The Third Italian War of Independence was a conflict which paralleled the Austro-Prussian War, and was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Austrian Empire. The Austro-Prussian The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom For the history of these states before 1804 see Holy Roman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, and articles on each of the component countries.
When Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy had been crowned King of Italy on March 17, 1861, his reign did not control Venetia and Lazio. Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy ( Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820 – January 9, 1878) was the King of Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common For the football club see SS Lazio Lazio ( Latium in Latin) is a regione of central The situation of the Irredente (a later Italian term for part of the country under foreign domination) created an unceasing state of tension for the inner politics of the newly created Kingdom, as well as being a cornerstone of its foreign policy.
A first attempt to capture Rome was that of 1862 by Giuseppe Garibaldi. Garibaldi redirects here for other meanings see Garibaldi (disambiguation. Confiding in the King's neutrality, he had set sail from Genoa to Palermo. Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in Collecting 2,000 voluntaries, he moved from Catania and landed at Melito, in Calabria, on August 24 to reach the Aspromonte, with intention to climb the peninsula up to Rome. Catania ( Greek: &ndash Katánē; Latin: Catăna and Catĭna; Arabic: Calabria ( Latin: Brutium) is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar 's General Gaius Scribonius Curio is defeated in the Second Battle of the Bagradas River Aspromonte is a mountain massif in the Province of Reggio Calabria ( Calabria, southern Italy) The Piedmontese general Enrico Cialdini, however, sent a division under colonel Pallavicino to stop the voluntary army. Garibaldi himself was wounded in the ensuing battle, and declared prisoner along with his men.
The growing divergences between Austria and the growing Prussia about the predominance in Germany turned into an open war in 1866, offering Italy an occasion to regain Venetia. Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. On April 8, 1866 the Italian government signed a military alliance with Prussia, through the mediation of Napoleon III of France. Events 217 - Roman Emperor Caracalla is Assassinated (and succeeded by his Praetorian Year 1866 ( MDCCCLXVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President Italian armies, led by general Alfonso La Marmora, were to engage the Austrians on the southern front. Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora ( November 18, 1804 &ndash January 5 1878) was an Italian general and Statesman Simultaneously, taking advantage of their naval superiority, the Italians threatened the Dalmatian coast, forcing Austria to move part of its forces there from the central European front. Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern
At the outbreak of the war, the Italian military situations was hampered by the following negative factors:
All these premises, and other structural flaws, were the causes of the Italian defeats during the conflict.
Prussia began hostilities on June 16, 1866 by attacking several German principates allied with Austria. Events 1487 - Battle of Stoke Field, the last dying breath of the Wars of the Roses. Year 1866 ( MDCCCLXVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Three days later Italy declared war on Austria, starting the military operations on June 23. Events 1180 - First Battle of Uji, starting the Genpei War in Japan 1305 - The Flemish
The Italian forces were divided into two armies: the first, under La Marmora himself, was deployed in Lombardy, west of the Mincio River, aiming toward the powerful Quadrilatero fortress of the Austrians; the second, under Enrico Cialdini, in Romagna, south of the Po River, aiming toward Mantua and Rovigo. Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the Mincio (ˈmintʃo Latin: Mincius, Ancient greek: Minchios, Μιγχιος) is a river in the Lombardy region of northern The Quadrilatero (Quadrilateral is the traditional name of a defensive system of the Austrian Empire in the Lombardy-Venetia, which connected the fortresses Romagna is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna. The Po ( Latin: Padus, Po Ligurian: Bo, Greek: Eridanus) is a river that flows 652 km(405 miles (682 km by considering Mantua (Màntova in the local dialect of Lombard language Mantua is a city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province of the For the Renaissance composer see Francesco Rovigo. Rovigo is a town in the Veneto region of northeastern Italy, the capital
La Marmora moved first through Mantua and Peschiera, but was severely defeated at the Custoza on June 24. Peschiera is a genus of plants in the Apocynaceae family There are communes that have the name Peschiera (from Italian pesce meaning The Battle of Custoza took place on 24 June 1866 during the Third Italian Independence War in the Italian unification process Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place Cialdini, however, did not act offensively for the entire first part of the war, conducting only several shows and even failing to besiege the Austrian fortress of Borgoforte, south to the Po. Borgoforte is a Comune (municipality in the Province of Mantua in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 130 km southeast
Custoza marked a general arrest of operations, as the Italians decided to reorganize for fear of an Austrian counter-offensive. The Austrians indeed profited from the situation to invade Valtellina and Val Camonica (battle of Vezza d'Oglio). Valcamonica Lombard valleys of the biggest and as famous as for its battails facts in ancient stories to noble families and very honorable and men who were distinguished for letters for weapons The general course of the war, however, was to turn in Italy's favor thanks to Prussian victories in the north, especially that of Sadowa on July 3, 1866. The Battle of Königgrätz (Schlacht von Königgrätz also known as the Battle of Sadowa, Sadová, or Hradec Králové, was the decisive Battle Events 324 - Battle of Adrianople Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium. Year 1866 ( MDCCCLXVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Austrians were compelled to move one of their three army corps deployed in Italy to Vienna, concentrating on the defense of Trentino and Isonzo. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. The Province of Trento (Provincia autonoma di Trento also called Trentino, is an Autonomous province of Italy. The Soča (in Slovene) or
On July 5 the Italian government received news of a mediation effort by Napoleon III for a settlement of the situation, which would allow Austria to receive favourable conditions from Prussia, and, in particular, to maintain Venice. Events 1295 - Scotland and France form an alliance the beginnings of the Auld Alliance, against England. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the The situation was embarrassing for Italy, as its forces had failed to obtain any relevant military success on the field. As the Austrians were redeploying troops to Vienna, La Marmora was solicited to take advantage of the numeric superiority, score a good victory, and thus improve the conditions for Italy.
Cialdini crossed the Po and occupied Rovigo (July 11), Padua (July 12), Treviso (July 14), San Donà di Piave (July 18), Valdobbiadene and Oderzo (July 20), Vicenza (July 21) and finally Udine, in Friuli (July 22). Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. Padua ( Padova 'padova Latin: Patavium, Padoa) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy. Treviso (Venetian Trevizo, French Trévise, Latin Tarvisium) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy. San Donà di Piave is a town in the Province of Venice, Veneto, Italy. Valdobbiadene is a town in the Province of Treviso, Veneto, Italy. Oderzo (Opitergium is a town in the Province of Treviso, Veneto, Italy. Vicenza, a city in northern Italy, is the capital of the eponymous province in the Veneto region at the northern base of the Monte Berico Udine ( Friulian Udin, Slovene Videm, German Weiden, Latin Utinum) is a city in northeastern Friuli ( Friulian: In the meantime Garibaldi's volunteers had pushed forward from Brescia towards Trento (see Invasion of Trentino) fighting victoriously at the battle of Bezzecca of July 21. Brescia ( Lombard: Brèsa) is a city in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy. The Invasion of Trentino was a series of military operation led by Italian and Austrian troops during the Third Italian Independence War of 1866 The Battle of Bezzecca was fought on July 21, 1866 between Italy and Austria, in the course of the Third Italian Independence War
These victories were however obscured by the disastrous defeat of the bulk of the Italian army at the Battle of Custoza in June 24 and of the Italian Navy at the Battle of Lissa (July 20, 1866). The Battle of Custoza took place on 24 June 1866 during the Third Italian Independence War in the Italian unification process Events 1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold Year 1866 ( MDCCCLXVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common On August 9, upon receiving from the King the order to retreat from the newly conquered positions, Garibaldi complied with his famous "Obbedisco!" ("I obey!") telegram, and retreated from Trentino.
The ceasing of hostilities was marked by the Armistice of Cormons signed on August 12, followed by the Treaty of Vienna of October 3, 1866. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid According to the Treaty of Vienna signed on October 12 1866, the Austrian Empire ceded Venetia to the French Empire, which in turn Events 42 BC - First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's Year 1866 ( MDCCCLXVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
The conditions of the treaty of peace included: the return to Italy of Mantua and part of the Venetia, including western Friuli. Mantua (Màntova in the local dialect of Lombard language Mantua is a city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province of the Austria retained Trentino, eastern Friuli, the Venezia Giulia and Dalmatia. The Julian March (Venezia Giulia Croatian and Slovene: Julijska Krajina; Julisch Venetien Venesia Jułia Vignesie Julie Carsia Julia is a former political Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern The lost provinces were ceded to France, which in turn gave them to Italy. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
The terms included also the cession of the Iron Crown, the crown worn by the old Lombard Kings of Italy and by the Holy Roman Emperors, as well as by Napoleon Bonaparte himself. The Iron Crown of Lombardy ( Corona Ferrea) is both a reliquary and one of the most ancient royal insignia of Europe Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe.
The Redente ("Redemeed") lands were annexed to Italy through a plebiscite held on October 21 and 22 of 1866. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita
This article is a translation of an article in the Italian-language Wikipedia. The Austro-Prussian The First Italian War of Independence was fought in 1848 between the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Austrian Empire. The Second War of Italian Independence, Franco-Austrian War, or Austro-Sardinian War was fought by Napoleon III of France and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia Garibaldi redirects here for other meanings see Garibaldi (disambiguation. Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian