The term Third Order designates persons who live according to the Third Rule of Catholic religious orders, either outside of a monastery in the world, or in a religious community.
Their members, in general lay members of religious orders, i. e. men and women who do not necessarily live in community and yet can claim to wear the habit and participate in the good works of some great order, are known as Tertiaries (from the Latin tertiarius, the relative adjective of tertius 'third'). A religious habit is a distinctive set of garments worn by members of a Religious order. Tertiaries is also a term for a Bird 's hand Remiges. Tertiaries ( Latin tertiarii, from tertius The chuprichondira geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non- avian Dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately
Tertiaries are divided into regular and secular.
Saint Francis of Assisi established three orders. For the opera by Olivier Messiaen see Saint-François d'Assise. A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion usually The first order was for friars. A Friar is a member of one of the Mendicant orders. Friars and monks Friars differ from Monks in that they are called to a life of poverty in service He called it the Friars Minor meaning the "Little Brothers. The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic " The second order was for nuns. A Nun is a Woman who has taken special vows committing her to a religious life He established it together with Saint Clare of Assisi. Santa Chiara redirects here For the church in Rome of that name see Santa Chiara (church. It is named for her, the Poor Clares. The Order of Poor Ladies, also known as the Order of St Clare, the Poor Clares, the Poor Clare Sisters, the Clarisse, the Minoresses The third order was established for laymen and women. It is known as the 'Third Order of Saint Francis' or, more formally, the Secular Franciscan Order. The Secular Franciscan Order (SFO is a community of Roman Catholic men and women in the world who seek to pattern their lives after Christ in the spirit of St
A number of other religious orders were established for laymen and women. A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion usually For example, there is a Carmelite Third Order, known today as the Lay Carmelites. The Order of the Brothers of Our Lady of Mount Carmel or Carmelites (sometimes simply Carmel by Synecdoche; Latin: Ordo fratrum Beatæ The Lay Carmelites is the name used today for the Third order associated with the Carmelites.
In some cases the members of a third order, wished their order to become regular, meaning that they wanted to live in a more monastic and regulated way of life. Thus one finds the term Third Order Regular.
Outside the Catholic Church, there is a Third Order of lay members in the Anglican Society of St Francis. The Society of Saint Francis is a Franciscan religious order within the Anglican Communion.
The general idea of lay people affiliated to religious orders, as seen in the Benedictine Oblates or confraters (Taunton, "Black Monks of St. Benedictine refers to the Spirituality and Consecrated life in accordance with the Rule of St Benedict, written by Benedict of Nursia in An oblate in Christian Monasticism (especially Roman Catholic, Orthodox and Anglican) is a person who is specifically dedicated Benedict", London, 1897, I, 60-63; for Norbertines cf. Hurter, "Papst Innocenz III", Schaffhausen, 1845, IV, 148), is too natural for there to be any need to seek its origin. The von Hurter family belonged to the Swiss nobility in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries three of them were known for their conversions to Roman Catholicism Schaffhausen ( German:) is a city in northern Switzerland and the capital of the canton Founders and benefactors of monasteries were received in life into spiritual fellowship, and were clothed in death in some religious habit.
So too the Templars had a whole system whereby layfolk could partake in some sort in their privileges and in the material administration of their affairs (English Hist. The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order Rev. , London, April, 1910, 227). But the essential nature of the tertiary is really an innovation of the thirteenth century.
At that date many of the laity, impatient of the indolent and sometimes scandalous lives of the clergy in lower Europe, were seized with the idea of reforming Christendom by preaching. This admirable intention caused the rise of the Vaudois under Valdez of Lyons ("Anecdotes Historiques tirés du Recueil inédit d'Etienne de Bourbon, O. P. ", ed. by Lecoq de La Manche, Paris, 1878, 290-314), and under somewhat more curious conditions the Fratres Humiliati. The Vaudois were at first welcomed by the pope, Alexander III, who authorized their preaching, but as they were unacquainted with theological teaching and had pursued no clerical studies, their sermons were not seldom dogmatically inaccurate and eventually defiantly heretical. The Humiliati also soon became suspect and were forbidden by Lucius III to preach, till in 1207 Innocent III gave a section of them permission to resume their work, provided that they limited themselves to moral questions and did not venture on doctrinal subjects ("De articulis fidei et sacramentis ecclesiae", cf. Denifle, O. Henry Denifle, in German Heinrich Seuse Denifle ( January 16, 1844, Imst, Austrian Tyrol - June 10, P. , "Archiv für Litteratur und Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters", I, 419). Moreover some became priests, were gathered into a cloister, and took up religious life. The others remained outside, yet spiritually dependent on the clerical portion, and now for the first time in history called a Third Order, Tertius Ordo (Mandonnet, "Les Origines de l'Ordo de Pœnetentia"; the Bull is to be found in Tiraboschi, "Vetera Humiliatorum monumenta", II, Milan, 1766-68, 139). Pierre Mandonnet (1858-1936 was a Belgian Dominican historian important in the Neo-Thomist trend of historiography and the recovery of Medieval philosophy Girolamo Tiraboschi ( December 8, 1731 - June 3, 1794) was an Italian literary critic the first historian of Italian literature.
The Third Orders can each be divided into (a) regulars, i. e. living in convents, and (b) seculars, i. e. living in the world. Of these the first take vows, the latter can only make a solemn promise (except that Carmelite Tertiaries apparently take some sort of vows of obedience and chastity, cf. Angelus a S. S. Corde, O. C. D. , "Manuale juris communis Regularium", Ghent, 1899, q. 1067), which, however, distinguishes them from members of mere confraternities and constitutes them legally a religious order (Constitution of Leo XIII, "Misericors Dei Filius"). Some Trinitarian Tertiaries take private vows of Obedience, Chastity, and Poverty (all according to their lay state).
Any Catholic or Anglican may join a Third Order of their respective religious tradition. The laying aside of the distinctive sign or prayers for any space of time does not in itself put an end to membership with a Third Order, but the deliberate wish to dissociate oneself from it is sufficient to produce that effect (S. Cong. Indulg. , 31 January, 1893).
There are various indulgences for tertiaries, many the same as the Religious.
The Lay Carmelites are the Third order associated with the Carmelites. The Lay Carmelites is the name used today for the Third order associated with the Carmelites. The Lay Carmelites is the name used today for the Third order associated with the Carmelites. The Order of the Brothers of Our Lady of Mount Carmel or Carmelites (sometimes simply Carmel by Synecdoche; Latin: Ordo fratrum Beatæ It was established in 1476 by a bull of Pope Sixtus IV and is known for devotion to Mary, under her title as Our Lady of Mount Carmel. A Papal bull is a particular type of Letters patent or charter issued by a Pope. Pope Sixtus IV ( July 21, 1414 &ndash August 12, 1484) born Francesco Della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484 Our Lady of Mount Carmel is a Title given to Mary the mother of Jesus, in honor of her having given the Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel to Saint
The Discalced branch is termed Secular Order of Discalced Carmelites. The Secular Order of Discalced Carmelites (OCDS formerly known as the Third Secular Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel and of the Holy Mother Saint Teresa of Jesus is an
A branch of the great Franciscan family (male and female). We deal here with the secular Third Order (Secular Franciscan Order) and the regular. The Secular Franciscan Order (SFO is a community of Roman Catholic men and women in the world who seek to pattern their lives after Christ in the spirit of St
It has been believed that the Third Order of St. Francis was the oldest of all Third Orders, but historical evidence is against such an opinion. For, besides similar institutions in some monastic orders in the twelfth century, we find, before the foundation of St. Francis, a Third Order, properly so called, among the Humiliati, confirmed together with its rule by Innocent III in 1201. The Humiliati were an Italian religious order created probably in the 12th century. Pope Innocent III ( February 22, 1161 &ndash June 16, 1216) born Lotario de' Conti di Segni, was Pope from January 
The Third Order of St. Francis was, and still is, the best known and most widely distributed and has the greatest influence. About its origin there are two opposite opinions. According to Karl Müller, Mandonnet, and others, the Secular Third Order is a survival of the original ideal of Francis of Assisi, viz. Pierre Mandonnet (1858-1936 was a Belgian Dominican historian important in the Neo-Thomist trend of historiography and the recovery of Medieval philosophy For the opera by Olivier Messiaen see Saint-François d'Assise. a lay confraternity of penitents, from which, through the influence of the Church, the First and Second Orders of the Friars Minor and the Poor Clares have been detached. Confraternities of Penitents are Roman Catholic religious congregations with statutes prescribing various penitential works The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic The Order of Poor Ladies, also known as the Order of St Clare, the Poor Clares, the Poor Clare Sisters, the Clarisse, the Minoresses According to others, St. Francis merely lent his name to pre-existing penitential lay-confraternities, without having any special connection with or influence on them. The two opinions are equally at variance with the best texts we have on the subject.  According to these sources, St. Francis really founded a Third Order and gave it a Rule. If we complete these notices with some early papal Bulls bearing on the penitential movement and with the account given by Mariano of Florence (end of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth century) we can state what follows:
The preaching of St. Francis, as well as his own living example and that of his first disciples, exercised such a powerful attraction on the people that many married men and women wanted to join the First or the Second Order. This being incompatible with their state of life, St. Francis found a middle way: he gave them a rule animated by the Franciscan spirit. In the composition of this rule St. Francis was assisted by his friend Cardinal Ugolino, later Gregory IX. Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti, was Pope from March 19, 1227 to August As to the place where the Third Order was first introduced nothing certain is known. Of late however the preponderance of opinion is for Florence, chiefly on the authority of Mariano of Florence, or Faenza, for which the first papal Bull (Potthast, "Regesta Pontificum", 6736) known on the subject is given, whilst the "Fioretti" (ch. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Faenza is an Italian town and Comune, in the Province of Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna, situated 50 km southeast of Bologna. xvi), though not regarded as an historical authority, assigns Cannara, a small town two hours' walk from Porziuncola, as the birthplace of the Third Order. Cannara is a town and Comune on the Topino River in the floodplain of central Umbria, in the Province of Perugia. Porziuncola, also called Portiuncula (in Latin or Porzioncula, is a small church in the Frazione of Santa Maria degli Angeli Mariano and the Bull for Faenza (16 December, 1221) point to 1221 as the earliest date of the institution of the Third Order, and in fact, besides these and other sources, the oldest preserved rule bears this date at its head.
This rule was published by P. Sabatier and H. Boehmer (see bibliography), and contained originally twelve chapters, to which at the time of Gregory IX (1227) a thirteenth was added. Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti, was Pope from March 19, 1227 to August It prescribes simplicity in dress (1), considerable fasting and abstinence (2-3), the canonical office or other prayers instead (4-5), confession and communion thrice a year, and forbids carrying arms or taking solemn oaths without necessity (6); every month the brothers and sisters have to assemble in a church designated by the ministers, and a religious has to give them an instruction (7); they also exercise the works of charity with their brothers (8); whenever a member dies the whole confraternity has to be present at the funeral and to pray for the departed (9); everyone has to make his last will three months after his reception; dissensions among brothers and sisters or other persons are to be settled peaceably; if any troubles arise with local authorities the ministers ought to act with the counsel of the bishop (10). No heretic or anyone suspected of heresy can be received, and women only with the consent of their husbands (11); the ministers have to denounce shortcomings to the visitor, who will punish the culprits; every year two new ministers and a treasurer are to be elected; no point of the rule obliges under pain of sin (12). On account of the prohibition of arms and unnecessary oaths, the followers of this rule came into conflict with local authorities, a fact of which we have evidence in many papal Bulls all through the thirteenth century, issued to safeguard the privileges of the Tertiaries (see list of these Bulls in Mandonnet, "Les Règles", 146-47).
Wadding ("Annales Min. " ad a. 1321, n. 13) gives another longer redaction of the rule, which is almost identical with the one solemnly confirmed by Nicholas IV through the Bull "Supra montem", 17 August, 1289. Pope Nicholas IV ( September 30, 1227 &ndash April 4, 1292) born Girolamo Masci, was Pope from February 22, This last form has for long been considered as the work of St. Francis, whilst Karl Müller denied any connection of St. Francis with it. If we compare the rule published and approved by Nicholas IV with the oldest text of 1221, we see that they substantially agree, slight modifications and different dispositions of chapters (here 20 in number) excepted. Through a most interesting text published by Golubovich (Arch. Franc. Hist. , II, 1909, 20) we know now that this Rule of Nicholas IV was approved on the petition of some Italian Tertiaries. Another publication by Guerrini (Arch. Franc. Hist. , I, 1908, 544 sq. ) proves that there existed in the thirteenth century Third Order Confraternities with quite different rules. On the whole, it can safely be affirmed that until Nicholas IV there was no Rule of the Third Order generally observed, but besides the one quoted above, and probably the most widely spread, there were others of more local character. The same might be said as to the government of the confraternities. Besides their own officials, they had to have a visitor, who seems to have been usually appointed by the bishop. In 1247 Innocent IV ordered that the Friars Minor were to assume the direction of the Tertiaries in Italy and Sicily (Bull Franc. Pope Innocent IV, born Sinibaldo Fieschi was Pope from June 28, 1243 to December 7, 1254. The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic , I, 464), but about twenty years later when St. Bonaventure wrote his question: "Why do not the Friars Minor promote the Order of 'Penitents'?" (Op. om. , VIII, 368) the contrary had practically prevailed. Nicholas IV introduced unity of rule and of direction into the Third Order, which henceforward was entrusted to the care of the Friars Minor.
If we except a few points, bearing especially on fasts and abstinence, mitigated by Clement VII in 1526 and Pope Paul III in 1547, the Rule as given by Nicholas IV remained in vigour till 1883, when Leo XIII, himself a tertiary, through the Apostolic Constitution "Misericors Dei Filius", modified the text, adapting it more to the modern state and needs of the society. For the Antipope (1378&ndash1394 see Antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII ( May 26, 1478 &ndash September Pope Paul III ( February 29, 1468 &ndash November 10, 1549) born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Pope Leo XIII ( March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903) born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope All substantial points, however, remained; only the daily vocal prayers were reduced, as also the fasts and abstinences, whilst the former statute of confession and communion thrice a year was changed into monthly communion. Other points of the modified Rule of Leo XIII are of great social and religious importance, such as the prohibition of pomp in dressing, of frequenting theatres of doubtful character, and keeping and reading papers and books at variance with faith and morals. The direction is entrusted to the three branches of the First Order: Friars Minor, Conventuals, Capuchins, and to the Regular Third Order. By delegation, confraternities can be established and directed by any parish priest. Those who for serious reasons cannot join a confraternity may be received as single tertiaries. Finally, great spiritual privileges are granted to all members of the Third Order.
The beneficent influence of the secular Third Order of St. Francis cannot be highly enough appreciated. Through the prohibition against carrying arms a deadly blow was given to the feudal system and to the ever-fighting factions of Italian municipalities; through the admission of poor and rich, nobles and common people, the social classes were brought nearer each other.
How far the religious ideal of St. Francis was carried out by the secular Third Order we may judge from the great number (about 75) of saints and blessed of every condition it produced. It may suffice to mention: St. Elizabeth of Hungary; St. Louis, King of France; St. Ferdinand, King of Castile; St. St Elisabeth of Hungary (St Elisabeth von Thüringen Árpád-házi Szent Erzsébet 7 July, 1207 &ndash 17 November, 1231) spent most of Saint Ferdinand III (July 30 or August 5 1199 &ndash May 30, 1252) was the King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230 Elizabeth of Portugal; St. Rosa of Viterbo; St. Saint Rose of Viterbo (1235– March 6, 1252) was a Virgin Saint, born at Viterbo, Italy. Margaret of Cortona; Bl. Umiliana Cerchi; Bl. Angela of Foligno; Bl. Raymond Lullus; Bl. Luchesius of Poggibonsi, who passes as the first tertiary received by St. Francis; St. Ivo; Bl. Jean-Baptiste Vianney, the curé of Ars; of names celebrated in history for literature, arts, politics, inventions, etc. Saint Jean Marie Baptiste Vianney ( 1786 - August 4, 1859) was a French parish priest who became a Catholic Saint and the , Dante, Giotto, Petrarch, Cola di Rienzo, Christopher Columbus, Vasco da Gama, Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Thomas More, Galvani, Volta, Garcia Moreno, Liszt, and Lady Georgiana Fullerton. Francesco Petrarca ( July 20, 1304 – July 19, 1374) known in English as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar Cola di Rienzo or di Rienzi ( c 1313 – October 8, 1354) was an Italian medieval politician and popular leader Tribune Christopher Columbus (1451 &ndash May 20 1506 was an Italian Navigator, colonizer Dom Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira ('vaʃku dɐ 'gɐmɐ ( Sines or Vidigueira, Alentejo, Portugal, ca Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra ( in modern Spanish; September 29, 1547 &ndash April 22, 1616) was a Spanish Novelist Lope de Vega (also Félix Lope de Vega y Carpio or Lope Félix de Vega Carpio) ( 25 November 1562 &ndash 27 August 1635 Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535 from 1935 Saint Thomas More, was an English Lawyer, author and statesman who in his lifetime gained Luigi Galvani was an Italian Physician and Physicist who lived and died in Bologna. Gabriel Gregorio García y Moreno y Morán de Buitrón ( December 24, 1821 – August 6, 1875) was an Ecuadorian Statesman Lady Georgiana Fullerton (1812 - 1885 was an English Novelist. Popes Pius IX and Leo XIII were members of the Third Order, as also was Pope Pius X. Blessed Pope Pius IX (May 13 1792 &ndash February 7 1878 born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was Pope from June 16 1846 until 1878 Pope Leo XIII ( March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903) born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope Saint Pius X ( Latin: Pius PP X) ( June 2, 1835 &mdash August 20, 1914) born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, was the
Since the adaptation of the rule by Leo XIII, the Third Order has grown more active than ever. In the early 20th century total number of members was esteemed about two and a half millions, spread all over the world. National and local congresses have been held in different countries: seven in the period from 1894 to 1908 in France, others in Belgium, some in Italy, the first general congress in Assisi (1895), many local ones from 1909 to 1911; others have been held in Spain, the last one at Santiago in 1909; in Argentina the last one at Buenos Aires in 1906; in India, Canada, and in Germany and Austria, in the last two instances in connection with general congresses of Catholics. There exist almost in all civilized languages numerous monthly periodicals which, whilst keeping up the union amongst the different confraternities, serve also for the instruction and edification of its members. The "Acta Ordinis Frat. Min. ", XXVI, Quaracchi, 1907, 255-58, gives the names of 122 such periodicals. French periodicals are indicated by P. B. Ginnet, O. F. M. , "Le Tiers Ordre et le Prêtre", Vanves, 1911, p. 51 sq. ; German periodicals by Moll, O. M. Cap. , "Wegweiser in die Literatur des Dritten Ordens", Ratisbon, 1911. In Italy even a regular newspaper was founded, "Rinascita Francescana", Bologna, 1910; another in Germany, "Allgemeine deutsche Tertiaren-Zeitung", Wiesbaden, 1911. —We may mention also the special organs for directors of the Third Order, e. g. "Der Ordensdirektor", published at Innsbruck by the Tyrolese Franciscans, "Revue sacerdotale du Tiers-Ordre de Saint François", published by French Capuchins. Both reviews appear once every two months.
The origin of the Regular Third Order, both male and female, can be traced back to the second half of the thirteenth century, but no precise date can be indicated. It was organized, in different forms, in the Netherlands, in the south of France, in Germany, and in Italy. Probably some secular tertiaries, who in many cases had their house of meeting, gradually withdrew entirely from the world and so formed religious communities, but without the three substantial vows of religious orders. Other religious associations such as the Beguines (women) and Beghards (men) in the Low Countries, sometimes passed over to the Third Order, as has been clearly shown. Beghards and Beguines were Roman Catholic lay religious communities active in the 13th and 14th century living in a loose semi- Monastic community Beghards and Beguines were Roman Catholic lay religious communities active in the 13th and 14th century living in a loose semi- Monastic community
Towards the end of the thirteenth and the beginning of the fourteenth century some suspicion of heretical opinions fell on some of these free religious unions of the Third Order (bizocchi), as we can infer from the Bull of John XXII "Sancta Romana", December, 1317 (Bull. Pope John (numbering Pope John XXII (1249 &ndash December 4, 1334) born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse) was Pope from 1316 to 1334 Franc. , V, 134). More than a century later St. John of Capistran (1456) had to defend the Tertiaries in a special treatise: "Defensorium tertii ordinis d. Saint Giovanni da Capestrano ( in English, Saint John Capistrano and in Hungarian, János Kapisztrán) June 24 Francisci", printed with other minor works of the saint at Venice in 1580.
Throughout the fourteenth century, the regular tertiaries of both sexes had in the most cases no common organization; only in the following century we can observe single well-ordered religious communities with solemn vows and a common head. Pope Martin V submitted in 1428 all tertiaries, regular and secular, to the direction of the Minister-General of the Friars Minor (Bull. Pope Martin V (c 1368 &ndash February 20, 1431) born Odo (or Minister general is the term used for the Superior general of various Religious orders See List of Ministers General of the Order Franc. , VII, 715), but this disposition was soon revoked by his successor Pope Eugene IV. Pope Eugene IV (1383 &ndash February 23, 1447) born Gabriele Condulmer, was Pope from March 3, 1431, to his death We meet thus in the same fifteenth century with numerous independent male congregations of regular tertiaries with the three vows in Italy, Sicily, Dalmatia, Spain, Portugal, France, Germany, and in the Netherlands. Contemporaneously there existed sister congregations of the Third Order with solemn vows, for instance, the Grey sisters of the Third Order, serving in hospitals, spread in France and the Netherlands, whose remarkable statutes of 1483 have recently been published by H. Lemartre in "Arch. Franc. Hist. " IV, 1911, 713-31, and the congregation still existing founded at Foligno in 1397 by Blessed Angelina of Marsciano (1435). Leo X, in order to introduce uniformity into the numerous congregations, gave in 1521 a new form to the rule, now in ten chapters, retaining of the rule as published by Nicholas IV all that could serve the purpose, adding new points, especially the three solemn vows, and insisting on subjection to the First Order of St. Francis. For this last disposition the Rule of Leo X met with resistance, and never was accepted by some congregations, whilst it serves till the present day as the basis of the constitutions of many later congregations, especially of numerous communities of sisters.
The two Italian congregations, the Lombardic and Sicilian, which had constituted themselves in the course of the fifteenth century, were united by Pope Paul III, and since Sixtus V enjoyed entire independence from the First Order. Pope Paul III ( February 29, 1468 &ndash November 10, 1549) born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Pope Sixtus V ( December 13, 1521 &ndash August 27, 1590) born Felice Peretti di Montalto, was Pope from 1585 to 1590 It had then already 11 provinces.
In the seventeenth century the congregations of Dalmatia and the Netherlands (of Zeppern) were united with the Italian family. In 1734 Clement XIII confirmed their statutes. Pope Clement XIII ( Venice, March 7, 1693 &ndash February 2, 1769 in Rome) born Carlo della Torre di Rezzonico Whilst the French Revolution swept away all similar congregations, the Italian survived with four provinces, of which one was in Dalmatia. In 1906 a small congregation of Tertiary lay brothers in the Balearic Islands and a little later two convents with colleges in the United States joined the same congregation, which in 1908 numbered about 360 members.
The dress is that of the Conventuals, from whom they can hardly be distinguished. The residence of the minister-general is at Rome, near the Church of Sts. Cosmas and Damian. After the time of Pope Leo X, the Spanish congregation often had troubles on the question of its submission to the First Order. Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death After Pius V (1568) had put the whole Third Order again under the care of the Minister-General of the Friars Minor, the superiors of the three provinces constituted in Spain could, after 1625, partake at the General Chapters of the Friars Minor and since 1670 they have had even a definitor-general to represent them. A definitor is in Latin he who defines In the Catholic Church, however this is a title with different specific uses
The French congregation, named from their house at Paris "of Picpus", was reformed by V. Mussart (d. 1637), and maintained close ties with the First Order till its extinction in the French Revolution. A well-known member of this congregation is Hyppolit Helyot, the author of an important history of the religious orders. Pierre Helyot (1660-1716 Franciscan friar and Historian, was born at Paris in January 1660 of supposed English ancestry In 1768 it had four provinces with 61 convents and 494 religious.
Other congregations of Tertiaries existed after the fifteenth century in Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Ireland and England. They perished either at the time of the Reformation or in the French Revolution. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an We may mention also the Obregonians, the "Bons-Fils" 'Good Sons' in northern France founded in 1615, and the "Penitents gris" at Paris after the sixteenth century, all now extinct. The Obregonians, or Poor Infirmarians, were a small Roman Catholic congregation of men who professed the Rule of the Third Order of St In the nineteenth century some new congregations arose, e. g. the Poor Brothers of St. Francis, the Brothers of St. The Poor Brothers of St Francis Seraphicus are a congregation of [[lay brother]]s of the [[Third Order of St Francis at Waldbreitbach (Rhine) after 1860, the "Frati bigi", founded in 1884 at Naples by Ludovic of Casoria, O. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Ludovico of Casoria (Archangelo Palmentieri (b at Casoria, near Naples, 11 March[[ 814]] d F. M. The most of these modern tertiary communities consist only of lay brothers and depend on their diocesan bishop.
Whilst Leo X in the reform of the rule had left it free to the congregations to adopt papal enclosure or not, Pius V (1568) prescribed it to all convents of tertiary sisters with solemn vows. Pope Still this order was not carried out everywhere. In this regard the custom prevailed that the Friars Minor refused to take the direction of those convents which had only episcopal enclosure. Besides those already mentioned above, we may add the different offshoots of the Sisters of St. Elizabeth in Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, and France (there, under the name of Soeurs du Refuge, some of them still exist). Sisters of Saint Elizabeth - a Roman Catholic religious order The first Ursulines, also, founded by St. The Ursulines are a Roman Catholic Religious order founded at Brescia, Italy by Saint Angela de Merici in November 1535 primarily Angela Merici (1540), belonged to the Third Order.
In the nineteenth century many of the new congregations adopted the Rule of the Third Order, but most of them have no further connection with the First Order. Many of them have widely varying names; a good many are of mere local character, others again are of international importance. As to their activities, almost all dedicate themselves to works of charity, either in hospitals, homes, or ateliers; others work in schools, not a few are in foreign missions. We can give here scarcely more than a list of the names, with the dates of the foundation.
In Germany there are the Poor Sisters of St. Francis, founded 1845 (1851) by M. Schervier at Aachen, with some houses in America; the Franciscan Sisters of the Holy Family, founded in 1857 at Eupen, Diocese of Cologne; the Franciscan Sisters, at Münster, Westphalia, founded in 1850; the Poor Franciscan Sisters of the Perpetual Adoration, at Olpe, Diocese of Paderborn (1857); the Poor Franciscan Sisters of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, at Salzkotten, near Paderborn (1863); the Sisters of Mercy of the Third Order, at Thuine, Diocese of Osnabrück (1869); the Sisters of Mercy of St. Eupen is a Municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège, 15 km from the German border ( Aachen) from the Dutch Bishops and Archbishops of Cologne Bishops of Colonia Agrippina, 88–784 All names before Maternus ('II' are to be approached with considerable The Bishopric of Paderborn (Fürstbistum Paderborn was a Prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire from 1281 to 1802 Salzkotten is a town in the district of Paderborn, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Thuine is a municipality in the Emsland district in Lower Saxony, Germany. Francis, at Waldbreitbach, Diocese of Trier (1863); the Franciscan Sisters at Nonnenwerth, an island on the Rhine, founded in 1872 at Heythuizen in Holland; Franciscan Sisters of Maria-Stern, at Augsburg, whose first foundation can be followed back to the thirteenth century; Franciscan Sisters at Dillingen, Diocese of Augsburg, founded in the fourteenth century; the Poor Franciscan Sisters, at Mallersdorf, Diocese of Ratisbon (1855); the Congregation of Ursperg (1897); the Franciscan Sisters of Kaufbeuren, Diocese of Augsburg, founded in the fifteenth century, to which had belonged Blessed Crescentia Hess (1744). The Roman Catholic diocese of Trier is a Diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Germany Augsburg is an independent City in the south-west of Bavaria. The Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg is historically one of the Prince-bishoprics of the Holy Roman Empire, and belonged to the Swabian Circle. Mallersdorf-Pfaffenberg is a municipality in the district of Straubing-Bogen in Bavaria, Germany and has around 7000 inhabitants Kaufbeuren (kaʊfˈbɔʏʁən is an Independent city in the Regierungsbezirk of Schwaben, southern Bavaria. In the Diocese of Rottenburg, in Wurtemberg, we note the communities of Bonlanden near Erolzheim (1855); of Heiligenbronn (1857); of the Sisters of Christian Charity, at Reute, founded 1849 at the same place where in the fifteenth century Blessed Elizabeth of Reute, called also the "good Beta" (d. Württemberg, formerly known as Wirtemberg, is an area and a former state in Swabia, a region in southwestern Germany. 1420), had professed the Third Order; the Franciscan Sisters of Sussen (1853). In Baden is noteworthy the Congregation of Gengenbach (1867), since 1876 also in the United States, Joliet, Illinois. Baden is a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine. At Mainz there is the Convent of Perpetual Adoration (1860).
In Austria-Hungary were the School Sisters of the Third Order (1723), with mother-houses at Hallein, Diocese of Salzburg, at Vienna (III), and at Judenau, Diocese of Sankt Pölten; the Sisters of the Third Order of St. Judenau-Baumgarten is a market town in the district of Tulln in Lower Austria, Austria. Francis at Vienna (V), (1857); the Poor School Sisters at Voklabruck, Diocese of Linz (1850); the Sisters of Mercy of the Third Order of St. Francis at Troppau, Diocese of Olmütz (1853); Congregation of School Sisters of the Third Order of St. Opava ( pronounced; Troppau Opawa is a city in the northern Czech Republic on the Opava River, located to the north-west of Ostrava. Francis, at Mahrisch-Trubau, Diocese of Olmütz (1851); the School Sisters of the Third Order of St. Francis at Marburg on the Drau, Diocese of Lavant (1864); the Grey Sisters of the Third Order of St. Lavant (in Latin Lavantina) was a Prince-bishopric Suffragan of the Prince-archbishop of Salzburg, then in the southern part of imperial Francis, at Prague (I), 1856; and three small communities in Tyrol. Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic. Tyrol is a region in Western Central Europe, which included the present day Austrian state of Tyrol (consisting of North Tyrol and East
In Luxembourg there is the Congregation of Pfaffental; the Sisters of Mercy of St. Luxembourg (Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg Grand-Duché de Luxembourg Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a small Landlocked country in Western Europe, bordered by Francis with the mother-house in Luxembourg City, and communities in Sweden and the Carolines. The city of Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg Luxemburg also known as Luxembourg City (Stad Lëtzebuerg Ville de Luxembourg Luxemburg Stadt is a commune with city "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The Caroline Islands form a large Archipelago of widely scattered islands in the western Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Guinea. In Holland there are the Congregations of Roosendaal, of Breda, of Heythuizen, all of which have communities in foreign missions; lastly the Congregation of Heerlen. Holland is a region in the western part of the Netherlands. A maritime and economic power in the 17th century Holland today consists of the Dutch provinces of Roosendaal ( is both a city and a Municipality in the southern Netherlands. Breda ( is a Municipality and a city in the southern part of the Netherlands. Heerlen ( is a City and a Municipality in the southeastern Netherlands The municipality is the second largest in the province of Limburg. In Belgium there exist, besides the old congregation of the Grey Sisters of Hospitals (see above) at Antwerp, Zoutleeuw, Tienen, Hasselt, and Tongeren, the more recent communities of Ghent (founded 1701), of Hérines, Diocese of Mechelen, of Macon-lez-Chimay, of Opwijk, Diocese of Mechelen (1845). The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those ||-||-||-||} Antwerp ( Dutch:, French: Anvers) is a City and Municipality in Belgium and the capital of the Zoutleeuw (Léau is a Municipality and town in the Belgian province of Flemish Brabant. Tienen or Thienen (Tirlemont is a City and Municipality in the province of Flemish Brabant, in Flanders, one of the three regions of ||-||-||} Hasselt is a Belgian City and municipality, and capital of the Flemish province of Limburg. Ghent (ˈɡɛnt Gent ʝɛnt in Dutch, Gand in French, and formerly Gaunt in English) is a City and a Mechelen-Brussel is the Dutch name of the only archbishopric in Belgium, and its ecclesiastical province that coincides with the country Chimay (Chimai is a Walloon Municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut. Opwijk is a Municipality located in the Belgian province of Flemish Brabant.
In Switzerland there once existed many congregations of the Third Order, and even now there are several convents of strict enclosure. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Of the active congregations the most noteworthy are the two founded by the Capuchin Theodosius Florentini, viz. Theodosius Florentini (born at Münster, in the Grisons, Switzerland 23 May[[ 808]] died at Heiden, in Appenzell, 15 February[[ the Sisters of the Holy Cross for schools, with mother-house at Menzingen (1844), with numerous convents outside Switzerland, and the Sisters of the Holy Cross for hospital work (1852), with mother-house at Ingenbohl. The Sisters of the Holy Cross (CSC headquartered on the same grounds as Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame Indiana, is one of three Catholic congregations
In France, before the last suppression of convents, there were about fifty communities of the Third Order; the most important was that of the Missionaries of Mary, founded by Mother de Chapotin de Neuville (d. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. 1904) in India, with actual mother-house at Rome, with communities spread all over the world.
In Italy there are the Stigmatins, founded near Florence by Mother Lapini (d. 1860); the Sisters of Egypt, for missionary work, with mother-house at Rome; the Sisters of Gemona, Italy; finally, the Sisters of the Child Jesus, with mother-house at Assisi. On the whole, the sisters professing the Rule of the Third Order amount at least to 50,000.
The Regular Third Order produced one saint, Hyacintha of Mariscotti, and five Blessed: Lucia of Callagirone, Elizabeth of Reute, Angelina of Marsciomo, Jeremias Lambertenghi and Crescentia Hoss of Kaufbeuren. Saint Hyacintha Mariscotti or Hyacintha of Mariscotti ( Giacinta Marescotti or Giacinta Mariscotti) was a religious of the Third Order of Elizabeth of Reute (also known as Betha the Good Betha von Reute Elisabeth Acheer Elisabeth Achlin Elisabeth Bona von Reute Elisabeth den Gode Elisabeth the Good Elizabeth Acheer
The Third Order of St. Francis was established by the Friars Minor Recollects at Quebec in 1671, and some years later at Three Rivers and Montreal. Considering the sparse population of the country, it was in a flourishing condition. In 1681 a Recollect notes that "many pious people of Quebec belong to the Third Order".
After the cession of Canada to England, the Third Order, deprived of its directors, the Recollects, seemed to have disappeared gradually, only to flourish anew thirty years after the death at Montreal, 1813, of the last Recollect priest.
The Third Order was re-established about 1840 by Mgr Ignatius Bourget, Bishop of Montreal. Fervent fellow-labourers helped the holy prelate to spread the Third Order in Montreal, notably Canon J. A. Paré and the Sulpicians C. E. Gilbert and A. Giband. Mgr Bourget established a fraternity of women, 6 May, 1863, and one of men, 13 June, 1866; both were directed by the Sulpicians till 1874, by Canon P. E. Dufresne from 1874 till 1881, by the Jesuits from 1881 till 1888, and by the Sulpicians from 1888 till 1890; since then by the Friars Minor. Mgr Fabre, successor to Bishop Bourget, in a letter (3 September, 1882) to the priests and faithful of his diocese, says: "We have in our midst the tertiaries of St. Francis, who are known to you all by the edification they give, and by the good odour of all the virtues which they practise in the world. " The Third Order was reintroduced at Quebec almost at the same time as at Montreal. On 19 November, 1859, Father Flavian Durocher, O. M. I. , received the profession of two women, after a year's novitiate. These were joined by others, until in 1876 Quebec possessed over 2000 tertiaries, while in the Province of Quebec several parishes had groups of tertiaries. Among priests zealous for the spread of the Third Order at this epoch we must name, besides the above-mentioned Montreal priests: Father Durocher, St. Sauveur, Quebec; L. N. Begin, now Archbishop of Quebec; James Sexton, Quebec; Oliver Caron, Vicar-General of Three Rivers; E. H. Guilbert, Léon Abel Provancher, and G. Léon Abel Provancher (b 10 March 1820, in the parish of Bécancour, Nicolet County Quebec; d Fraser, all three of the Quebec diocese. Father Provancher was one of the most zealous. In 1866, having received faculties from the General of the Friars Minor, he established a very fervent fraternity in his parish of Portneuf. He propagated the Third Order by his writings. For two years he edited a review, in which he published nearly every month an article on the Third Order, or answered questions appertaining thereto. At that epoch (1876) the brothers' fraternity at Montreal counted 137 members; the sisters, a still greater number. At Three Rivers the tertiaries were less numerous—enough, however, to form a fraternity a little later. Quebec with its 200 tertiaries did not have a fraternity till 1882.
In 1881 the arrival in Canada of Father Frederic of Ghyvelde gave new spirit to the Third Order. He spent eight months in Canada, and worked actively for the Third Order. He began at Quebec, where he held the Holy Visit prescribed by the rule and admitted 100 new members. At Three Rivers he found "a numerous and fervent fraternity". His visit to the fraternities of Montreal was followed by a notable increase in membership. Shortly afterwards Leo XIII published his Encyclicals on the Third Order. The Canadian bishops, in obedience to the pope's wishes, recommended the Third Order to their clergy and faithful. But the Friars of the First Order alone could give the Third a fitting development; hence, when Father Frederic returned in 1888, several bishops, among them Bishop Louis-Francois Richer Lafleche of Three Rivers and Archbishop Taschereau, welcomed him as its promoter. Louis-François Laflèche, ( 4 September 1818 &ndash 14 July 1898) was a Catholic The foundation of a convent of Friars Minor at Montreal in 1890 inaugurated a new era of prosperity for the Third Order. The Franciscans took over the direction of the Third Order at Montreal. The fraternities of other districts were visited regularly, and new ones were formed. The Third Order has since spread rapidly. To-day the Third Order in Canada numbers nearly 200 fraternities with over 50,000 members, under the jurisdiction of the Friars Minor. The Capuchins have a small number of fraternities. The Friars Minor have also the direction of 20 fraternities with 5000 members in the Franco-Canadian centres of the United States. All these large numbers of isolated tertiaries give a total of nearly 60,000. These tertiaries are mostly French Canadians. There are very few fraternities for English-speaking tertiaries; of these there are two very flourishing ones at Montreal. It is in the Province of Quebec that the Third Order is most flourishing. Three monthly reviews, treating specially of the Third Order, are published in Canada: (1) "La Revue du Tiers Ordre", founded in 1884 by the tertiaries of Montreal, and directed since 1891 by the Friars Minor of that city; (2) "The Franciscan Review and St. Anthony's Record", founded in 1905 by the Friars Minor of Montreal; (3) "L'Echo de St. François", published since 1911 by the Capuchins of Ottawa. The principal social works of the Third Order in Canada are: three houses of the Third Order in Montreal and one in Quebec, directed by lady tertiaries; a lodging-house and an industrial school at Montreal, directed also by lady tertiaries; several work-rooms for the benefit of the poor; and public libraries, one in Quebec and two in Montreal.
The Third Order Regular is represented in Canada by three flourishing institutions:
A. Little Franciscan Sisters of Mary, founded at Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1889 and transferred to Baie-St-Paul, Canada, in 1891; their constitutions were approved in 1903. They follow the Rule of the Third Order Regular. Their habit comprises a brown tunic and scapular, a white hood and wimple, and a white woollen cord; they wear a silver crucifix. A tunic is any of several types of Clothing for the body with or without Sleeves and of various lengths reaching from the hips to the ankles For the shoulder bone see the article Scapula. A scapular (from Latin scapula, shoulder is a length of The wimple is a Garment of Mediaeval Europe worn by Women. It is a cloth which usually covers the head and is worn around the A crucifix (from Latin cruci fixus meaning "(one fixed to a cross" is a cross with a representation of Jesus ' body or corpus Work. —Assistance of the sick, the poor, the aged, of orphans and instruction of the young—in a word, all the works of mercy. Development. —This congregation possesses 8 houses, nearly all in the United States. The mother house is at Baie-St-Paul, Province of Quebec, Canada. The institution numbers 150 professed sisters, 7 novices, 30 postulants, and 8 associates.
B. Franciscan missionaries of Mary, founded in India, and following the Rule of the Third Order Regular. They have six houses in Canada: (1) Quebec, founded 1892; novitiate, perpetual adoration, printing, embroidery, workshop, house of probation for aspirants, patronage, visiting the sick. (2) St. Anne of Beaupré (1894); patronage, workshop, hospitality for pilgrims, visiting the sick. (3) St. Lawrence, Manitoba (1897); boarding-school, parochial schools, dispensary, visiting the sick. (4) Pine Creek, Manitoba (1899); school, model farm, dispensary, visiting the sick. (5) St. Malo, Quebec (1902); day nursery, primary schools, school of domestic economy, dispensary, pharmacy, visiting the sick. (6) Winnipeg (1909); day nursery, embroidery, patronage, visiting the poor and the hospitals. These houses possess 150 sisters, novices included. Since its establishment in Canada, the congregation has had 290 Canadian members, many of whom are now engaged in mission work in China, Japan, India, Ceylon, Congo, Zululand, Natal, Mozambique, Madagascar, and South America. The mother-house of Quebec has founded six others in the United States: Woonsocket in 1904; New York and New Bedford in 1906; Boston in 1907; Providence in 1909; Fall River in 1910.
C. Religious of St. Francis of Assisi, founded at Lyons, France, in 1838. Their object is the care of the sick and of orphans and the education of the young. They were introduced into Canada in 1904, and have at present 5 houses, comprising a hospital, a boarding-school for girls, and model and elementary schools.
The Third Order Secular comprises ninety-six congregations of which forty are under the jurisdiction of the Friars Minor of the Leonine Union and fifty-four under that of the Friars Minor Capuchin, and about 12,000 members, amongst whom are several diocesan bishops, a number of the clergy, and laity of all ranks. In their organization, the British tertiary congregations follow the common rule, but many of them add some corporal works of mercy, reclaiming negligent Catholics, and so forth.
All the tertiaries are governed by a commissary-provincial who is appointed by the minister-provincial of the first order. His duty is to grant the necessary faculties to directors of congregations, to hold visitations, and generally supervise the affairs of the Third Order under his jurisdiction. A national conference of British tertiaries with a view to strengthening and consolidating the order, was held in 1898 at Liverpool in the hall attached to the Jesuit church, and was presided over by the bishop of the diocese. The opening address was delivered by the Archbishop of Paris. A second national conference was held at Leeds. Since the institution of the English national Catholic congress, in 1910, the tertiaries have taken part in these and have had their sectional meeting in the congress.
Of the Third Order in Great Britain in pre-Reformation days little is known. It is, however, certain that there existed in Scotland several houses of Sisters of the Third Order Regular. Blessed Thomas More is frequently spoken of as a tertiary of St. Francis, but there seems to be no historical evidence to support this statement.
The Third Order, however, was known in England in the penal days. Fr. William Staney, the first commissary of the order in England after the Dissolution, wrote "A Treatise of the Third Order of St. Francis" (Douai, 1617). An interesting fact in connection with the Third Order in England is the appointment in 1857, as commissary-general, of Dr. (afterwards Cardinal) Manning, by letters patent, dated 10 April, 1857, given by the minister-general of the Capuchin Friars Minor, empowering him to act as "Superior, visitor and Our Commissary of each and all the brothers and sisters of the Third Order Secular dwelling in England". Letters patent are a type of Legal instrument in the form of an Open letter issued by a Monarch or Government, granting an office right
Amongst notable English tertiaries of modern times, besides Cardinal Manning, may be mentioned Cardinal Vaughan, Lady Herbert of Lea, the late Earl of Denbigh, and the poet Coventry Patmore. Herbert Alfred Vaughan ( April 15, 1832 &ndash June 19, 1903) was a British Catholic cardinal and Archbishop Coventry Kersey Dighton Patmore ( 23 July 1823 - 26 November 1896) was an English Poet and Critic. The Third Order Regular was represented in England in he early 20th century by nineteen convents of sisters and in Scotland by six convents, no communities of brothers. These convents belong to various congregations, most of which are of English institution. They devote themselves either to education or to parochial works of mercy or to the foreign missions.
Most notable historically amongst these congregations are the convents at Taunton and Woodchester, which represent the English convent of the Third Order established at Brussels, Belgium, in 1621. Their founder was Father Gennings, the brother of the martyr Edmund Gennings. This was, in fact, the first convent of the Third Order Regular, enclosed, founded for English women. The community later on migrated to Bruges where it remained until 1794, when, owing to the troubles caused by the French Revolution, it crossed over into England and, after eleven years' residence at Winchester, settled finally at Taunton in Somerset. Bruges (Brugge is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. The congregation was under the jurisdiction of the Friars Minor until 1837 when, owing to the dissolution of the Recollect province, it came under the jurisdiction of the diocesan bishop. In 1860 a second foundation was made at Woodchester.
The congregations of the Third Order Secular in Ireland are almost exclusively attached to churches of the First Order. Under the jurisdiction of the Friars Minor of the Leonine Union were in the early 20th century fourteen congregations with 9741 members, and subject to the Capuchin Friars Minor four congregations with 5100 members. The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin ( OFM Cap; in England and Ireland, O
The Third Order Regular comprises two houses of brothers at Clara and Farragher, and eleven in the Archdiocese of Tuam, all devoted to educational work. The Archdiocese of Tuam ( Irish: Ard-Deoise an Tuaim) is a Roman Catholic Archdiocese in west Ireland. At Drumshambo the sisters of the order have a convent where perpetual adoration is maintained day and night. There is also one convent of the Franciscan Missionary Sisters of Mary.
In 1847 Bishop O'Connor of Pittsburgh obtained from the Irish congregation six brothers, who founded a monastery and college at Loretto, Pennsylvania. Pius IX, by a Rescript of 12 Nov. , 1847, erected this foundation into an independent congregation under the obedience of the Bishop of Pittsburgh. This congregation in 1908 joined the Italian congregation, and together with the community at Spalding, Nebraska, which in 1906 had joined the Italian congregation, was erected into a province, 24 Sept. , 1910. Houses, 4; colleges, 2; religious, 62; novices, 5. (See below. )
Founded 31 May, 1858, by 2 brothers from the Irish congregation, Pius IX, by a Rescript of 15 Dec. , 1859, erected it into an independent congregation. The ordinary of the Diocese of Brooklyn is the superior-general, and governs the congregation through a provincial superior with an assistant and ten consultors, chosen by the brothers from among themselves for a term of three years. Brothers, 67; novices, 8; academy, 1; college, 1; schools, 14; pupils, 9875. (See below. )
Founded 25 Dec. The Poor Brothers of St Francis Seraphicus are a congregation of [[lay brother]]s of the [[Third Order of St , 1857, at Aachen by John Hoever for the protection and education of poor, homeless boys, it was introduced into the United States in 1866. Brothers, 43; novices, 5; postulants, 3; candidates, 13; homes for boys, 2.
Brothers and Sisters of Penance of St. Francis was a third order founded in 1996 by members of the Archdiocese of St. Paul in Minnesota. The Brothers and Sisters of Penance of St Francis is a private confraternity of the Roman Catholic Church whose members strive to model their lives according to the Rule and The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis (Latin Archidioecesis Pauloplitana et Minneapolitana) is an ecclesiastical territory or Diocese
Prior to 1906, several communities of the Third Order existed in the United States, all lay institutes dedicated to teaching and other works of charity. Amongst these were three branches of Franciscan Brothers: at Brooklyn, New York; at Loretto, Pennsylvania; and at Spalding, Nebraska. Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. Loretto is a borough in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, United States. Spalding is a village in Greeley County, Nebraska, United States. The communities at Loretto and Brooklyn were founded more than half a century ago from Mount Bellew Monastery, Archdiocese of Tuam, Ireland; Spalding Institute was a branch of the Brooklyn community. The Archdiocese of Tuam ( Irish: Ard-Deoise an Tuaim) is a Roman Catholic Archdiocese in west Ireland.
In 1905 Brother Linus Lynch, then superior of the institute, asked the ordinary of the diocese for permission to have some of his subjects ordained priests. This request the bishop refused, as the community had been introduced into the diocese for the care of parish schools, and he feared that in the event of its members becoming priests this work would suffer. A petition was then sent to the minister-general, Rt. Rev. Angelus de Mattia, asking for union with the third Order Regular; as this union could not be effected, some of the community determined to ask for a dispensation from their vows in order to enter the institute. The Right Reverend (abbreviations The Rt Revd The Rt Rev'd The Rt Rev In 1907 fifteen were dispensed; these, together with eleven novices, went to Spalding, Nebraska, where a small community of brothers had been united to the order in 1906. They were received by Very Rev. Dr. Stanislaus Dujmoric, commissary-general, and by dispensation of Pius X from the ordinary year of probation they made the vows of the order. Saint Pius X ( Latin: Pius PP X) ( June 2, 1835 &mdash August 20, 1914) born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, was the A college was then opened at Spalding, giving the order its first house in the United States.
In 1908 the diocesan community of Franciscan Brothers at Loretto, Pennsylvania, were admitted to solemn profession, and eight young men were received into the novitiate.
In 1910-11 Rt. Rev. Eugene A. Garvey, D. D. , Bishop of Altoona, requested the fathers to take charge of the Italian Church of St. Anthony of Padua at Johnstown, Pennsylvania, and the Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, Altoona, Pennsylvania. The four houses in the United States were erected into a province, 24 September, 1910, Very Rev. Dr. Jerome Zazzara being elected provincial. The Archbishop of Chicago later gave the fathers charge of Sts. Peter and Paul's Slavic Church in that city, and a new college was to be opened at Sioux City, Iowa, in 1912. The provincial mother-house is at St. Francis's College, Loretto, Pennsylvania. The American Province had five convents, two colleges, sixty-five professed members, and twenty novices and postulants.
Established in the United States by the early Franciscan missionaries for the white settlers and soldiers and Indian converts, especially in the Southern States. A confraternity existed at Santa Fe long before 1680. Another confraternity existed in New Mexico almost from the time of the reconquest (1692-1695). The document stating this fact is a report of the Father custos, Jose Bernal, dated Santa Fe, 17 September, 1794. There is no documentary evidence of the existence of a Third Order for lay people as a regularly organized confraternity anywhere else, though we learn from documents that single individuals were termed tertiaries among the Indians. It is most probable, however, that a confraternity existed at St. Augustine, Florida, before the close of the sixteenth century, and at San Antonio, Texas, before the middle of the eighteenth century. The establishment of provinces of the order of Friars Minor brought about the establishment of many confraternities.
There were in the early 20th century 186 confraternities of Franciscan Tertiaries in the USA, with a membership of 35,605. Of these, 142 congregations with 27,805 members were under the direction of the Friars Minor, 32 with 6800 members under the direction of the Friars Minor Capuchin, and 12 congregations with 1000 members under the direction of the Friars Minor Conventual. The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin ( OFM Cap; in England and Ireland, O The Order of Friars Minor Conventual (OFM Conv commonly known as the Conventual Franciscans, is a branch of the order of Roman Catholic Friars founded Besides these, there were many hundreds of tertiaries throughout the US not belonging to any congregation.
The Third Order, Society of St. Francis (TSSF), was founded in 1950. See also Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is an international association of national Anglican churches The Society of Saint Francis is a Franciscan religious order within the Anglican Communion.  The TSSF consists of men and women, lay and ordained, married and single. It is divided into five provinces: Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, and the Americas. 
Also in Lutheran Churches, there are Lutheran Franciscan Third Orders in Germany, Sweden and North America. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Franciscan spirituality was not favoured by Reformation but later the 20th century High Church Movement has given birth to Franciscan orders among revival of
Established in the United States in 1893. The Servite Order, whose members are known as Servite Friars or Servants of Mary, is one of the five original Catholic Mendicant orders Its objects are There were in the early 20th century two congregations, with a membership of 400.
This was one of the earliest developments of St. The Third Order of St Dominic is a Roman Catholic Third order affiliated with the Dominican Order. Francis's Ordo de Poenitentia. It was not indeed the primal organism from which the Friars Preachers evolved, but rather represents that portion of the Order of Penance which came under Dominican influence. The Order of Preachers ( Latin: Ordo Praedicatorum) after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is At first vaguely constituted and living without system or form, its members gradually grew more and more dependent on their spiritual guides.
See Servants of Mary. The Servite Order, whose members are known as Servite Friars or Servants of Mary, is one of the five original Catholic Mendicant orders Its objects are
The Order of Saint Andrew is an Anglican ecumenical religious order of both men and women, single and married, living and working in the world. Any member in good standing of any Christian Church in apostolic succession may make application to join. 
Third Order, Society of St. The Society of Saint Francis is a Franciscan religious order within the Anglican Communion. Francis, Anglican Communion
The above information is from beginning of the 20th Century. The below information is an update
A "Secular Order" (also called a "Third Order Secular") is defined according to Canon Law (1983) of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in the following way:
"Associations whose members live in the world but share in the spirit of some religious institute, under the overall direction of the same institute, and who lead an apostolic life and strive for Christian perfection, are known as third orders, or are called by some other suitable title". (Can. 303) Code of Canon Law of the Roman Catholic Church.
Members are known also as Tertiaries.
The name "tertiary" comes from the latin tertiarius meaning basically "third". Hence it has been used for centuries to denote those who belonged to a third order. This was due to the historical reality of the Tertiaries of the Humiliati. They were the third form of this life. Also among Religious Orders born of the 12th-13th centuries it is often said that there was the "first order" or the Male Religious who were first in establishment, then the 'second order" or the "Nuns or Sisters" who were often established second, and then the 'third order' of laity who were established third. Though this was not always the case.
The Humiliati seem to have been the first to have 'tertiaries' in the twelfth century. These lived a rule of life within the world. The name was used to a great extent in the Franciscan Order, which was possibly had the most popularized third order. Other orders too had tertiaries such as the Trinitarians (we find true tertiaries from the beginning at the end of the 12th Century within the Order of the Holy Trinity, even if this name was not used per se) and the Dominicans. These were followed over time by a number of others such as the Carmelites, Servites, Augustinians, and others. But by whatever name they were called in the inception, there have been lay persons who have professed to live according to either the Rule of the brothers adapted to their secular life or a rule drawn up particularly for them. They had the joy of sharing the same spirituality, the same superiors, and even aspects of the same habit such as the scapular. Eventually the name "tertiary" became popularized and attached to all who lived in this way. It is very interesting that if one looks at the beatified or canonized tertiaries, one finds this name attached to them by the Church, for it was what and who they were. It was their vocation.
With the advent of the Second Vatican Council and the ressourcemont and development of doctrine concerning the lay vocation, the tertiary vocation came more fully into its nature. The lay vocation is a vocation distinct from that of the consecrated state. It involves the sanctification of ordinary life, of ones work, of family life, of all the various secular occupations. It is the leaven in the midst of the world for the consecration of the world --to order the temporal world to God. To make Christ known in the streets, the offices, the family, the malls. To live as Christians in their daily lives and to do apostolate is not a delegated task, not just because the religious do not go there, but rather it is their task, their proper task given to them by Christ in Baptism. Just as that of the early Christians. And its nature is secular. See Christifedelis Laici
As the various third orders secular began to look at each of their houses after the Council they began to revise their Rules and Statutes. This has been a long and fruitful process. The Orders, as they felt they were ready, often after many drafts and experimentations, have submitted one by one their new Statutes or Rules or Constitutions to the Holy See for review and approbation. Thus the new Statutes etc. are steeped in the doctrine of the Council regarding the universal call to holiness and the theology of the lay vocation including the secular character of the laity. Interestingly the various Orders have opted to change the name from "Third Order Secular" to "Secular Order" (or add least add it to usage) in order to emphasize the secular nature of the Order or they used the term "Lay or Laity" to the same effect. Of course "third order" and "tertiary" is still used but other names were added or used in a formal sense. The various documents show how the laity of the various Orders are part of the Order but fully within their particular lay and secular state. They show how tertiaries are to live fully their Christian lay vocation, as well as how they are to live the charism of the Order they belong to within ordinary secular life. They also provide various means to tending towards holiness in the midst of the world, which very much is part of the vocation of the tertiary--to strive for Christian perfection (CIC 303).