The Tale of Genji (源氏物語 Genji Monogatari?) is a classic work of Japanese literature attributed to the Japanese noblewoman Murasaki Shikibu in the early eleventh century, around the peak of the Heian Period. Japanese literature spans a period of almost two millennia Early works were heavily influenced by cultural contact with China and Chinese literature, often written Murasaki Shikibu ( 紫[[wikt 式|式]] 部; c 973&ndashc 1014 or 1025 or Lady Murasaki as she is sometimes known in English was a Japanese The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. It is sometimes called the world's first novel, the first modern novel, the first romance novel, or the first novel to still be considered a classic. A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story This issue is a matter of debate. See Stature below.
The first partial translation of Genji Monogatari into English was by Suematsu Kencho. Viscount was a Japanese politician intellectual and author who lived in the Meiji and Taishō period periods A free translation of all but one chapter was produced by Arthur Waley. Arthur David Waley CH ( August 19, 1889 &ndash June 27, 1966) was a noted English Orientalist and Sinologist  Edward Seidensticker made the first complete translation into English, using a more literal method than Waley. Edward George Seidensticker ( February 11 1921 &ndash August 26, 2007) was a noted scholar and translator of Japanese literature  The most recent English translation, by Royall Tyler (2001), also tries to be faithful to the original text. Royall Tyler (born 1936 He is a descendant of the American playwright Royall Tyler (1757-1826  Diet member Marutei Tsurunen has also made a translation in Finnish. The is Japan's Bicameral Legislature. It is composed of a Lower house, called the House of Representatives, and an Upper house, called is the first European and only Foreign-born Japanese member of the Diet of Japan (a Korean had previously served in the Diet but presented himself as Japanese
The Genji, as the work is commonly called by aficionados, was written for the women of the aristocracy (the yokibito) and has many elements found in a modern novel: a central character and a very large number of major and minor characters, well-developed characterization of all the major players, a sequence of events happening over a period of time covering the central character's lifetime and beyond. Fans in Little Italyjpg|thumb|right|Fans in Little Italy Manhattan celebrating the victory of the Italian association football team after the 2006 FIFA World Cup]][[Image Wm-oly-de-cr The Yokibito were the Japanese Aristocracy of the Heian Period. A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story The work does not make use of a plot; instead, much as in real life, events just happen and characters evolve simply by growing older. Mythos (Aristotle In literature the plot comprises all the events in a story particularly rendered towards the achievement of some particular Artistic or Emotional One remarkable feature of the Genji, and of Murasaki's skill, is its internal consistency, despite a dramatis personae of some four hundred characters. Dramatis personæ is a Latin phrase (literally 'the masks of the drama' used to refer collectively to the characters in a dramatic work—-commonly employed For instance, all characters age in step and all the family and feudal relationships are consistent among all chapters. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed
One complication for readers and translators of the Genji is that almost none of the characters in the original text are given an explicit name. The characters are instead referred to by their function or role (e. g. Minister of the Left), an honorific (e. Japanese, like other languages uses a broad array of Honorifics for addressing or referring to people with respect g. His Excellency), or their relation to other characters (e. g. Heir Apparent), which may all change as the novel progresses. This lack of names stems from Heian-era court manners that would have made it unacceptably familiar and blunt to freely mention a character's name. Modern readers and translators have, to a greater or lesser extent, used various nicknames to keep track of the many characters. See Characters for a listing.
The Genji is an important fictional work of Japanese literature, and numerous modern authors have cited it as inspiration. It is noted for its internal consistency, psychological depiction, and characterization. The novelist Yasunari Kawabata said in his Nobel Prize acceptance speech: "The Tale of Genji in particular is the highest pinnacle of Japanese literature. was a Japanese Short story writer and novelist whose spare lyrical subtly-shaded prose won him the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1968 the first Japanese author The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature Even down to our day there has not been a piece of fiction to compare with it. "
The Genji is also often referred to as "the first novel", though there is considerable debate over this — some of the debate involving whether Genji can even be considered a "novel". Some consider the psychological insight, complexity, and unity of the work to qualify it for "novel" status while simultaneously disqualifying earlier works. Others see these arguments as subjective and unconvincing. Related claims, perhaps in an attempt to sidestep these debates, are that Genji is the "first psychological novel", "the first novel still considered to be a classic", or other more qualified terms. It is, however, difficult to claim that it is the world's first novel without denying the claims of Daphnis and Chloe and Aethiopica in Greek, which author Longus and an unknown sophist respectively wrote, both around the third century, and in Latin, Petronius's Satyricon in the first century and Apuleius's Golden Ass in the second, as well as Kādambari in Sanskrit which author Bānabhatta wrote in the seventh century. Daphnis and Chloe (Δαφνιν και Χλοην Daphnin kai Chloēn) is the only known work of the 2nd century AD Greek Novelist Aethiopica (the Ethiopian story or Theagenes and Chariclea is an ancient Greek romance or Novel. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Longus, sometimes Longos (Λόγγος was a Greek Novelist and romancer and author of Daphnis and Chloe. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Petronius (ca 27–66 was a Roman writer of the Neronian age he was a noted satirist. Satyricon (or Satyrica) is a Latin work of fiction in a mixture of prose and poetry Apuleius should not be confused with Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, a Roman demagogue or with Pseudo-Apuleius, an author The Metamorphoses of Lucius Apuleius, which according to St Augustine was referred to as The Golden Ass ( Asinus aureus Kādambari is a detailed exquisite novel in the Sanskrit language which Bānabhatta wrote in the seventh century Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Bāṇabhaṭṭa, also known as Bāṇa, was a Sanskrit scholar of 7th century India. (The debate exists in Japanese as well, with comparison between the terms monogatari -- "tale" -- and shosetsu -- "novel". Monogatari (物語 is a literary form in traditional Japanese literature,, an extended prose Narrative tale comparable to the epic. The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 Solar terms (節氣 )
The novel and other works by Lady Murasaki are standard staple in the curricula of Japanese schools. The Bank of Japan issued the 2000 Yen banknote in her honour, featuring a scene from the novel based on the 12th century illustrated handscroll.
The debate over how much of the Genji was actually written by Murasaki Shikibu has gone on for centuries and is unlikely to ever be settled unless some major archival discovery is made. Tosa Mitsuoki (土佐 光起 1617&ndash November 14, 1691) was a Japanese painter. Murasaki Shikibu ( 紫[[wikt 式|式]] 部; c 973&ndashc 1014 or 1025 or Lady Murasaki as she is sometimes known in English was a Japanese It is generally accepted that the tale was finished in its present form by 1021, when the author of the Sarashina Nikki wrote a famous diary entry about her joy at acquiring a complete copy of the tale. is a Memoir written by Lady Sarashina (as she is commonly known a Lady-in-waiting of Heian-period Japan She writes that there are over fifty chapters and mentions a character introduced near the end of the work, so if other authors besides Murasaki Shikibu did work on the tale, the work was done very near to the time of her writing.
Yosano Akiko, the first author to make a modern translation of the Genji, believed that Murasaki Shikibu had only written Chapters One to Thirty-three, and that Chapters Thirty-five to Fifty-four were written by her daughter Daini no Sanmi. Other scholars have doubted the authorship of Chapters Forty-two to Forty-four (particularly Forty-four, which contains rare examples of continuity mistakes).
According to Royall Tyler's introduction to his English translation of the work, recent computer analysis has turned up "statistically significant" discrepancies of style between chapters 45–54 and the rest, and also among the early chapters.  But this discrepancy can also be explained by a change in attitude of the author as she grew older, and the earlier chapters are often thought to have been edited into their present form some time after they were initially written.
One of the frequent arguments made against the multiple authorship idea is that the Genji is a work of such genius that someone of equal or greater genius taking over after Murasaki is implausible.
The work recounts the life of a son of a Japanese emperor, known to readers as Hikaru Genji, or "Shining Genji". The of Japan is the country's Monarch. He is the head of the Japanese Imperial Family. Hikaru Genji (光源氏 "The brilliant Genji" is the protagonist of The Tale of Genji. Neither appellation is his actual name: Genji (源氏?) is simply another way to read the Chinese characters for the real-life Minamoto clan (源の氏 Minamoto-no-Uji?), to which Genji was made to belong. was one of the honorary surnames bestowed by the Emperors of Japan of the Heian Period ( 794 – 1185 AD on those of their sons and grandsons who were not For political reasons, Genji is relegated to commoner status (by being given the surname Minamoto) and begins a career as an imperial officer. The tale concentrates on Genji's romantic life and describes the customs of the aristocratic society of the time. Much is made of Genji's good looks.
Genji was the second son of a certain ancient emperor and a low-ranking concubine (known to the readers as Lady Kiritsubo). His mother dies when Genji is three years old, and the Emperor cannot forget her. The Emperor then hears of a woman ("Lady Fujitsubo"), formerly a princess of the preceding emperor, who resembles his deceased concubine, and later she becomes one of his wives. Lady Fujitsubo is a fictional character in Murasaki Shikibu 's The Tale of Genji ( Genji Monogatari) Genji loves her first as a stepmother, but later as a woman. They fall in love with each other, but it is forbidden. Genji is frustrated because of his forbidden love to the Lady Fujitsubo and is on bad terms with his wife (Aoi no Ue). He also engages in a series of unfulfilling love affairs with other women. In most cases, his advances are rebuffed, his lover dies suddenly during the affair, or he finds his lover to be dull in each instance. In one case, he sees a beautiful young woman through an open window, enters her room without permission, and forces her to have sex with him. Recognizing him as a man of unchallengeable power, she makes no resistance, saying only that "Someone might hear us. " He retorts, "I can go anywhere and do anything. "
Genji visits Kitayama, the northern rural hilly area of Kyoto, where he finds a beautiful ten-year-old girl. He is fascinated by this little girl ("Murasaki"), and discovers that she is a niece of the Lady Fujitsubo. Murasaki refers to both the heroine of the Genji Monogatari ( The Tale of Genji) and the book's author Murasaki Shikibu Finally he kidnaps her, brings her to his own palace and educates her to be his ideal lady; like the Lady Fujitsubo. During this time Genji also meets the Lady Fujitsubo secretly, and she bears his son. Everyone except the two lovers believes the father of the child is the Emperor. Later the boy becomes the Crown Prince and Lady Fujitsubo becomes the Empress, but Genji and Lady Fujitsubo swear to keep their secret. Crown Princess redirects here for the ship see Crown Princess (ship.
Genji and his wife Lady Aoi reconcile and she gives birth to a son, but she dies soon after. Genji is sorrowful, but finds consolation in Murasaki, whom he marries. Genji's father, the Emperor, dies; and his political enemies, the Minister of the Right and the new Emperor's mother ("Kokiden") take power in the court. Then another of Genji's secret love affairs is exposed: Genji and a concubine of his brother, the Emperor Suzaku, are discovered when they meet in secret. The Emperor confides his personal amusement at Genji's exploits with the woman ("Oborozukiyo"), but is duty-bound to punish his half-brother. Genji is thus exiled to the town of Suma in rural Harima province (now part of Kobe in Hyōgo Prefecture). Suma-ku (須磨区 Suma-ku) is one of 9 wards of Kobe City in Japan. or Banshu (播州 was a province of Japan in the part of Honshū that is the southwestern part of present-day Hyōgo Prefecture. is the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture and a prominent port city in Japan with a population of about 1 WikipediaWikiProject Japanese prefectures for guidelines --> is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kinki region on Honshū Island There, a prosperous man from Akashi in Settsu province (known as the Akashi Novice) entertains Genji, and Genji has a love affair with Akashi's daughter. is a city located in southern Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan, on the Inland Sea west of Kobe. was a province of Japan, which today comprises the eastern part of Hyōgo Prefecture and the northern part of Osaka Prefecture. She gives birth to a daughter. Genji's sole daughter later becomes the Empress.
In the Capital, the Emperor is troubled by dreams of his late father, and something begins to affect his eyes. Meanwhile, his mother grows ill, which weakens her powerful sway over the throne. Thus the Emperor orders Genji pardoned, and he returns to Kyoto. His son by Lady Fujitsubo becomes the emperor and Genji finishes his imperial career. The new Emperor Reizei knows Genji is his real father, and raises Genji's rank to the highest possible.
However, when Genji turns 40 years old, his life begins to decline. His political status does not change, but his love and emotional life are slowly damaged. He marries another wife, the "Third Princess" (known as Onna san no miya in the Seidensticker version, or Nyōsan in Waley's). She bears the son of Genji's nephew later, ("Kaoru"). Genji's new marriage changes the relationship between him and Murasaki, who now wishes to become a nun.
Genji's beloved Murasaki dies. In the following chapter, Maboroshi ("Illusion"), Genji contemplates how fleeting life is. Immediately after Maboroshi, there is a chapter entitled Kumogakure ("Vanished into the Clouds") which is left blank, but implies the death of Genji.
The rest of the work is known as the "Uji Chapters". These chapters follow Niou and Kaoru, who are best friends. Niou is an imperial prince, the son of Genji's daughter, the current Empress now that Reizei has abdicated the throne, while Kaoru is known to the world as Genji's son but is in fact fathered by Genji's nephew. The chapters involve Kaoru and Niou's rivalry over several daughters of an imperial prince who lives in Uji, a place some distance away from the capital. is a city on the southern outskirts of the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. The tale ends abruptly, with Kaoru wondering if the lady he loves is being hidden away by Niou. Kaoru has sometimes been called the first anti-hero in literature.
As mentioned in the previous section, the tale ends abruptly, in mid-sentence. Opinions have varied on whether the ending was the intended ending of the author.
Arthur Waley, who made the first English translation of the whole of The Tale of Genji, believed that the work as we have it was finished. Arthur David Waley CH ( August 19, 1889 &ndash June 27, 1966) was a noted English Orientalist and Sinologist Ivan Morris, author of The World of the Shining Prince, believed that it was not complete, but that only a few pages or a chapter at most were "missing". Ivan Ira Esme Morris (29 November 1925 – 19 July 1976 was a British Author and Teacher in the field of Japanese Studies Edward Seidensticker, who made the second translation of the Genji, believed that it was not finished, and that Murasaki Shikibu did not have a planned story structure with an "ending" and would simply have gone on writing as long as she could. Edward George Seidensticker ( February 11 1921 &ndash August 26, 2007) was a noted scholar and translator of Japanese literature
Because it was written to entertain the Japanese court of the eleventh century, the work presents many difficulties to modern readers. First and foremost, Murasaki's language, Heian Period court Japanese, was highly inflected and had very complex grammar. The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. Another problem is that naming people was considered rude in Heian court society, so none of the characters are named within the work; instead, the narrator refers to men often by their rank or their station in life, and to women often by the color of their clothing, or by the words used at a meeting, or by the rank of a prominent male relative. This results in different appellations for the same character depending on the chapter.
Another aspect of the language is the importance of using poetry in conversations. Modifying or rephrasing a classic poem according to the current situation was expected behavior in Heian court life, and often served to communicate thinly veiled allusions. The poems in the Genji are often in the classic Japanese tanka form. See Waka and Tanka (disambiguation for other usages Waka (和歌 or Yamato uta is a genre of Japanese poetry Many of the poems were well known to the intended audience, so usually only the first few lines are given and the reader is supposed to complete the thought herself, much like today we could say "when in Rome. . . " and leave the rest of the saying (". . . do as the Romans do") unspoken.
As for most Heian literature, the Genji was probably written mostly (or perhaps entirely) in kana (Japanese phonetic script) and not in Chinese characters because it was written by a woman for a female audience. Kana is a general term for the syllabic Japanese scripts Hiragana (ひらがな and Katakana (カタカナ as well as the old system Writing in Chinese characters was at the time a masculine pursuit; women were generally discreet when writing in Chinese, confining themselves mostly to pure Japanese words.
Outside of vocabulary related to politics and Buddhism, the Genji contains remarkably few Chinese loan words. This has the effect of giving the story a very even, smooth flow. However, it also introduces confusion: there are a number of words in the "pure" Japanese vocabulary which have many different meanings, and, for modern readers, context is not always sufficient to determine which meaning was intended.
Murasaki was neither the first nor the last writer of the Heian period, nor was the Genji the earliest example of a "monogatari". Rather, the Genji stands above other tales of the time in the same way that Shakespeare's plays outshine other Elizabethan drama. William Shakespeare ( baptised English Renaissance theatre is English drama written between the Reformation and the closure of the theatres in 1642.
The complexities of the style mentioned in the previous section make it unreadable by the average Japanese person without dedicated study of the language of the tale. Therefore translations into modern Japanese and other languages solve these problems by modernizing the language, unfortunately losing some of the meaning, and by giving names to the characters, usually the traditional names used by academics. This gives rise to anachronisms; for instance Genji's first wife is named Aoi because she is known as the lady of the Aoi chapter, in which she dies.
Both scholars and writers have tried translating it. The first translation into modern Japanese was made by the poet Yosano Akiko. Other known translations were done by the novelists Jun'ichirō Tanizaki and Fumiko Enchi. was a Japanese author, one of the major writers of modern Japanese literature, and perhaps the most popular Japanese novelist after Natsume Sōseki was the Pen-name of one of the most prominent women writers in Showa period Japan.
Because of the cultural difference, reading an annotated version of the Genji is quite common, even among Japanese. There are several annotated versions by novelists, including Seiko Tanabe, Osamu Hashimoto and Jakucho Setouchi. Jakucho Setouchi ( May 15, 1922 -) is the name of the Buddhist nun writer and activist formerly known as Harumi Setouchi (  Many works, including a manga series and different television dramas, are derived from The Tale of Genji. There have been at least five manga adaptations of the Genji. ˈmɑŋgə is the Japanese word for Comics (sometimes called komikku コミック and print Cartoons In their modern form manga date from shortly  A manga version by Waki Yamato, Asakiyumemishi (The Tale of Genji in English), is widely read among Japanese youth, and another version, by Miyako Maki, won the Shogakukan Manga Award in 1989. ˈmɑŋgə is the Japanese word for Comics (sometimes called komikku コミック and print Cartoons In their modern form manga date from shortly is a Japanese Mangaka. She debuted in 1966 with the short story Dorobou Tenshi. is a Japanese Manga version of Murasaki Shikibu 's The Tale of Genji by Waki Yamato. The Shogakukan Manga Award is one of Japan's major Manga awards sponsored by Shogakukan Publishing. 
Most Japanese high-school students will read a little bit of the Genji (the original, not a translation) in their Japanese classes.
In 2008, WorldCat identifies 88 editions of this book. WorldCat is a Union catalog which itemizes the collections of more than 10000 libraries which participate in the OCLC global cooperative The five major translations into English are each slightly different -- mirroring the personal choices of the translator and the period in which the translation was made. Each version has its merits, its detractors and its advocates; and each is distinguished by the name of the translator. For example, the less widely circulated version translated by Marutei Tsurunen would typically be referred to as "the Tsurnen Genji. is the first European and only Foreign-born Japanese member of the Diet of Japan (a Korean had previously served in the Diet but presented himself as Japanese "
The generally recognized "best" translations were created by Kencho Suematsu, Arthur Waley, Edward Seidensticker, Helen McCullough, and Royall Tyler. Viscount was a Japanese politician intellectual and author who lived in the Meiji and Taishō period periods Arthur David Waley CH ( August 19, 1889 &ndash June 27, 1966) was a noted English Orientalist and Sinologist Edward George Seidensticker ( February 11 1921 &ndash August 26, 2007) was a noted scholar and translator of Japanese literature Helen Craig McCullough (1918-1998 was an eminent scholar of Classical Japanese poetry and prose Royall Tyler (born 1936 He is a descendant of the American playwright Royall Tyler (1757-1826
Major English translations in chronological order:
The novel is traditionally divided in three parts, the first two dealing with the life of Genji, and the last dealing with the early years of two of Genji's prominent descendants, Niou and Kaoru. There are also several short transitional chapters which are usually grouped separately and whose authorship is sometimes questioned.
The last and therefore 54th chapter "The Floating Bridge of Dreams" is argued sometimes a separate part from the Uji part by the modern scholars. It seems to continue the story from the previous chapters, but has an unusually abstract chapter title. It is the only chapter whose title has no clear reference within the text, but this may be because the chapter is unfinished. (This question is more difficult because we do not know exactly when the chapters acquired their titles. )
The English translations here are taken from the Royall Tyler translation. It is not known for certain when the chapters acquired their titles. Early mentions of the Tale refer to chapter numbers, or contain alternate titles for some of the chapters. This may suggest that the titles were added later. The titles are largely derived from poetry that is quoted within the text, or allusions to various characters.
There is one additional chapter between 41 and 42 in some manuscripts called 雲隠 (Kumogakure) which means "Vanished into the Clouds" — the chapter is a title only, and is probably intended to evoke Genji's death. Paulownia is a genus of between 6–17 species (depending on taxonomic authority of Plants in the monogeneric family Paulowniaceae, related to and A cicada is an Insect of the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha, in the superfamily Cicadoidea, with large eyes wide apart on the Suetsumuhana ( jp: 末摘花 is the archaic Japanese word for the Safflower. Safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius L) is a highly branched Herbaceous, Thistle -like annual usually with many long sharp spines on the leaves This article is about the Cherry berry also classified as fruit for the ornamental tree See Cherry Blossom. This article is about the tree For other uses of the term "pine" see Pine (disambiguation. FireFly is the second single by Essex Alternative rock band InMe. Dianthus is a Genus of about 300 Species of Flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae, native mainly to Europe Eupatorium is a Genus of Flowering plants containing from 36 to 60 Species depending on the classification system A plum or gage is a stone fruit Tree in the genus Prunus, subgenus Prunus. Wisteria is a Genus of about ten species of woody climbing Vines native to the eastern United States and the East Asian states of China The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of about 400 species of Trees and Shrubs in the Genus Quercus (from Latin Suzumushi is the Japanese name of a cricket, known in English as the bell cricket, known particularly for its song Bamboo is a group of Woody perennial Evergreen Plants in the True grass family Poaceae, subfamily Hedera (English name ivy, plural ivies) is a genus of 15 species of climbing or ground-creeping Evergreen woody plants in the family Ukifune (浮舟 うきふね meaning "drifting boat" or "floating boat" is the title of the chapter of The Tale of Genji that revolves around Mayflies are Insects which belong to the Order Ephemeroptera (from the Greek ephemeros = "short-lived" pteron Some scholars have posited the existence of a chapter between 1 and 2 which is now lost, which would have introduced some characters that (as it stands now) appear very abruptly.
Later authors have composed additional chapters, most often either between 41 and 42, or after the end.
The oldest existing manuscript of the Genji dates back to the Kamakura period (1185–1333). The is a period of Japanese history that marks the governance by the Kamakura Shogunate, officially established in 1192 by the first Kamakura Shogun Its transcription was supervised by Fujiwara Teika and was the basis for later manuscripts in the Muromachi period. Fujiwara no Teika (藤原定家 also known as Fujiwara no Sadaie or Sada-ie, (1162 &ndash September 26 1241 was a Japanese waka poet The Muromachi period ( Japanese: 室町時代 Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era However, the only known copy is incomplete. Only four chapters of the original 54 have survived the intervening years.
On March 10th, 2008 it was announced that a late Kamakura period manuscript was found in Kyōto.   It is the sixth chapter "Suetsumuhana" and is 65 pages in length. Most remaining manuscripts are based on copies of the Teika manuscript which introduced revisions in the original. This newly discovered manuscript belongs to a different linage and was not influenced by Teika. Professor Yamamoto Tokurō who examined the manuscript said, "This is a precious discovery as Kamakura manuscripts are so rare. " Professor Katō Yōsuke said, "This is an important discovery as it asserts that non-Teika manuscripts were being read during the Kamakura period. "
A famous twelfth century scroll, the Genji Monogatari Emaki, contains illustrated scenes from the Genji together with handwritten sōgana text. This scroll is the earliest extant example of a Japanese "picture scroll": collected illustrations and calligraphy of a single work. The original scroll is believed to have comprised 10-20 rolls and covered all 54 chapters. The extant pieces include only 19 illustrations and 65 pages of text, plus nine pages of fragments. This is estimated at roughly 15% of the envisioned original. The Tokugawa Art Museum in Nagoya has three of the scrolls handed down in the Owari branch of the Tokugawa clan and one scroll held by the Hachisuka family is now in the Gotoh Museum in Tokyo. The, located in Nagoya, Japan, opened in 1935 and is supported by the Tokugawa Reimeikai Foundation of Tōkyō. is the third-largest incorporated city and the fourth most populous urban area in Japan. was an old province of Japan that is now the western half of present day Aichi Prefecture. The was a powerful Daimyo family of Japan. They descended from Emperor Seiwa (850-880 and were a branch of the Minamoto clan (Seiwa Genji by the The is located in Tokyo and features classical Japanese art One of the most important items are illustrated handscrolls of The Tale of Genji dating to the 12th century The scrolls are designated National Treasures of Japan. The Ministry of Education Culture Sports Science and Technology of the government of Japan designates the most famous of the nation's cultural properties as National The scrolls are so sensitive to light and air, that they are never shown in public and sealed away. An oversize English photoreproduction and translation was printed in limited edition by Kodansha International (Tale of Genji Scroll, ISBN 0-87011-131-0). is the largest Japanese publisher headquartered in ( Bunkyo) Tokyo.
Other notable versions are by Tosa Mitsuoki, who lived from 1617 to 1691. Tosa Mitsuoki (土佐 光起 1617&ndash November 14, 1691) was a Japanese painter. His paintings are closely based on Heian style from the existing scrolls from the 12th century and are fully complete. The tale was also a popular theme in Ukiyo-e prints from the Edo period. "pictures of the floating world" is a genre of Japanese woodblock prints (or Woodcuts) and Paintings produced between the 17th The, also referred to as the Tokugawa period (徳川時代 Tokugawa-jidai) is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868
The Tale of Genji has been translated into cinematic form several times. In 1951 by director Kozaburo Yoshimura, in 1966 by director Kon Ichikawa, and in 1987 by director Gisaburo Sugii. was a prominent Japanese Film director. Early career In the 1930s Ichikawa attended a technical school in Osaka. is an Anime director and Nihonga artist born August 20, 1940 in Numazu, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. The latter is an animated film. The bouncing ball animation (below consists of these 6 frames The last is not a complete version, and basically covers the first 12 chapters, while adding in some psychological motivation that is not made explicit in the novel. In 2001 Tonko Horikawa made an adaptation with an all-female cast. In the movie, Sennen no Koi - Hikaru Genji Monogatari ("Genji, A 1000-Year Love"), Murasaki tells the Genji story to a girl as a lesson on men's behavior. The 1955 Kenji Mizoguchi film Yokihi (or Princess Yang Kwei-fei) can be seen as a sort of prequel to Genji. Kenji Mizoguchi (溝口 健二 Mizoguchi Kenji; May 16, 1898 &ndash August 24, 1956) was a prominent Japanese film
The Tale of Genji has also been adapted into an opera by Miki Minoru, composed during 1999 and first performed the following year at the Opera Theatre of Saint Louis, with original libretto by Colin Graham (in English), later translated into Japanese by the composer. is a Japanese Composer and artistic director particularly known for his promotional activities in favour of Japanese (as well as Chinese and Korean Opera Theatre of Saint Louis (OTSL is a summer opera festival held in St A libretto is the text used in an extended Musical work such as an Opera, Operetta, Masque, sacred or secular Oratorio and Colin Graham, OBE (born 22 September 1931, Hove, England; died 6 April 2007, St English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. A composer (literally meaning 'one who puts together' is a person who creates Music, usually in the medium of notation, for Interpretation and Performance
Many characters also appear in Part II, but rarely in Part III.
Hikaru Genji-- The protagonist of Parts 1 and 2. Hikaru Genji (光源氏 "The brilliant Genji" is the protagonist of The Tale of Genji. The Protagonist or main character is the central figure of a story. He is the child of the emperor and a low ranked concubine named Kiritsubo who died in her youth. He is an ideal courtier both in politics and in elegance. Genji uses his good looks to get himself out of a lot of sticky situations.
Emperor Kiritsubo-- The father of Genji, Emperor Suzaku and Hachinomiya (lit. The Eighth Prince). Legally he is also the father of Emperor Reizei whose actual father is Genji. After the death of Kiritsubo, he finds a noble lady whose features resemble his deceased wife and he makes her his empress. See also Empress Fujitsubo.
Empress Fujitsubo-- Empress Fujitsubo is empress to Emperor Kiritsubo, and mother-in-law to Genji. She was a royal princess from birth, as the fourth daughter of the "previous emperor" who occupied the thrown prior to Emperor Kiritsubo. In his childhood Genji admired her and felt affection towards her. In adulthood, Genji falls in love with her and she bears him a son who would later take the throne as Emperor Reizei. Fujitsubo dies soon after Genji returns from his exile in Harima province. or Banshu (播州 was a province of Japan in the part of Honshū that is the southwestern part of present-day Hyōgo Prefecture. Genji's two wives, Lady Murasaki and Onna San-no-miya are her nieces.
Lady Aoi--She is Genji's first principle wife. Their marriage was not a happy one, although the two reconcile at one point. She falls ill during her pregnancy and dies soon after she gives birth to Yugiri, her only child.
To no Chujo / Naidaijin / Chishi-no-Otodo --Genji's friend and brother-in-law. He is the elder brother of Lady Aoi (see the above) and a good competitive rival both in private life and later in public. He is referred to only by his position and has no particular nickname unlike the other characters. To No Chujo likes to spy on Genji to find out what Genji is up to. Later in his life he gains the rank of Naidaijin, and competes with Genji to make their daughters empresses. The, usually translated as Inner Minister -- also known as the -- was a significant post in the Imperial court as re-organized under the ''Taihō'' Code.
Lady Rokujo-- A lady is jealous over the many philandorous acts Genji partakes in. She is widowed by Genji's uncle, a deceased crown prince and younger brother of Emperor Kiritsubo. She is especially infuritated by Lady Aoi andthis causes her to move out of the palace. She practices magic of sorts and at one point transports her soul into Lady Aoi's body and tries to seduce Genji through her. She comes to repent her acts and ends her relationship with Genji. And left Kyoto, accompanying her daughter who was appointed the priestess of Ise Shrine. Ise Shrine ( Ise-jingū 伊勢神宮 is a Shinto shrine dedicated to goddess Amaterasu Ōmikami, located in the city of Ise in Mie prefecture She later bothered another Genji's wife, then Lady Murasaki, as a ghost.
Lady Murasaki --Genji's second but actually de-facto wife. She is pretty younger than Genji. She was a niece of Empress Fujitsubo and their resemblance attracted Genji. When Genji visited a nunnery, he found a child that resembled a woman of the court. He became so enthralled with the idea of raising a child to become a woman of his own, and finally kidnapped her after the death of her grandmother who had raised her. Since her raising was not fully competitive, Genji didn't formally marry her, while she was treated as if she were the primary wife of Genji by himself and the others. Later she realized her vulnerability in position when Genji formally married Onna san-no-miya. And she then horribly realized she was just an alternative of the woman who she hadn't known, that is, Empress Fujitsubo. The instability of life and love beats her seriously, and she wanted to be a nun but Genji gives no permission. In the age of 37, she gets illness and has deceased, one year earlier than Genji.
Lady Akashi --Born as a middle ranked noble, love affair with Genji was not her own intent but her father was persistent to get them involved into relationship. She gives a birth to a girl who is the only daughter of Genji. She brings up her daughter (called Little Lady Akashi, later Empress Akashi) until she become four old age, but then Genji brings the little girl to Lady Murasaki for adoption. Lady Akashi is saddened but gradually accepts the situation. Later she meets her daughter again, now a court lady of the crown prince, and received many honors as the mother in birth of her. She then receives a letter from his father about his fortune-telling dream. He writes the dream gave him a prediction that his granddaughter from Lady Akashi would become the empress, and he made all his efforts to realize it.
Tamakazura -- a daughter of To No Chujo and a lady called Yugao who was later a concubine of Genji too. Tamakazura is adopted by Genji eventually, while she wants to meet his real father who doesn't know she is still alive. Genji makes a salon of her worshipers and have a slight joy to see commotions young men cause for getting her love. Her brother, sons of To No Chujo, are involved, not knowing their actual relations. Genji himself flirts her and have fun to see her reactions. Later, To No Chujo and she meet again in the courtesy of Genji. Genji has an idea who to marry with her, but she is raped by a middle-aged courtier and become his wife.
Kashiwagi--is To No Chujo's eldest son and best friend to Yugiri. He has an affair with Genji's youngest wife, the Third Princess, which results in the birth of Kaoru.
|“||[The Tale of Genji, as translated by Arthur Waley,] is written with an almost miraculous naturalness, and what interests us is not the exoticism — the horrible word — but rather the human passions of the novel. Arthur David Waley CH ( August 19, 1889 &ndash June 27, 1966) was a noted English Orientalist and Sinologist Such interest is just: Murasaki's work is what one would quite precisely call a psychological novel. . . . I dare to recommend this book to those who read me. The English translation that has inspired this brief insufficient note is called The Tale of Genji.||”|
—Jorge Luis Borges, The Total Library