXLVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Milan is a village in Erie and Huron counties in the US state of Ohio. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Year 1931 ( MCMXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1009 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid West Orange is a township in central Essex County, New Jersey, United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the