The Holocaust (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστον (holókauston): holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt"), also known as Ha-Shoah (Hebrew: השואה), Churben (Yiddish: חורבן), is the term generally used to describe the genocide of approximately six million European Jews during World War II, as part of a program of deliberate extermination planned and executed by the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi) regime in Germany led by Adolf Hitler. Yiddish (yi [[wiktייִדיש ייִדיש]] yidish or yi [[wiktאידיש אידיש]] idish, literally "Jewish" is a nonterritorial High PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The, officially National Socialist German Workers' Party, ( abbreviated NSDAP) was a Political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945 Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately 
Other groups were persecuted and killed by the regime, including the Roma; Soviets, particularly prisoners of war; Communists; ethnic Poles; other Slavic people; the disabled; gay men; and political and religious dissidents. The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, is a term considered to be coined by the Romani people to describe attempts by the regime in The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based See also Occupation of Poland (1939–1945, The Holocaust In addition to about three million Polish Jews (mostly killed in Operation Reinhard Generalplan Ost ( GPO) was a secret Nazi plan of Genocide and Ethnic cleansing to be realised in the territories occupied Action T4 (Aktion T4 was a program in Nazi Germany spanning October 1939 until August 1941 during which physicians killed 70273 peoplespecified in Hitler's After World War I, in the period known as the Weimar Republic, gay men in Germany, especially in Berlin, enjoyed more freedom and acceptance  Many scholars do not include these groups in the definition of the Holocaust, defining it as the genocide of the Jews, or what the Nazis called the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question. The Final Solution ( Die Endlösung) was Nazi Germany 's plan and execution of its systematic Genocide against European Jewry during World " Taking into account all the victims of Nazi persecution, the death toll rises considerably: estimates generally place the total number of victims at nine to 11 million. While the term " Holocaust victims" generally refers to Jews, the German Nazis also persecuted and often killed millions of members of other 
The persecution and genocide were accomplished in stages. Legislation to remove the Jews from civil society was enacted years before the outbreak of World War II. The Nuremberg Laws ( German: Nürnberger Gesetze) of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. Concentration camps were established in which inmates were used as slave labour until they died of exhaustion or disease. See also List of Nazi-German concentration camps, Extermination camp Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany under Hitler maintained Where the Third Reich conquered new territory in eastern Europe, specialized units called Einsatzgruppen murdered Jews and political opponents in mass shootings. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Einsatzgruppen ( German: "task forces" "intervention groups" were Paramilitary groups formed by Heinrich Himmler and Jews and Roma were crammed into ghettos before being transported hundreds of miles by freight train to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, the majority of them were killed in gas chambers. During World War II Ghettos were established by the German Nazis to confine Jews and sometimes Gypsies into tightly packed areas of the cities Extermination camps were two types of facilities that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become Every arm of Germany's bureaucracy was involved in the logistics of the mass murder, turning the country into what one Holocaust scholar has called "a genocidal state. "
The term holocaust originally derived from the Greek word holókauston, meaning a "completely (holos) burnt (kaustos)" sacrificial offering to a god. " The Holocaust " is the name commonly applied since the mid 1970s to the killing of six million Jews by Nazi Germany during World War II Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly A holocaust is a religious Animal sacrifice that is completely consumed by fire Its Latin form (holocaustum) was first used with specific reference to a massacre of Jews by the chroniclers Roger of Howden and Richard of Devizes in the 1190s. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Richard I (8 September 1157 &ndash 6 April 1199 was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death Roger of Hoveden, or Howden (fl 1174 - 1201 was a 12th century English chronicler. Richard of Devizes (fl late 12th century) English chronicler was a Monk of St Swithin 's house at Winchester. Since the late 19th century, it has been used primarily to refer to disasters or catastrophes.
The biblical word Shoah (שואה) (also spelled Sho'ah and Shoa), meaning "calamity," became the standard Hebrew term for the Holocaust as early as the 1940s.  Shoah is preferred by many Jews for a number of reasons, including the theologically offensive nature of the original meaning of "holocaust. Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective "
The word "holocaust" has been used since the 18th century to refer to the violent deaths of a large number of people.  For example, Winston Churchill and other contemporaneous writers used it before World War II to describe the Armenian Genocide of World War I. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All  Since the 1950s its use has been increasingly restricted, and it is now mainly used to describe the Nazi Holocaust, spelled with a capital H.
"Holocaust" was adopted as a translation of "Shoah" — a Hebrew word connoting catastrophe, calamity, disaster and destruction  — which was used in 1940 in Jerusalem in a booklet called Sho'at Yehudei Polin, and translated as The Holocaust of the Jews of Poland. "Shoah" had earlier been used in the context of the Nazis as a translation of "catastrophe"; for example, in 1934, Chaim Weizmann told the Zionist Action Committee that Hitler's rise to power was an "unvorhergesehene Katastropha, etwa ein neur Weltkrieg" ("an unforeseen catastrophe, perhaps even a new world war"); the Hebrew press translated "Katastropha" as "Shoah. Chaim Azriel Weizmann ( Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן – November 27, 1874 &ndash November 9, 1952) was a Zionist " In the spring of 1942, the Jerusalem historian BenZion Dinur (Dinaburg) used "Shoah" in a book published by the United Aid Committee for the Jews in Poland to describe the extermination of Europe's Jews, calling it a "catastrophe" that symbolized the unique situation of the Jewish people.  The word "Shoah" was chosen in Israel to describe the Holocaust, the term institutionalized by the Knesset on April 12, 1951, when it established Yom Ha-Shoah Ve Mered Ha-Getaot, the national day of remembrance. For Beit Knesset a Jewish Place of worship, see Synagogue. The Knesset (כנסת lit Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1951 ( MCMLI) was a Common year starting on Monday. Events of 1951 January Yom HaZikaron laShoah ve-laGvura (יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה "Remembrance Day for the Holocaust and Heroism" known colloquially in Israel By the 1950s, its translation, "Holocaust," popularized by Yad Vashem, had come routinely to refer to the genocide of the European Jews. Yad Vashem (יד ושם also spelled Yad VaShem; "Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority" is Israel 's official memorial to the Jewish 
The usual German term for the extermination of the Jews during the Nazi period was the euphemistic phrase Endlösung der Judenfrage (the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question"). The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. A euphemism is a substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener or in the case of doublespeak In both English and German, "Final Solution" is widely used as an alternative to "Holocaust".  For a time after World War II, German historians also used the term Völkermord ("genocide"), or in full, der Völkermord an den Juden ("the genocide of the Jewish people"), while the prevalent term in Germany today is either Holocaust or increasingly Shoah.
The word "holocaust" is also used in a wider sense to describe other actions of the Nazi regime. These include the killing of around half a million Roma and Sinti, the deaths of several million Soviet prisoners of war, along with slave laborers, gay men, Jehovah's Witnesses, the disabled, and political opponents. The Romani people (singular Rom, plural Roma as a Noun; also known as Romanies or Roma people) are an ethnic group with origins Sinti or Sinta (Singular masc=Sinto sing fem=Sintisa is the name of a European Ethnic group. A soviet (сове́т, "council" originally was a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia. Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination The use of the word in this wider sense is objected to by many Jewish organizations, particularly those established to commemorate the Jewish Holocaust. Jewish organizations say that the word in its current sense was originally coined to describe the extermination of the Jews, and that the Jewish Holocaust was a crime on such a scale, and of such specificity, as the culmination of the long history of European antisemitism, that it should not be subsumed into a general category with the other crimes of the Nazis. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility
Even more hotly disputed is the extension of the word to describe events that have no connection with World War II. The terms "Rwandan Holocaust" and "Cambodian Holocaust" are used to refer to the Rwanda genocide of 1994 and the mass killings by the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia respectively, and "African Holocaust" is used to describe the slave trade and the colonization of Africa, also known as the Maafa. The Republic of Rwanda (ruːˈændə or /rəˈwɑːndə/ in English ɾwanda or in Kinyarwanda is a small Landlocked country in the The Kingdom of Cambodia ( formerly known as Kampuchea (, transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in South East The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of hundreds of thousands of Rwanda 's minority Tutsis and the moderates of its Hutu majority The Khmer Rouge (ខ្មែរក្រហម Kmae Krɑhɑɑm was the Communist ruling political party of Cambodia &mdashwhich it renamed The word Maafa (also known as the African Holocaust or Holocaust of Enslavement) is derived from a Swahili word meaning disaster terrible occurrence or
Michael Berenbaum writes that Germany became a "genocidal state. Michael Berenbaum (born 1945 is an American scholar professor writer and film-maker who specializes in the study of the memorialization of the Holocaust. " Every arm of the country's sophisticated bureaucracy was involved in the killing process. Parish churches and the Interior Ministry supplied birth records showing who was Jewish; the Post Office delivered the deportation and denaturalization orders; the Finance Ministry confiscated Jewish property; German firms fired Jewish workers and disenfranchised Jewish stockholders; the universities refused to admit Jews, denied degrees to those already studying, and fired Jewish academics; government transport offices arranged the trains for deportation to the camps; German pharmaceutical companies tested drugs on camp prisoners; companies bid for the contracts to build the ovens; detailed lists of victims were drawn up using the Dehomag company's punch card machines, producing meticulous records of the killings. Dehomag was a German business effectively a franchisee and subcompany of IBM. As prisoners entered the death camps, they were made to surrender all personal property, which was carefully catalogued and tagged before being sent to Germany to be reused or recycled. Berenbaum writes that the Final Solution of the Jewish question was "in the eyes of the perpetrators … Germany's greatest achievement. "
Saul Friedländer writes that: "Not one social group, not one religious community, not one scholarly institution or professional association in Germany and throughout Europe declared its solidarity with the Jews. Saul Friedländer (born October 11, 1932) is a Pulitzer Prize -winning Czech-French-Israeli-American historian " He writes that some Christian churches declared that converted Jews should be regarded as part of the flock, but even then only up to a point.
Friedländer argues that this makes the Holocaust distinctive because anti-Jewish policies were able to unfold without the interference of countervailing forces of the kind normally found in advanced societies, such as industry, small businesses, churches, and other vested interests and lobby groups. 
In other genocides, pragmatic considerations such as control of territory and resources were central to the genocide policy. Yehuda Bauer argues that:
[T]he basic motivation [of the Holocaust] was purely ideological, rooted in an illusionary world of Nazi imagination, where an international Jewish conspiracy to control the world was opposed to a parallel Aryan quest. Yehuda Bauer (born 1926 is a historian and scholar of the Holocaust. No genocide to date had been based so completely on myths, on hallucinations, on abstract, nonpragmatic ideology—which was then executed by very rational, pragmatic means. "
The slaughter was systematically conducted in virtually all areas of Nazi-occupied territory in what are now 35 separate European countries. German–occupied Europe refers to the countries of Europe which were occupied by the Military forces of Nazi Germany at various times during  It was at its worst in Central and Eastern Europe, which had more than seven million Jews in 1939. About five million Jews were killed there, including three million in occupied Poland, and over one million in the Soviet Union. Hundreds of thousands also died in the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Yugoslavia, and Greece. The Wannsee Protocol makes clear that the Nazis also intended to carry out their "final solution of the Jewish question" in England and Ireland. The Wannsee Conference was a Meeting of senior officials of the Nazi German regime held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 
Anyone with three or four Jewish grandparents was to be exterminated without exception. In other genocides, people were able to escape death by converting to another religion or in some other way assimilating. This option was not available to the Jews of occupied Europe.  All persons of recent Jewish ancestry were to be exterminated in lands controlled by Germany. 
Another distinctive feature was the extensive use of human subjects in medical experiments. Nazi human experimentation was a series of controversial medical experiments on large numbers of prisoners by the German Nazi regime in its Concentration German physicians carried out such experiments at Auschwitz, Dachau, Buchenwald, Ravensbrück, Sachsenhausen and Natzweiler concentration camps. "Auschwitz" redirects here For the town see Oświęcim Auschwitz-Birkenau () was the largest of Nazi Germany Dachau was a Nazi German Concentration camp, and the first one opened in Germany located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions Factory near the Buchenwald concentration camp (German Konzentrationslager or 'KZ' Buchenwald) was a Nazi concentration camp established on the Ettersberg (Etter Mountain near Ravensbrück (ʁaːvənsˈbʁʏk was a notorious women's Concentration camp during in World War II, located in northern Germany 90 km north of Berlin Natzweiler-Struthof was a Nazi Concentration camp, located in the Vosges Mountains close to the Alsatian village of Natzwiller 
The most notorious of these physicians was Dr. Josef Mengele, who worked in Auschwitz. Dr Josef Mengele ( March 16, 1911 – February 7, 1979) was a German SS officer and a Physician in the His experiments included placing subjects in pressure chambers, testing drugs on them, freezing them, attempting to change eye color by injecting chemicals into children's eyes, and various amputations and other brutal surgeries.  The full extent of his work will never be known because the truckload of records he sent to Dr. Otmar von Verschuer at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute were destroyed by von Verschuer. Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer ( 16 July 1896 – 8 August 1969) was a German human Biologist and eugenicist The Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft is a German entity formally known as the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e  Subjects who survived Mengele's experiments were almost always killed and dissected after the experiments.
He seemed particularly keen on working with Romani children. He would bring them sweets and toys, and would personally take them to the gas chamber. They would call him "Onkel Mengele. " Vera Alexander was a Jewish inmate at Auschwitz who looked after 50 sets of Romani twins:
|“||I remember one set of twins in particular: Guido and Ina, aged about four. One day, Mengele took them away. When they returned, they were in a terrible state: they had been sewn together, back to back, like Siamese twins. Their wounds were infected and oozing pus. They screamed day and night. Then their parents—I remember the mother's name was Stella—managed to get some morphine and they killed the children in order to end their suffering. ||”|
Since 1945, the most commonly cited figure for the total number of Jews killed has been six million. The Yad Vashem Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority in Jerusalem, writes that there is no precise figure for the number of Jews killed. Yad Vashem (יד ושם also spelled Yad VaShem; "Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority" is Israel 's official memorial to the Jewish Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the The figure most commonly used is the six million cited by Adolf Eichmann, a senior SS official. Early calculations range from 5. 1 million from Raul Hilberg, to 5. Raul Hilberg ( June 2, 1926 - August 4, 2007) was an Austrian -born American political scientist and Historian 95 million from Jacob Leschinsky. Yisrael Gutman and Robert Rozett in the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust estimate 5. The Encyclopedia of the Holocaust was published in 1990 in tandem Hebrew and English editions by Yad Vashem (יד ושם the Israeli 59–5. 86 million.  A study led by Wolfgang Benz of the Technical University of Berlin suggests 5. 29–6. 2 million. Yad Vashem writes that the main sources for these statistics are comparisons of prewar and postwar censuses and population estimates, and Nazi documentation on deportations and murders. Yad Vashem reports that it has the names of four million of the victims. 
Hilberg estimate of 5. 1 million, in the third edition of The Destruction of the European Jews, includes over 800,000 who died from "ghettoization and general privation"; 1,400,000 killed in open-air shootings; and up to 2,900,000 who perished in camps. The Destruction of the European Jews is a book published in 1961 by historian Raul Hilberg. Hilberg estimates the death toll of Jews in Poland as up to 3,000,000.  Hilberg's numbers are generally considered to be a conservative estimate, as they typically include only those deaths for which records are available, avoiding statistical adjustment. 
British historian Martin Gilbert used a similar approach in his Atlas of the Holocaust, but arrived at a number of 5. Sir Martin John Gilbert, CBE, DLitt (born October 25, 1936) is a British Historian and the author of over eighty books 75 million Jewish victims, since he estimated higher numbers of Jews killed in Russia and other locations.  Lucy S. Dawidowicz used pre-war census figures to estimate that 5. Lucy Schildkret Dawidowicz ( June 16, 1915 – December 5, 1990) was an American Historian and an author of books on modern Jewish 934 million Jews died (see her figures (left) here). 
There were about 8 to 10 million Jews in the territories controlled directly or indirectly by the Nazis (the uncertainty arises from the lack of knowledge about how many Jews there were in the Soviet Union). The six million killed in the Holocaust thus represent 60 to 75 percent of these Jews. Of Poland's 3. 3 million Jews, over 90 percent were killed. The same proportion were killed in Latvia and Lithuania, but most of Estonia's Jews were evacuated in time. Of the 750,000 Jews in Germany and Austria in 1933, only about a quarter survived. Although many German Jews emigrated before 1939, the majority of these fled to Czechoslovakia, France or the Netherlands, from where they were later deported to their deaths. In Czechoslovakia, Greece, the Netherlands, and Yugoslavia, over 70 percent were killed. More than 50 percent were killed in Belgium, Hungary, and Romania. It is likely that a similar proportion were killed in Belarus and Ukraine, but these figures are less certain. Countries with notably lower proportions of deaths include Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Italy, and Norway. See also Time line of the Holocaust in Norway See also Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany In the middle of the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany
The number of people killed at the major extermination camps is estimated as: Auschwitz-Birkenau: 1. Extermination camps were two types of facilities that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become "Auschwitz" redirects here For the town see Oświęcim Auschwitz-Birkenau () was the largest of Nazi Germany 4 million; Treblinka: 870,000; Belzec: 600,000; Majdanek: 360,000; Chelmno: 320,000; Sobibór: 250,000; and Maly Trostinets: 65,000. Treblinka II was a German Extermination camp in occupied Poland during World War II. Belzec (Bełżec approximate Polish pronunciation bew-zhets) was the first of the Nazi German Extermination camps created for implementing Majdanek was a Nazi Concentration camp on the outskirts of Lublin, Poland. For the concentration camp located near a village with a similar name Chełmno nad Nerem see Chełmno extermination camp. Sobibór is a Village in the administrative district of Gmina Włodawa, within Włodawa County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland Maly Trascianiec extermination camp (see alternate spellings) a small village on the outskirts of Minsk, Belarus, was the site of a Nazi  This gives a total of over 3. 8 million; of these, 80–90% were estimated to be Jews. These seven camps alone thus accounted for half the total number of Jews killed in the entire Nazi Holocaust. Virtually the entire Jewish population of Poland died in these camps.
In addition to those who died in the above extermination camps, at least half a million Jews died in other camps, including the major concentration camps in Germany. These were not extermination camps, but had large numbers of Jewish prisoners at various times, particularly in the last year of the war as the Nazis withdrew from Poland. About a million people died in these camps, and although the proportion of Jews is not known with certainty, it was estimated to be at least 50 percent. Another 800,000 to one million Jews were killed by the Einsatzgruppen in the occupied Soviet territories (an approximate figure, since the Einsatzgruppen killings were frequently undocumented).  Many more died through execution or of disease and malnutrition in the ghettos of Poland before they could be deported.
One of Hitler's ambitions at the start of the war was to exterminate, expel, or enslave most or all Slavs so as to make living space for German settlers. Generalplan Ost ( GPO) was a secret Nazi plan of Genocide and Ethnic cleansing to be realised in the territories occupied ( German for " habitat " or literally "living space" served as a major motivation for Nazi Germany 's territorial aggression This plan of genocide was to be carried into effect gradually over a period of 25-30 years. 
|Soviet POWs||2–3 million|||
|Ethnic Poles||1. 8-2 million|||
According to Michael Berenbaum, between two and three million Soviet prisoners-of-war—57 percent of all Soviet POWs—died of starvation, mistreatment, or executions between June 1941 and May 1945, most of them during their first year of captivity. The Nazi crimes against Soviet Prisoners of War relates to the genocidal policies taken towards the captured soldiers of the Soviet Union by Nazi Germany Michael Berenbaum (born 1945 is an American scholar professor writer and film-maker who specializes in the study of the memorialization of the Holocaust. According to other estimates by Daniel Goldhagen, an estimated 2. Daniel Jonah Goldhagen (born 1959 is an American political scientist and former Associate Professor of Political Science and Social Studies at 8 million Soviet POWs died in eight months in 1941–42, with a total of 3. 5 million by mid-1944.  The USHMM has estimated that 3. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is a national institution located adjacent to The National Mall in Washington D 3 million of the 5. 7 million Soviet POWs died in German custody—compared to 8,300 of 231,000 British and American prisoners.  The death rates decreased as the POWs were needed to work as slaves to help the German war effort; by 1943, half a million of them had been deployed as slave labor. 
German planners in November 1939 called for nothing less than ‘the complete destruction’ of the Polish people. See also Occupation of Poland (1939–1945, The Holocaust In addition to about three million Polish Jews (mostly killed in Operation Reinhard This article deals with the occupation of Poland by Germany and the Soviet Union during the Second World War (1939–1945 The pacification operations in German-occupied Poland were the unlawful use of military force and punitive measures conducted during World War II by the German state Einsatzkommando refers to a sub-group of the five Einsatzgruppen mobile killing squads — 3000 men — responsible for systematically killing every Jew and Leszno ( German Lissa, is a town in central Poland with 71000 habitants (2008  "All Poles," Heinrich Himmler swore, "will disappear from the world. Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945 was a Nazi German politician and head of the Schutzstaffel (SS. " The Polish state under German occupation was to be cleared of ethnic Poles and settled by German colonists. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland  Of the Poles, by 1952 only about 3-4 million of them were supposed to be left residing in the former Poland, and then only to serve as slaves for German settlers. They were to be forbidden to marry, the existing ban on any medical help to Poles in Germany would be extended, and eventually Poles would cease to exist. On August 22, 1939, about one week before the onset of the war, Hitler "prepared, for the moment only in the East, my 'Death's Head' formations with orders to kill without pity or mercy all men, women, and children of Polish descent or language. Events 392 - Arbogast has Eugenius elected Western Roman Emperor. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. SS-Totenkopfverbände ( SS-TV) was a German Nazi formation of concentration camps guards Only in this way can we obtain the living space we need. ( German for " habitat " or literally "living space" served as a major motivation for Nazi Germany 's territorial aggression "
The genocide against ethnic Poles was not at the scale of the genocide against ethnic Jews. Nazi planners decided that a genocide against ethnic Poles at the same scale as against ethnic Jews could not proceed in the short run since "such a solution to the Polish question would represent a burden to the German people into the distant future, and everywhere rob us of all understanding, not least in that neighbouring peoples would have to reckon at some appropriate time, with a similar fate".  Between 1. 8 and 2. 1 million non-Jewish Polish citizens perished in German hands during the course of the war, about four-fifths of whom were ethnic Poles with the remaining fifth being ethnic minorities of Ukrainians and Belarusians, the vast majority of them civilians. The Polish people, or Poles, (Polacy) are a Western Slavic Ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland. Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens Belarusians or Belorussians (Беларусы Biełarusy previously also spelled Belarussians, Byelorussians and Belorusians, also  At least 200,000 of these victims died in concentration camps with about 146,000 being killed in Auschwitz. "Auschwitz" redirects here For the town see Oświęcim Auschwitz-Birkenau () was the largest of Nazi Germany Many others died as a result of general massacres such as in the Warsaw Uprising where between 120,000 and 200,000 civilians were killed. The Warsaw Uprising ( Powstanie Warszawskie) was a World War II struggle by the Polish Home Army ( Armia Krajowa) to liberate Warsaw  In German occupied Poland there was a general shortage of food, fuel for heating and medical supplies, and there was a high death rate among the Polish population as a result. Overall, about 5. 1 million of the victims of Nazism were Polish citizens, both Jewish and non-Jewish, and over the course of the war Poland lost over 16% of its pre-war population; 3. 1 million (90%) of the 3. 4 million Polish Jews and 2. 0 million (6%) of the 31. 7 million non-Jewish Polish citizens died in German hands.  Over 90% of the death toll came through non-military losses, as most of the civilians were targeted by various deliberate actions by Germans and Soviets. 
A common German practice in occupied Poland was to round up random civilians on the streets of Polish cities. A civilian under International humanitarian law is a person who is not a member of his or her Country 's Armed forces. The term "łapanka" carried a sardonic connotation from the word's earlier use for the children's game known in English as "tag. Łapanka (IPA - catching derived from the verb łapać - to catch was the Polish name for a German practice in World War II Tag (also known as it, had, he, tips, tig, touch, tiggy, tick, dobby, chasing " Between 1942 and 1944 there were around 400 victims of this practice daily in Warsaw alone, with numbers on some days reaching several thousand. Warsaw (Warszawa; also known by other names) is the Capital and Largest city of Poland. For example, on September 19, 1942, close to 3000 men and women caught in the round-ups all over Warsaw the previous two days were sent by train to Germany. Events 335 - Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar by his uncle Constantine I. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  Additionally, between 20,000 and 200,000 Polish children were forcibly separated from their parents and, after undergoing scrutiny to ensure that they were of "Nordic" racial stock, were sent to Germany to be raised by German families. Kidnapping of Polish children by Nazi Germany (Rabunek dzieci part of the Generalplan Ost (GPO the secret Nazi plan during World War II judged by the The Nordic race was one of the racial categories into which the Europeans were divided by anthropologists in the first half of the twentieth century 
In the Balkans, up to 500,000 Serbs were killed in Yugoslavia. The Kragujevac massacre was the massacre of between 2300 to 5000 civilians mostly Serbs and Roma, women and schoolchildren — in Kragujevac, Serbia During World War II, between 500000 and 750000 Serbs were killed The occupation of Belarus by Nazi Germany occurred as part of the German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22 1941 ( Operation Barbarossa The Reichskommissariat Ukraine (Ukraine Reich Commission was the civil administration of much of German-occupied Ukraine (which included adjacent areas of modern Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian Hitler's high plenipotentiary in South East Europe, Hermann Neubacher, later wrote: "When leading Ustaše state that one million Orthodox Serbs (including babies, children, women and old men) were slaughtered, this in my opinion is a boasting exaggeration. For the militiamen of the Military Frontier, see Uskoci The Ustaša - Croatian Revolutionary Movement ( Croatian: The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world On the basis of reports I received, I estimated that threequarters of a million defenceless people were slaughtered. " German forces, under express orders from Hitler, fought with a special vengeance against the Serbs, who were considered Untermensch The Ustaše collaborators conducted a systematic extermination of large numbers of people for political, religious or racial reasons. Untermensch ( German for under man, sub-man, sub-human; plural Untermenschen is a term from Nazi racial Ideology For the militiamen of the Military Frontier, see Uskoci The Ustaša - Croatian Revolutionary Movement ( Croatian: The most numerous victims were Serbs The USHMM reports between 56,000 and 97,000 persons were killed at the Jasenovac concentration camp  However, Yad Vashem reports 600,000 deaths at Jasenovac. Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is a national institution located adjacent to The National Mall in Washington D Yad Vashem (יד ושם also spelled Yad VaShem; "Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority" is Israel 's official memorial to the Jewish 
In Belarus, the Germans imposed a brutal racist regime, burning down some 9,000 Belarusian villages, deporting some 380,000 people for slave labour, and killing hundreds of thousands of civilians. Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that More than 600 villages, like Khatyn, were burned along with their entire population and at least 5,295 Belarusian settlements were destroyed by the Nazis and some or all of their inhabitants killed. Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east Altogether, 2,230,000 people (24% of the population) were killed in Belarus during the three years of German occupation. This includes 370,000 military dead  and 245,000 Jews killed by the Einsatzgruppen. Einsatzgruppen ( German: "task forces" "intervention groups" were Paramilitary groups formed by Heinrich Himmler and 
In Ukraine, the total human losses during the war and German occupation are estimated at between 5. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. 5 to 7. 0 million people (13-17% of the population), including 1. 366 million military dead and around 600,000 to 900,000 Jews killed by the Einsatzgruppen . Einsatzgruppen ( German: "task forces" "intervention groups" were Paramilitary groups formed by Heinrich Himmler and
Because the Roma and Sinti are traditionally a secretive people with a culture based on oral history, less is known about their fate than about that of any other group. Oral history can be defined as the recording preservation and interpretation of historical information, based on the personal experiences and opinions of the speaker  Yehuda Bauer writes that the lack of information can be attributed to the Roma's distrust and suspicion, and to their humiliation, because some of the basic taboos of Romani culture regarding hygiene and sexual contact were violated at Auschwitz. Yehuda Bauer (born 1926 is a historian and scholar of the Holocaust. Bauer writes that "[m]ost [Roma] could not relate their stories involving these tortures; as a result, most kept silent and thus increased the effects of the massive trauma they had undergone. "
Donald Niewyk and Frances Nicosia write that the death toll was at least 130,000 of the nearly one million Roma and Sinti in Nazi-controlled Europe.  Michael Berenbaum writes that serious scholarly estimates lie between 90,000 and 220,000.  A detailed study by the late Sybil Milton, formerly senior historian at the U. S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, calculated a death toll of at least 220,000, and possibly closer to 500,000.  Ian Hancock, Director of the Program of Romani Studies and the Romani Archives and Documentation Center at the University of Texas at Austin, has argued in favour of a higher figure of between 500,000 and 1,500,000. Ian Hancock ( Romani: Yanko le Redžosko) is a renowned linguist Romani scholar and human rights advocate  Hancock writes that, proportionately, the death toll equaled "and almost certainly exceed[ed], that of Jewish victims. "
|“||… they wish to toss into the Ghetto everything that is characteristically dirty, shabby, bizarre, of which one ought to be frightened and which anyway had to be destroyed.||”|
Before being sent to the camps, the victims were herded into ghettos, including several hundred into the Warsaw Ghetto. A ghetto is described as a "portion of a city in which members of a minority group live especially because of social legal or economic pressure The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish Ghettos located in the territory of General Government during World War II, established by  Further east, teams of Einsatzgruppen tracked down Roma encampments and murdered the inhabitants on the spot, leaving no records of the victims. Einsatzgruppen ( German: "task forces" "intervention groups" were Paramilitary groups formed by Heinrich Himmler and They were also targeted by the puppet regimes that cooperated with the Nazis, e. g. the Ustaše regime in Croatia, where a large number of Roma were killed in the Jasenovac concentration camp. For the militiamen of the Military Frontier, see Uskoci The Ustaša - Croatian Revolutionary Movement ( Croatian:
In May 1942, the Roma were placed under the same labor and social laws as the Jews. On December 16, 1942, Heinrich Himmler, Commander of the SS and regarded as the "architect" of the Nazi genocide, issued a decree that "Gypsy Mischlinge (mixed breeds), Roma Gypsies, and members of the clans of Balkan origins who are not of German blood" should be sent to Auschwitz, unless they had served in the Wehrmacht. Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945 was a Nazi German politician and head of the Schutzstaffel (SS. Wehrmacht (literally "defense force" was the name of the unified Armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945  On January 29, 1943, another decree ordered the deportation of all German Gypsies to Auschwitz.
This was adjusted on November 15, 1943, when Himmler ordered that, in the occupied Soviet areas, "sedentary Gypsies and part-Gypsies (Mischlinge) are to be treated as citizens of the country. Events 655 - Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Nomadic Gypsies and part-Gypsies are to be placed on the same level as Jews and placed in concentration camps. " Bauer argues that this adjustment reflected Nazi ideology that the Roma, originally an Aryan population, had been "spoiled" by non-Romani blood. Aryan is an English word derived from the Sanskrit " Ārya " meaning "noble" or "honorable" 
Our starting point is not the individual: We do not subscribe to the view that one should feed the hungry, give drink to the thirsty, or clothe the naked … Our objectives are different: We must have a healthy people in order to prevail in the world.
Aktion T4 was a program established in 1939 to maintain the genetic purity of the German population by killing or sterilizing German and Austrian citizens who were disabled or suffering from mental illness. 
Between 1939 and 1941, 80,000 to 100,000 mentally ill adults in institutions were killed; 5,000 children in institutions; and 1,000 Jews in institutions.  Outside the mental health institutions, the figures are estimated as 20,000 (according to Dr. Georg Renno, the deputy director of Schloss Hartheim, one of the euthanasia centers) or 400,000 (according to Frank Zeireis, the commandant of Mauthausen concentration camp). Schloss Hartheim was one of the Nazi " Euthanasia " killing centers where the physically and mentally disabled were killed by gassing and Lethal Mauthausen Concentration Camp (known from the summer of 1940 as Mauthausen-Gusen Concentration Camp) grew to become a large group of Nazi concentration camps  Another 300,000 were forcibly sterilized. 
The program was named after Tiergartenstraße 4, the address of a villa in the Berlin borough of Tiergarten, the headquarters of the Gemeinnützige Stiftung für Heil und Anstaltspflege (General Foundation for Welfare and Institutional Care), led by Philipp Bouhler, head of Hitler’s private chancellery (Kanzlei des Führer der NSDAP) and Karl Brandt, Hitler’s personal physician. Tiergartenstraße is a street in the centre of Berlin, the capital of Germany. TiergartenViewjpg|thumb|right|View within the Tiergarten]] Tiergarten ( German for Animal Garden) is the name of both a large Park in the Philipp Bouhler ( 11 September 1899 - 19 May 1945) was a Nazi German government official SS-Obergruppenführer head of the Führer's
Brandt was tried in December 1946 at Nuremberg, along with 22 others, in a case known as United States of America vs. The Nuremberg Trials were a series of trials most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political military and economic leadership of Nazi Germany after Karl Brandt et al. , also known as the Doctors' Trial. The Doctors' Trial (officially United States of America v Karl Brandt et al He was hanged at Landsberg Prison on June 2, 1948. Landsberg Prison is a penal facility located in the town of Landsberg am Lech in the southwest of the German state of Bavaria, about 30 miles (65 km Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Between 5,000 and 15,000 gay men of German nationality are estimated to have been sent to concentration camps.  James D. Steakley writes that what mattered in Germany was criminal intent or character, rather than criminal acts, and the "gesundes Volksempfinden" ("healthy sensibility of the people") became the leading normative legal principle.  In 1936, Heinrich Himmler, Chief of the SS, created the "Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion. " Homosexuality was declared contrary to "wholesome popular sentiment," and gay men were regarded as "defilers of German blood. " The Gestapo raided gay bars, tracked individuals using the address books of those they arrested, used the subscription lists of gay magazines to find others, and encouraged people to report suspected homosexual behavior and to scrutinize the behavior of their neighbours. 
Tens of thousands were convicted between 1933 and 1944 and sent to camps for "rehabilitation," where they were identified by yellow armbands and later pink triangles worn on the left side of the jacket and the right trouser leg, which singled them out for sexual abuse.  Hundreds were castrated by court order.  They were humiliated, tortured, used in hormone experiments conducted by SS doctors, and killed. Hormones (from Greek ὁρμή - "impetus" are chemicals released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body The allegation of homosexuality was also used as a convenient way of dealing with Catholic priests.  Steakley writes that the full extent of gay suffering was slow to emerge after the war. Many victims kept their stories to themselves because homosexuality remained criminalized in postwar Germany. Nevertheless, only a small percentage (around 2%) of German homosexuals were persecuted by Nazis. 
In Mein Kampf, Hitler wrote that Freemasonry had "succumbed" to the Jews: "The general pacifistic paralysis of the national instinct of self-preservation begun by Freemasonry is then transmitted to the masses of society by the Jewish press. Some governments mostly authoritarian, and virtually all Totalitarian, regimes have treated Freemasonry as a potential source of opposition due to its secret nature See also Jehovah's Witnesses and governments Throughout the history of Jehovah's Witnesses, their beliefs doctrines and practices have engendered Mein Kampf ( English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by Adolf Hitler. " Freemasons were sent to concentration camps as political prisoners, and forced to wear an inverted red triangle. Nazi concentration camp badges, primarily Triangles, were part of the system of Identification in Nazi camps.  It is estimated that between 80,000 and 200,000 were killed.  However , the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum believes “because many of the Freemasons who were arrested were also Jews and/or members of the political opposition, it is not known how many individuals were placed in Nazi concentration camps and/or were targeted only because they were Freemasons. ”
Refusing to pledge allegiance to the Nazi party or to serve in the military, roughly 12,000 Jehovah's Witnesses were forced to wear a purple triangle and placed in camps, where they were given the option of renouncing their faith and submitting to the state's authority. Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination Between 2,500 and 5,000 were killed.  Historian Detlef Garbe, director at the Neuengamme (Hamburg) Memorial, writes that "no other religious movement resisted the pressure to conform to National Socialism with comparable unanimity and steadfastness. "
German communists, socialists and trade unionists were among the earliest domestic opponents of Nazism and were also among the first victims to be sent to concentration camps. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based They concerned Hitler due to their ties with the Soviet Union and because the Nazi Party was intractably opposed to communism claiming that it was a Jewish ideology which the Nazis termed Judeo-Bolshevism. Jewish Bolshevism, Judeo-Bolshevism, Judeo-Communism, or in Polish Żydokomuna, is a Pejorative Antisemitic expression Rumors of pending communist violence were started by the Nazis as justification for the Enabling Act of 1933, the law which gave Hitler his original dictatorial powers. The Enabling Act ( in German) was passed by the Reichstag ( Germany 's parliament on March 23, 1933 and signed Herman Göring later testified at the Nuremberg Trials that it was the Nazis' willingness to repress German communists that prompted Hindenburg and the old elite to cooperate with the Nazis. Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also spelled Goering) (12 January 1893 15 October 1946 was a German Politician, Military leader and a leading member The Nuremberg Trials were a series of trials most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political military and economic leadership of Nazi Germany after The first concentration camp was built at Dachau, in March 1933, to imprison German communists, socialists, trade unionists and others opposed to the Nazis.  Communists, social democrats and other political prisoners were forced to wear a red triangle. A political prisoner is someone held in Prison or otherwise detained perhaps under House arrest, for his or her involvement in political activity Nazi concentration camp badges, primarily Triangles, were part of the system of Identification in Nazi camps.
Hitler and the Nazis also hated German leftists because of their resistance to Nazi racism. Many leaders of German leftist groups were Jews; Jews were especially prominent among the leaders of the Spartacist Uprising in 1919. The Spartacist uprising, also known as the January uprising, was a General strike (and the armed battles accompanying it in Germany from January 5 Hitler already referred to Marxism and "Bolshevism" as a means of "the international Jew" to undermine "racial purity" and survival of the Nordics or Aryans (sometimes of all white Europeans), as well to stir up socioeconomic class tension and labor unions against the government or state-owned businesses. Socioeconomics or socio-economics is the study of the relationship between economic activity and Social life. Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in Societies or Cultures. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming Within the concentration camps such as Buchenwald, German communists were privileged in comparison to Jews because of their "racial purity. Buchenwald concentration camp (German Konzentrationslager or 'KZ' Buchenwald) was a Nazi concentration camp established on the Ettersberg (Etter Mountain near "
Whenever the Nazis occupied a new territory, members of communist, socialist, or anarchist groups were normally to be the first persons detained or executed. Evidence of this is found in Hitler's infamous Commissar Order in which he ordered the summary execution of all political commissars captured among Soviet soldiers, as well as the execution of all Communist Party members in German held territory. The Commissar Order (Kommissarbefehl was a written order given by Adolf Hitler on 6 June 1941, prior to Operation Barbarossa.  Einzatsgruppen carried out these executions in the east. Einsatzgruppen ( German: "task forces" "intervention groups" were Paramilitary groups formed by Heinrich Himmler and 
Nacht und Nebel (German for "Night and Fog") was a directive (German: Erlass) of Adolf Hitler on December 7, 1941 signed and implemented by Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces Wilhelm Keitel, resulting in kidnapping and disappearance of many political activists throughout Nazi Germany's occupied territories. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Events 43 BC - Marcus Tullius Cicero assassinated 1696 - Connecticut Route 108, one of the oldest highways Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (22 September 1882–16 October 1946 was a German Field marshal ( Generalfeldmarschall) In Criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away or Asportation of a person against the person's will usually to hold the person in False imprisonment Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
The Nazi Party under Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany on January 30, 1933, and the persecution and exodus of Germany's 525,000 Jews began almost immediately. The, officially National Socialist German Workers' Party, ( abbreviated NSDAP) was a Political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945 Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In his autobiography Mein Kampf (1925), Hitler had been open about his hatred of Jews, and gave ample warning of his intention to drive them from Germany's political, intellectual, and cultural life. Mein Kampf ( English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by Adolf Hitler. He did not write that he would attempt to exterminate them, but he is reported to have been more explicit in private. As early as 1922, he allegedly told Major Joseph Hell, at the time a journalist:
|“||Once I really am in power, my first and foremost task will be the annihilation of the Jews. As soon as I have the power to do so, I will have gallows built in rows—at the Marienplatz in Munich, for example—as many as traffic allows. Then the Jews will be hanged indiscriminately, and they will remain hanging until they stink; they will hang there as long as the principles of hygiene permit. As soon as they have been untied, the next batch will be strung up, and so on down the line, until the last Jew in Munich has been exterminated. Other cities will follow suit, precisely in this fashion, until all Germany has been completely cleansed of Jews. ||”|
Jewish intellectuals were the first to leave. The philosopher Walter Benjamin left for Paris on March 18, 1933. Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin ( July 15, 1892 &ndash September 27, 1940) was a German - Jewish Marxist Novelist Leon Feuchtwanger went to Switzerland. Lion Feuchtwanger (pseudonym JL Wetcheek) ( 7 July 1884 - 21 December 1958) was a German - Jewish Novelist The conductor Bruno Walter fled after being told that the hall of the Berlin Philharmonic would be burned down if he conducted a concert there: the Frankfurter Zeitung explained on April 6 that Walter and fellow conductor Otto Klemperer had been forced to flee because the government was unable to protect them against the "mood" of the German public, which had been provoked by "Jewish artistic liquidators. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Bruno Walter ( September 15, 1876 &ndash February The Berlin Philharmonic (in German: Die Berliner Philharmoniker) is an Orchestra based in Berlin, Germany. The Frankfurter Zeitung was a German language Newspaper that appeared from 1856 to 1943 WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Otto Klemperer (born Breslau, May 14, 1885 " Albert Einstein was visiting the U. Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical S. on January 30, 1933. He returned to Ostende in Belgium, never to set foot in Germany again, and calling events there a "psychic illness of the masses"; he was expelled from the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and the Prussian Academy of Sciences, and his citizenship was rescinded.  Saul Friedländer writes that when Max Liebermann, possibly Germany's best-know artist and honorary president of the Prussian Academy of Arts, resigned his position, not one of his colleagues expressed a word of sympathy, and he died ostracized two years later. Saul Friedländer (born October 11, 1932) is a Pulitzer Prize -winning Czech-French-Israeli-American historian Max Liebermann ( July 20 1847 &ndash February 8 1935) was a German painter and Printmaker in Etching and When the police arrived in 1943 with a stretcher to deport his 85-year-old bedridden widow, she committed suicide with an overdose of barbiturates rather than be taken. 
Throughout the 1930s, the legal, economic, and social rights of Jews were steadily restricted. Friedländer writes that, for the Nazis, Germany drew its strength for its "purity of blood" and its "rootedness in the sacred German earth. " In 1933, a series of laws were passed to exclude Jews from key areas: the Civil Service Law; the physicians' law; and the farm law, forbidding Jews from owning farms or taking part in agriculture. Jewish lawyers were disbarred, and in Dresden, Jewish lawyers and judges were dragged out of their offices and courtrooms, and beaten up.  Jews were excluded from schools and universities, and from belonging to the Journalists' Association, or from being newspaper editors.  The Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung of April 27, 1933 wrote:
A self-respecting nation cannot, on a scale accepted up to now, leave its higher activities in the hands of people of racially foreign origin … Allowing the presence of too high a percentage of people of foreign origin in relation to their percentage in the general population could be interpreted as an acceptance of the superiority of other races, something decidedly to be rejected. 
In 1935, Hitler introduced the Nuremberg Laws, which stripped German Jews of their citizenship and deprived them of all civil rights. The Nuremberg Laws ( German: Nürnberger Gesetze) of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. In his speech introducing the laws, Hitler said that if the "Jewish problem" cannot be solved by these laws, it "must then be handed over by law to the National-Socialist Party for a final solution (Endlösung). " The expression "Endlösung" became the standard Nazi euphemism for the extermination of the Jews. A euphemism is a substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener or in the case of doublespeak In January 1939, he said in a public speech: "If international-finance Jewry inside and outside Europe should succeed once more in plunging the nations into yet another world war, the consequences will not be the Bolshevization of the earth and thereby the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation (vernichtung) of the Jewish race in Europe. "
The question of the treatment of the Jews became an urgent one for the Nazis after September 1939, when they occupied the western half of Poland, home to about two million Jews. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Heinrich Himmler's right-hand man, Reinhard Heydrich, recommended concentrating all the Polish Jews in ghettos in major cities, where they would be put to work for the German war industry. Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945 was a Nazi German politician and head of the Schutzstaffel (SS. Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich ( 7 March 1904 &ndash 4 June 1942) was an SS - Obergruppenführer, chief A ghetto is described as a "portion of a city in which members of a minority group live especially because of social legal or economic pressure The ghettos would be in cities located on railway junctions, so that, in Heydrich's words, "future measures can be accomplished more easily. " During his interrogation in 1961, Adolf Eichmann testified that the expression "future measures" was understood to mean "physical extermination. "
Many scholars date the start of the Holocaust to the anti-Jewish riots of Kristallnacht, the Night of Broken Glass, on November 9, 1938, in which Jews were attacked and Jewish property was vandalized across Germany. Kristallnacht ( literally "Crystal night" or the Night of Broken Glass was a Pogrom in Nazi Germany on November 9–10 1938 Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Approximately 100 Jews were killed, and another 30,000 sent to concentration camps, while over 7,000 Jewish shops and 1,668 synagogues (almost every synagogue in Germany) were damaged or destroyed. A synagogue (from Greek: grc συναγωγή transliterated synagogē, "assembly" he בית כנסת beit knesset, "house of Similar events took place in Austria, particularly Vienna. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria.
A number of deadly pogroms by local populations occurred during the Second World War, some with Nazi encouragement, and some spontaneously. A pogrom is a form of Riot directed against a particular group whether ethnic religious or other and characterized by destruction of their Homes Businesses This included the Iaşi pogrom in Romania on June 30, 1941, in which as many 14,000 Jews were killed by Romanian residents and police, and the Jedwabne pogrom, in which between 380 and 1,600 Jews were killed by local Poles in July 1941. The Iaşi pogrom of June 27 1941 was the second most violent Pogrom in Jewish history after Baby Yar, launched by governmental forces Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed by troops of the Usurper Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Jedwabne Pogrom (or Jedwabne massacre) (jɛdˈvabnɛ was a massacre of Jewish people living in and near the town of Jedwabne in 
While Jews were murdered on mass scale since 1939, in 1940 some Nazis considered eliminating Jews by the unrealistic Madagascar Plan which, however futile, in retrospect did constitute an important psychological step on the path to the Holocaust. The Madagascar Plan was a suggested policy of the Nazi government to forcibly relocate the Jewish population of Europe to the island of Madagascar.  The planning was carried out by Eichmann's office; Heydrich called it a "territorial final solution". The plan was to ship all European Jews to the African island of Madagascar. Madagascar, or Republic of Madagascar (older name Malagasy Republic) is an Island nation in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern In view of the difficulties of supporting more population in the General Gouvernment in July 1940 Hitler, still hoping for success with the Madagascar plan, stopped the deportation of Jews there. The General Government (Generalgouvernement refers to a part of the territories of Poland (and Ostrava Czechoslovakia under German Military occupation  This was however very temporary as the military situation offered no possibility to conquer Britain. The plan may have been foreseen as a remote and slower genocide through the unfavorable conditions on the island.  Although the Final Solution was already in place and Jews were being exterminated, the formal declaration of the Plan's end was made abandoned on February 10, 1942, when the German Foreign Office was given an official explanation that due to the war with the Soviet Union Jews are going to be "sent to the east" 
|“||I ask nothing of the Jews except that they should disappear.||”|
Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, leading Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa, and France to declare war. Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Hans Frank, a German lawyer, was appointed Governor-General in October. Hans Michael Frank ( May 23 1900 &ndash October 16 1946) was a German Lawyer who worked for the Nazi party
In September, Himmler appointed Reinhard Heydrich head of the Reich Security Head Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt or RSHA), a body overseeing the work of the SS, the Security Police (SD), and the Gestapo in occupied Poland and charged with carrying out the policy towards the Jews described in Heydrich's report. Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich ( 7 March 1904 &ndash 4 June 1942) was an SS - Obergruppenführer, chief The RSHA, or Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Head Office was a subordinate organization of the SS. The ( German for "Protective Squadron" abbreviated SS - or ( Runic)- was a major Nazi organization under Adolf Hitler and the The Sicherheitsdienst (SD Security Service was primarily the Intelligence service of the SS and the NSDAP. The ( contraction of ge heime Sta ats' po' lizei: "Secret State Police" was the official Secret police of Nazi Germany (This body should not be confused with the Rasse und Siedlungshauptamt or Race and Resettlement Main Office, RuSHA, which was involved in carrying out the deportation of Jews. ) First organised murders of Jews by German forces occurred during Operation Tannenberg and through Selbstschutz units. The codename Unternehmen Tannenberg (Operation Tannenberg was used for two discrete German operations At the end of August 1939 the Gleiwitz incident -like Selbstschutz (Self-protection stands for two organisations it was (1 a name used by a number of paramilitary organisations created by Ethnic Germans in Central Europe Later the Jews were herded into ghettos, mostly in the General Government area of central Poland, where they were put to work under the Reich Labor Office headed by Fritz Saukel. The General Government (Generalgouvernement refers to a part of the territories of Poland (and Ostrava Czechoslovakia under German Military occupation Here many thousands were killed in various ways, and many more died of disease, starvation, and exhaustion, but there was still no program of systematic killing. There is no doubt, however, that the Nazis saw forced labor as a form of extermination. The expression Vernichtung durch Arbeit ("destruction through work") was frequently used.
When the Germans occupied Norway, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, and France in 1940, and Yugoslavia and Greece in 1941, anti-Semitic measures were also introduced into these countries, although the pace and severity varied greatly from country to country according to local political circumstances. Jews were removed from economic and cultural life and were subject to various restrictive laws, but physical deportation did not occur in most places before 1942. The Vichy regime in occupied France actively collaborated in persecuting French Jews. Vichy France, or the Vichy regime are the common terms used to describe the government of France from July 1940 to August 1944 Germany's allies Italy, Finland, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria were pressured to introduce anti-Jewish measures, but for the most part they did not comply until compelled to do so. The German puppet regime in Croatia, on the other hand, began actively persecuting Jews on its own initiative.
During 1940 and 1941, the murder of large numbers of Jews in German occupied Poland continued, and the deportation of Jews from Germany, Austria and the "Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia" (today's Czech Republic) to General Gouvernment was undertaken. The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Reichsprotektorat Böhmen und Mähren Protektorát Čechy a Morava was the majority ethnic-Czech Protectorate which The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Eichmann was assigned the task of removing all Jews from these territories, although the deportation of Jews from Germany, particularly Berlin, was not officially completed until 1943. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. (Many Berlin Jews were able to survive in hiding—it is an irony of the Holocaust that Berlin was one of the few places where this was possible. ) By December 1939, 3. 5 million Jews were crowded into the General Government area.
The Governor-General, Hans Frank, noted that this many people could not be simply shot. Hans Michael Frank ( May 23 1900 &ndash October 16 1946) was a German Lawyer who worked for the Nazi party "We shall have to take steps, however, designed in some way to eliminate them. " It was this dilemma which led the SS to experiment with large-scale killings using poison gas. This method had already been used during Hitler's campaign of euthanasia in Germany (known as "T4"). SS Obersturmführer Christian Wirth seems to have been the inventor of the gas chamber. Christian Wirth ( 24 November, 1885 - 26 May, 1944) was a senior SS officer during the program to exterminate the Jewish A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing consisting of a sealed chamber into which a Poisonous or Asphyxiant gas is introduced
Although it was clear by 1941 that the SS hierarchy led by Himmler and Heydrich was determined to embark on a policy of killing all the Jews under German control, there were important centers of opposition to this policy within the Nazi regime. The grounds for the opposition were mainly economic, not humanitarian. Hermann Göring, who had overall control of the German war industry, and the German army's Economics Department, representing the armaments industry, argued that the enormous Jewish labor force assembled in the General Government area (more than a million able-bodied workers) was an asset too valuable to waste while Germany was preparing to invade the Soviet Union. Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also spelled Goering) (12 January 1893 15 October 1946 was a German Politician, Military leader and a leading member
During this period there were a few conflicts between the Army and the SS over policy in Poland. Ultimately, neither Göring nor the army leadership was willing or able to challenge Himmler's authority, particularly since Himmler made it clear he had Hitler's support.
Leading up to the 1933 elections, the Nazis began intensifying acts of violence to wreak havoc among the opposition. With the cooperation of local authorities, they set up camps as concentration centers within Germany. One of the first was Dachau, which opened in March 1933. Dachau was a Nazi German Concentration camp, and the first one opened in Germany located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions Factory near the These early camps were meant to hold, torture, or kill only political prisoners, such as Communists and Social Democrats. 
These early prisons—usually basements and storehouses—were eventually consolidated into full-blown, centrally run camps outside the cities. By 1942, six large extermination camps had been established in Nazi-occupied Poland.  After 1939, the camps increasingly became places where Jews and POWs were either killed or forced to live as slave laborers, undernourished and tortured.  It is estimated that the Germans established 15,000 camps in the occupied countries, many of them in Poland. 
New camps were focused on areas with large Jewish, Polish intelligentsia, communist, or Roma and Sinti populations, including inside Germany. The transportation of prisoners was often carried out under horrifying conditions using rail freight cars, in which many died before reaching their destination.
Extermination through labour, a means whereby camp inmates would literally be worked to death—or frequently worked until they could no longer perform work tasks, followed by their selection for extermination—was invoked as a further systematic extermination policy. Extermination through labour (Vernichtung durch Arbeit was a Nazi German World War II principle that regulated the aims and purposes of most of their labour and Furthermore, while not designed as a method for systematic extermination, many camp prisoners died because of harsh overall conditions or from executions carried out on a whim after being allowed to live for days or months.
Upon admission, some camps tattooed prisoners with a prisoner ID.  Those fit for work were dispatched for 12 to 14 hour shifts. Before and after, there were roll calls that could sometimes last for hours, with prisoners regularly dying of exposure. 
After the invasion of Poland, the Nazis established ghettos throughout 1941 and 1942 to which Jews and some Roma were confined, until they were eventually shipped to death camps and killed. A ghetto is described as a "portion of a city in which members of a minority group live especially because of social legal or economic pressure The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest, with 380,000 people, and the Łódź Ghetto the second largest, holding 160,000. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish Ghettos located in the territory of General Government during World War II, established by The Ghetto Litzmannstadt was the second-largest Ghetto (after the Warsaw Ghetto) established for Jews and Roma in German -occupied They were, in effect, immensely crowded prisons, described by Michael Berenbaum as instruments of "slow, passive murder. " Though the Warsaw Ghetto contained 400,000 people—30% of the population of Warsaw—it occupied only 2. 4% of the city's area, averaging 9. 2 people per room.
From 1940 through 1942, starvation and disease, especially typhoid, killed hundreds of thousands. Typhoid fever, also known as enteric fever, bilious fever, Yellow Jack or commonly just typhoid, is an illness caused by the Bacterium Over 43,000 residents of the Warsaw ghetto died there in 1941, more than one in ten; in Theresienstadt, more than half the residents died in 1942. For the Nazi concentration camp see Theresienstadt concentration camp. 
|“||The Germans came, the police, and they started banging houses: "Raus, raus, raus, Juden raus. " … [O]ne baby started to cry … The other baby started crying. So the mother urinated in her hand and gave the baby a drink to keep quiet … [When the police had gone], I told the mothers to come out. And one baby was dead … from fear, the mother [had] choked her own baby.||”|
Each ghetto was run by a Judenrat (Jewish council) of German-appointed Jewish community leaders, who were responsible for the day-to-day running of the ghetto, including the provision of food, water, heat, medicine, and shelter, and who were also expected to make arrangements for deportations to extermination camps. Judenräte (singular Judenrat; German for "Jewish council" were administrative bodies that the Germans required Jews to form in the Heinrich Himmler ordered the start of the deportations on July 19, 1942, and three days later, on July 22, the deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto began; over the next 52 days, until September 12, 300,000 people from Warsaw alone were transported in freight trains to the Treblinka extermination camp. Events 711 - Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by their king Roderic. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Holocaust trains were Railway Transports run by German Nazis and their collaborators to forcibly deport interned Jews Treblinka II was a German Extermination camp in occupied Poland during World War II. Many other ghettos were completely depopulated.
Berenbaum writes that the defining moment that tested the courage and character of each Judenrat came when they were asked to provide a list of names of the next group to be deported. The Judenrat members went through the tried and tested methods of delay, bribery, stonewalling, pleading, and argumentation, until finally a decision had to be made. Some argued that their responsibility was to save the Jews who could be saved, and that therefore others had to be sacrificed; others argued, following Maimonides, that not a single individual should be handed over who had not committed a capital crime. Moses Maimonides ( March 30 1135 – December 13 1204) also known as the Rambam, was a Rabbi, Physician, and Judenrat leaders such as Dr. Joseph Parnas in Lviv, who refused to compile a list, were shot. Lviv ( Ukrainian: Львів, L’viv, Lwów Lemberg Львов L'vov; see also other names) is a major city in western On October 14, 1942, the entire Judenrat of Byaroza committed suicide rather than cooperate with the deportations. Events 1066 - Norman Conquest: Battle of Hastings - In England on Senlac Hill seven miles from Hastings, the forces Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
The first ghetto uprising occurred in September 1942 in the small town of Łachwa in southeast Poland. Ghetto uprisings were armed revolts by Jews and other groups incarcerated in Nazi Ghettos during World War II against the plans to deport the inhabitants Lakhva (or Lachva Lachwa ( Belarusian and Russian: Лахва לחווא Łachwa לאַכװע is a small town in southern Belarus, with a population Though there were armed resistance attempts in the larger ghettos in 1943, such as the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and the Białystok Ghetto Uprising, in every case they failed against the Nazi military, and the remaining Jews were either killed or deported to the camps, which the Germans euphemistically called "resettlement in the East. The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (German "Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto", Polish "Powstanie w getcie warszawskim") was the Jewish Białystok Ghetto Uprising was an insurrection in Poland 's Białystok Ghetto against Germany during World War II. "
The German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941 opened a new phase. The Holocaust intensified after the Nazis occupied Lithuania, where close to 80% of Lithuanian Jews were exterminated before the end of the year. Lithuanian Jews (known in Yiddish and Yeshivish as Litvish (adjective or Litvaks (noun are Ashkenazi Jews with roots in the The Holocaust in Nazi-occupied Lithuania resulted in the near total destruction of Lithuanian Jews living in the Nazi-controlled Lithuanian territories known as the  The Soviet territories occupied by early 1942, including all of Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, and Ukraine, and most Russian territory west of the line Leningrad-Moscow-Rostov, contained about four million Jews, including hundreds of thousands who had fled Poland in 1939. Despite the chaos of the Soviet retreat, some effort was made to evacuate Jews, and about a million succeeded in escaping further east. The remaining three million were left at the mercy of the Nazis.
In these territories, there were fewer restraints on the mass killing of Jews than there were in countries like France or the Netherlands, where there was a long tradition of tolerance and the rule of law, or even Poland where, despite a strong tradition of antisemitism, there was considerable resistance to Nazi persecution of Polish Jews. In the Baltic states, Belarus, and Ukraine, native antisemitism was reinforced by hatred of Communist rule, which many people associated with the Jews. Thousands of people in these countries actively collaborated with the Nazis. Ukrainians and Latvians joined SS auxiliary forces in large numbers and did much of the dirty work in Nazi extermination camps. Raul Hilberg writes that these were ordinary citizens, not hoodlums or thugs; the great majority were university-educated professionals. Raul Hilberg ( June 2, 1926 - August 4, 2007) was an Austrian -born American political scientist and Historian  They used their skills to become efficient killers, according to Michael Berenbaum. Michael Berenbaum (born 1945 is an American scholar professor writer and film-maker who specializes in the study of the memorialization of the Holocaust. 
Despite the subservience of the Army high command to Hitler, Himmler did not trust the Army to approve of, let alone carry out, the large-scale killings of Jews in the occupied Soviet territories. This task was assigned to SS formations called Einsatzgruppen ("task groups"), under the overall command of Heydrich. Einsatzgruppen ( German: "task forces" "intervention groups" were Paramilitary groups formed by Heinrich Himmler and These had been used on a limited scale in Poland in 1939, but were now organized on a much larger scale. Einsatzgruppe A (commanded by SS-Brigadeführer Dr. Franz Stahlecker) was assigned to the Baltic area, Einsatzgruppe B (SS-Brigadeführer Artur Nebe) to Belarus, Einsatzgruppe C (SS-Gruppenführer Dr. Otto Rasch) to north and central Ukraine, and Einsatzgruppe D (SS-Gruppenführer Dr. Otto Ohlendorf) to Moldova, south Ukraine, the Crimea, and, during 1942, the north Caucasus. Dr Franz Walter Stahlecker ( 10 October 1900 &ndash 23 March 1942) was Höhere SS- und Polizeiführer (HSSPF Higher SS and SS Gruppenführer Dr Otto Rasch ( 7 December 1891 &ndash 1 November 1948) was a high-ranking Nazi official in Otto Ohlendorf ( February 4, 1907 &ndash June 7, 1951) was a German SS - Gruppenführer and head of the interior division Of the four Einsatzgruppen, three were commanded by holders of doctorate degrees, of whom one (Rasch) held a double doctorate. A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement 
According to Ohlendorf at his trial, "the Einsatzgruppen had the mission to protect the rear of the troops by killing the Jews, gypsies, Communist functionaries, active Communists, and all persons who would endanger the security. The Einsatzgruppen Trial (or officially The United States of America vs " In practice, their victims were nearly all defenseless Jewish civilians (not a single Einsatzgruppe member was killed in action during these operations). By December 1941, the four Einsatzgruppen listed above had killed, respectively, 125,000, 45,000, 75,000, and 55,000 people—a total of 300,000 people—mainly by shooting or with hand grenades at mass killing sites outside the major towns.
I saw them do the killing. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is a national institution located adjacent to The National Mall in Washington D Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Passover ( Hebrew, Yiddish: פֶּסַח Pesach, Tiberian: pɛsaħ Israeli: Pesah, Pesakh, Yiddish At 5:00 p. m. they gave the command, "Fill in the pits. " Screams and groans were coming from the pits. Suddenly I saw my neighbor Ruderman rise from under the soil … His eyes were bloody and he was screaming: "Finish me off!" … A murdered woman lay at my feet. A boy of five years crawled out from under her body and began to scream desperately. "Mommy!" That was all I saw, since I fell unconscious. 
The most notorious massacre of Jews in the Soviet Union was at a ravine called Babi Yar outside Kiev, where 33,771 Jews were killed in a single operation on September 29–30, 1941. See #Other memorials below for the Babi Yar Memorial Park in Denver Colorado USA The killing of all the Jews in Kiev was decided on by the military governor (Major-General Friedrich Eberhardt), the Police Commander for Army Group South (SS-Obergruppenführer Friedrich Jeckeln) and the Einsatzgruppe C Commander Otto Rasch. Friedrich Jeckeln ( 2 February 1895 - 3 February 1946) was an SS- Obergruppenfuhrer who served as an SS and Police It was carried out by a mixture of SS, SD and Security Police, assisted by Ukrainian police.
On Monday the Jews of Kiev gathered by the cemetery, expecting to be loaded onto trains. The crowd was large enough that most of the men, women, and children could not have known what was happening until it was too late: by the time they heard the machine-gun fire, there was no chance to escape. All were driven down a corridor of soldiers, in groups of ten, and then shot. A truck driver described the scene:
|“||Kikes of the city of Kiev and vicinity! On Monday, September 29, you are to appear by 08:00 a. m. with your possessions, money, documents, valuables, and warm clothing at Dorogozhitskaya Street, next to the Jewish cemetery. Failure to appear is punishable by death.||”|
—Order posted in Kiev in Russian and Ukrainian, on or around September 26, 1941. 
[O]ne after the other, they had to remove their luggage, then their coats, shoes, and overgarments and also underwear … Once undressed, they were led into the ravine which was about 150 meters long and 30 meters wide and a good 15 meters deep … When they reached the bottom of the ravine they were seized by members of the Schutzpolizei and made to lie down on top of Jews who had already been shot … The corpses were literally in layers. A police marksman came along and shot each Jew in the neck with a submachine gun … I saw these marksmen stand on layers of corpses and shoot one after the other … The marksman would walk across the bodies of the executed Jews to the next Jew, who had meanwhile lain down, and shoot him. 
In August 1941 Himmler travelled to Minsk where he personally witnessed 100 Jews being shot in a ditch outside the town, an event described by SS-Obergruppenführer Karl Wolff in his diary. Minsk (Мінск mʲinsk Минск mʲinsk is the Capital and largest city in Belarus, situated on the Svislach and Niamiha rivers Karl Friedrich Otto Wolff ( May 13, 1900 &ndash July 17, 1984) was a high-ranking member of the Nazi SS. "Himmler's face was green. He took out his handkerchief and wiped his cheek where a piece of brain had squirted up on to it. Then he vomited. " After recovering his composure, he lectured the SS men on the need to follow the "highest moral law of the Party" in carrying out their tasks.
In December 1941, a few cases of typhus broke out in the Bogdanovka concentration camp in Transnistria, where over 50,000 Jews were held. Typhus is any of several similar diseases caused by Louse -borne bacteria Bogdanovka was an Concentration camp for Jews that was established by the Romanian authorities during World War II as part of the Holocaust Transnistria, during World War II, was a region of the USSR, occupied by Romania, during the maximum eastward expansion of the Axis Powers  A decision was made by the German adviser to the Romanian administration of the district and the Romanian District Commissioner to murder all the inmates. The Aktion began on December 21, and was carried out by Romanian soldiers and gendarmes, Ukrainian police and civilians from Golta, and local ethnic Germans under the commander of the Ukrainian regular police, Kazachievici. Thousands of disabled and ill inmates were forced into two locked stables, which were doused with kerosene and set ablaze, burning alive all those inside. Other inmates were led in groups to a ravine in a nearby forest and shot in the neck. The remaining Jews dug pits with their bare hands in the bitter cold, and packed them with frozen corpses. Thousands of Jews froze to death. A break was made for Christmas, but the killing resumed on December 28. By December 31, over 40,000 Jews had been killed. 
By the end of 1941, however, the Einsatzgruppen had killed only 15 percent of the Jews in the occupied Soviet territories, and it was apparent that these methods could not be used to kill all the Jews of Europe. Even before the invasion of the Soviet Union, experiments with killing Jews in the back of vans using gas from the van's exhaust had been carried out, and when this proved too slow, more lethal gasses were tried. For large-scale killing by gas, however, fixed sites would be needed, and it was decided—probably by Heydrich and Eichmann—that the Jews should be brought to camps specifically built for the purpose.
In his Nuremberg testimony on April 15, 1946, Rudolf Höß, the commandant of Auschwitz, testified that Heinrich Himmler personally ordered him to prepare Auschwitz to carry out the 'final solution':
In the summer of 1941 I was summoned to Berlin to Reichsfuehrer SS Himmler to receive personal orders. Rudolf Franz Ferdinand Höß (in English commonly Hoess or Höss; November 25 1900 - April 16 1947 was an SS- Obersturmbannführer and He told me something to the effect—I do not remember the exact words—that the Fuehrer had given the order for a final solution of the Jewish question. We, the SS, must carry out that order. If it is not carried out now then the Jews will later on destroy the German people. He had chosen Auschwitz on account of its easy access by rail and also because the extensive site offered space for measures ensuring isolation. 
Laurence Rees writes that Höß may have misremembered the year this was said to him. Laurence Rees (born 1957) is Creative Director of History Programs for the BBC, a documentary Filmmaker, and the Author of five books Himmler did indeed visit Höß in the summer of 1941, but there is no evidence that the Final Solution had been planned at this stage. Rees writes that the meeting predates the killings of Jewish men by the Einsatzgruppen in the East and the expansion of the killings in July 1941. It also predates the Wannsee Conference. The Wannsee Conference was a Meeting of senior officials of the Nazi German regime held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on Rees speculates that the conversation with Himmler was most likely in the summer of 1942.  The first gassings, using an industrial gas derived from prussic acid and known by the brand name Zyklon-B, were carried out at Auschwitz in September 1941. Hydrogen cyanide is a Chemical compound with Chemical formula HCN Zyklon B (tsykloːn ˈbeː also spelled Cyclon B or 
- Further information: Operation Reinhard, Wannsee Conference. Operation Reinhard ( Aktion Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhard in German) was the code name given to the Nazi plan to murder Polish Jews The Wannsee Conference was a Meeting of senior officials of the Nazi German regime held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on
- Those present at the conference: Josef Bühler, Adolf Eichmann, Roland Freisler, Reinhard Heydrich, Otto Hofmann, Gerhard Klopfer, Friedrich Wilhelm Kritzinger, Rudolf Lange, Georg Leibbrandt, Martin Luther, Heinrich Müller, Erich Neumann, Karl Eberhard Schöngarth, Wilhelm Stuckart
By the end of 1941, Himmler and Heydrich were becoming increasingly impatient with the progress of the Final Solution. Dr Josef Bühler (also referred to as Joseph Buehler ( February 16 1904 &ndash August 22, 1948) was state secretary and deputy governor to Early life In contrast to most of the Nazi leadership not much beyond basic details is known about Freisler Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich ( 7 March 1904 &ndash 4 June 1942) was an SS - Obergruppenführer, chief Otto Hofmann ( March 16 1896 &ndash December 31 1982) was an Austrian SS - Gruppenführer Gerhard Klopfer ( February 18 1905 &ndash January 29 1987) was an official of the Nazi Party and assistant to Martin Bormann Dr Friedrich Wilhelm Kritzinger ( April 14, 1890 &ndash April 25 1947) was a Nazi politician Rudolf Lange ( 18 April 1910 &ndash 23 February 1945) was a prominent Nazi official Georg Leibbrandt ( September 5, 1899 - June 16, 1982) was a scholar and politician in the Nazi Party. For other people named Martin Luther see Martin Luther (disambiguation. Heinrich Müller can refer to Heinrich Müller (Gestapo Heinrich Müller (physiologist Erich Neumann (1892 - 1948 was a Nazi Politician. He was born in Forst into a Protestant family Dr Karl Eberhard Schöngarth ( April 22, 1903 &ndash May 16, 1946) was a German Nazi associated with The Holocaust Dr Wilhelm Stuckart ( November 16, 1902 &ndash November 15, 1953) was a Nazi Party Lawyer and official a state secretary Their main opponent was Göring, who had succeeded in exempting Jewish industrial workers from the orders to deport all Jews to the General Government and who had allied himself with the Army commanders who were opposing the extermination of the Jews out of mixture of economic calculation, distaste for the SS and (in some cases) humanitarian sentiment. Although Göring's power had declined since the defeat of his Luftwaffe in the Battle of Britain, he still had privileged access to Hitler and had great obstructive power. ( German 'luftvafe is a generic German term for an Air force. The Battle of Britain (German ''Luftschlacht um England'' is the name given to the sustained strategic effort by the German Luftwaffe during the summer and
Heydrich therefore convened a conference—the Wannsee Conference—on January 20, 1942 at a villa, Am Großen Wannsee No. The Wannsee Conference was a Meeting of senior officials of the Nazi German regime held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 56-58, in the suburbs of Berlin to finalize a plan for the extermination of the Jews.  The plan became known (after Reinhard Heydrich) as Aktion Reinhard (Operation Reinhard). Operation Reinhard ( Aktion Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhard in German) was the code name given to the Nazi plan to murder Polish Jews Present were Heydrich, Eichmann, Heinrich Müller (head of the Gestapo), and representatives of the Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories, the Ministry for the Interior, the Four Year Plan Office, the Ministry of Justice, the General Government in Poland (where over two million Jews still lived), the Foreign Office, the Race and Resettlement Office, and the Nazi Party, and the office responsible for distributing Jewish property. Heinrich Müller can refer to Heinrich Müller (Gestapo Heinrich Müller (physiologist  Also present was SS-Sturmbannführer Rudolf Lange, the SD commander in Riga, who had recently carried out the liquidation of the Riga ghetto. Rudolf Lange ( 18 April 1910 &ndash 23 February 1945) was a prominent Nazi official Riga (Rīga riːga) the Capital of Latvia, is situated on the Baltic Sea coast on the mouth of the river Daugava.  He seems to have been there to advise the officials on the practicalities of killing people on an industrial scale.
Michael Berenbaum writes that the 15 men seated at the table were considered the best and the brightest; more than half of them held doctorates from German universities. Michael Berenbaum (born 1945 is an American scholar professor writer and film-maker who specializes in the study of the memorialization of the Holocaust. Butlers served brandy as they talked. 
The men were presented with a plan for killing all the Jews in Europe, including 330,000 Jews in England and 4,000 in Ireland, although the minutes taken by Eichmann refer to this only through euphemisms, such as " … emigration has now been replaced by evacuation to the East. This operation should be regarded only as a provisional option, though in view of the coming final solution of the Jewish question it is already supplying practical experience of vital importance. "
The officials were told there were 2. 3 million Jews in the General Government, 850,000 in Hungary, 1. 1 million in the other occupied countries, and up to 5 million in the Soviet Union (although only 3 million of these were in areas under German occupation) —a total of about 6. 5 million. These would all be transported by train to extermination camps (Vernichtungslager) in Poland, where those unfit for work would be gassed at once. In some camps, such as Auschwitz, those fit for work would be kept alive for a while, but eventually all would be killed. Göring's representative, Dr. Erich Neumann, gained a limited exemption for some classes of industrial workers. Erich Neumann (1892 - 1948 was a Nazi Politician. He was born in Forst into a Protestant family
|Camp name||Killed||Ref. Yad Vashem (יד ושם also spelled Yad VaShem; "Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority" is Israel 's official memorial to the Jewish|
During 1942, in addition to Auschwitz, five other camps were designated as extermination camps (Vernichtungslager) for the carrying out of the Reinhard plan. "Auschwitz" redirects here For the town see Oświęcim Auschwitz-Birkenau () was the largest of Nazi Germany Belzec (Bełżec approximate Polish pronunciation bew-zhets) was the first of the Nazi German Extermination camps created for implementing Chełmno extermination camp ( German name Kulmhof) was an Extermination camp of Nazi Germany that was situated 70 kilometres (43  Majdanek was a Nazi Concentration camp on the outskirts of Lublin, Poland. Maly Trascianiec extermination camp (see alternate spellings) a small village on the outskirts of Minsk, Belarus, was the site of a Nazi Sobibór is a Village in the administrative district of Gmina Włodawa, within Włodawa County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland Treblinka II was a German Extermination camp in occupied Poland during World War II. Operation Reinhard ( Aktion Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhard in German) was the code name given to the Nazi plan to murder Polish Jews  Two of these, at Chelmno (also known as Kulmhof) and Majdanek were already functioning as labor camps: these now had extermination facilities added to them. Chełmno extermination camp ( German name Kulmhof) was an Extermination camp of Nazi Germany that was situated 70 kilometres (43  Majdanek was a Nazi Concentration camp on the outskirts of Lublin, Poland. Three new camps were built for the sole purpose of killing large numbers of Jews as quickly as possible, at Belzec, Sobibór and Treblinka. Belzec (Bełżec approximate Polish pronunciation bew-zhets) was the first of the Nazi German Extermination camps created for implementing Sobibór is a Village in the administrative district of Gmina Włodawa, within Włodawa County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland Treblinka II was a German Extermination camp in occupied Poland during World War II. A seventh camp, at Maly Trostinets in Belarus, was also used for this purpose. Maly Trascianiec extermination camp (see alternate spellings) a small village on the outskirts of Minsk, Belarus, was the site of a Nazi Jasenovac was an extermination camp where mostly ethnic Serbs were killed. Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia,
Extermination camps are frequently confused with concentration camps such as Dachau and Belsen, which were mostly located in Germany and intended as places of incarceration and forced labor for a variety of enemies of the Nazi regime (such as Communists and gays). Dachau was a Nazi German Concentration camp, and the first one opened in Germany located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions Factory near the Belsen redirects here For other meanings see Belsen (disambiguation. They should also be distinguished from slave labor camps, which were set up in all German-occupied countries to exploit the labor of prisoners of various kinds, including prisoners of war. In all Nazi camps there were very high death rates as a result of starvation, disease and exhaustion, but only the extermination camps were designed specifically for mass killing.
|“||There was a place called the ramp where the trains with the Jews were coming in. They were coming in day and night, and sometimes one per day and sometimes five per day … Constantly, people from the heart of Europe were disappearing, and they were arriving to the same place with the same ignorance of the fate of the previous transport. And the people in this mass … I knew that within a couple of hours … ninety percent would be gassed.||”|
—Rudolf Vrba, who worked on the Judenrampe in Auschwitz from August 18, 1942 to June 7, 1943. Rudolf 'Rudi' Vrba, born Walter Rosenberg (September 11 1924 &ndash March 27 2006 was a professor of pharmacology at the University of British Columbia. "Auschwitz" redirects here For the town see Oświęcim Auschwitz-Birkenau () was the largest of Nazi Germany 
The extermination camps were run by SS officers, but most of the guards were Ukrainian or Baltic auxiliaries. Regular German soldiers were kept well away.
At the extermination camps with gas chambers all the prisoners arrived by train. Sometimes entire trainloads were sent straight to the gas chambers, but usually the camp doctor on duty subjected individuals to selections, where a small percentage were deemed fit to work in the slave labor camps; the majority were taken directly from the platforms to a reception area where all their clothes and other possessions were seized by the Nazis to help fund the war. They were then herded naked into the gas chambers. Usually they were told these were showers or delousing chambers, and there were signs outside saying "baths" and "sauna. " They were sometimes given a small piece of soap and a towel so as to avoid panic, and were told to remember where they had put their belongings for the same reason. When they asked for water because they were thirsty after the long journey in the cattle trains, they were told to hurry up, because coffee was waiting for them in the camp, and it was getting cold. 
According to Rudolf Höß, commandant of Auschwitz, bunker 1 held 800 people, and bunker 2 held 1,200. Rudolf Franz Ferdinand Höß (in English commonly Hoess or Höss; November 25 1900 - April 16 1947 was an SS- Obersturmbannführer and  Once the chamber was full, the doors were screwed shut and solid pellets of Zyklon-B were dropped into the chambers through vents in the side walls, releasing a toxic gas. Zyklon B (tsykloːn ˈbeː also spelled Cyclon B or Those inside died within 20 minutes; the speed of death depended on how close the inmate was standing to a gas vent, according to Höß, who estimated that about one third of the victims died immediately.  Joann Kremer, an SS doctor who oversaw the gassings, testified that: "Shouting and screaming of the victims could be heard through the opening and it was clear that they fought for their lives. " When they were removed, if the chamber had been very congested, as they often were, the victims were found half-squatting, their skin colored pink with red and green spots, some foaming at the mouth or bleeding from the ears. 
The gas was then pumped out, the bodies were removed (which would take up to four hours), gold fillings in their teeth were extracted with pliers by dentist prisoners, and women's hair was cut.  The floor of the gas chamber was cleaned, and the walls whitewashed.  The work was done by the Sonderkommando prisoners, Jews who hoped to buy themselves a few extra months of life. Sonderkommandos were work units of Nazi Death camp prisoners forced to aid the killing process during The Holocaust. In crematoria 1 and 2, the Sonderkommando lived in an attic above the crematoria; in crematoria 3 and 4, they lived inside the gas chambers.  When the Sonderkommando had finished with the bodies, the SS conducted spot checks to make sure all the gold had been removed from the victims' mouths. If a check revealed that gold had been missed, the Sonderkommando prisoner responsible was thrown into the furnace alive as punishment. 
At first, the bodies were buried in deep pits and covered with lime, but between September and November 1942, on the orders of Himmler, they were dug up and burned. In the spring of 1943, new gas chambers and crematoria were built to accommodate the numbers. 
Another improvement we made over Treblinka was that we built our gas chambers to accommodate 2,000 people at one time, whereas at Treblinka their 10 gas chambers only accommodated 200 people each. The way we selected our victims was as follows: we had two SS doctors on duty at Auschwitz to examine the incoming transports of prisoners. The prisoners would be marched by one of the doctors who would make spot decisions as they walked by. Those who were fit for work were sent into the Camp. Others were sent immediately to the extermination plants. Children of tender years were invariably exterminated, since by reason of their youth they were unable to work. Still another improvement we made over Treblinka was that at Treblinka the victims almost always knew that they were to be exterminated and at Auschwitz we endeavored to fool the victims into thinking that they were to go through a delousing process. Of course, frequently they realized our true intentions and we sometimes had riots and difficulties due to that fact. Very frequently women would hide their children under the clothes but of course when we found them we would send the children in to be exterminated. We were required to carry out these exterminations in secrecy but of course the foul and nauseating stench from the continuous burning of bodies permeated the entire area and all of the people living in the surrounding communities knew that exterminations were going on at Auschwitz.
- Further information: Jewish resistance during the Holocaust. The Jewish resistance during The Holocaust was the resistance of the Jewish people against Nazi Germany leading up to and through World
- For uprisings: Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Białystok Ghetto Uprising, Marcinkance Ghetto Uprising, Sobibór extermination camp, Żydowski Związek Walki, Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa. The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (German "Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto", Polish "Powstanie w getcie warszawskim") was the Jewish Białystok Ghetto Uprising was an insurrection in Poland 's Białystok Ghetto against Germany during World War II. Marcinkonys Ghetto escape was a partially successful escape from Marcinkonys Ghetto during Nazi occupation of Lithuania in World War II Żydowski Związek Wojskowy ( ŻZW, Polish for Jewish Military Union) was an underground resistance organization operating during The Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa ( ŻOB, Polish for the Jewish Combat Organization; called in Yiddish יידישע קאמף ארגאניזאציע
- For Jewish partisans, volunteers, and escapees: Yitzhak Arad, Bielski partisans, Masha Bruskina, Eugenio Calò, Jewish Brigade, Jewish partisans, Abba Kovner, Dov Lopatyn, Moše Pijade, Haviva Reik, Special Interrogation Group, Hannah Szenes, Rudolf Vrba, Alfréd Wetzler, Shalom Yoran, Simcha Zorin. Yitzhak Arad is a Lithuanian born Israeli Historian and retired IDF brigadier general The Bielski partisans (the official name was changed several times was the largest group of the Jewish partisans in the course of the World War II who fought against Masha Bruskina was a 17-year-old Soviet Jewish partisan who was captured by the Germans along with two others for killing a German Eugenio Calò (1905 - 1943 is a National hero of Italy. Born in Pisa to an old Jewish family he was posthumously awarded the Gold Medal For other Jewish regiments see Jewish legion (disambiguation. Jewish partisans were fighters in Irregular military groups participating in the Jewish resistance movement against Nazi Germany and its collaborators Abba Kovner (1918–1987 was a Lithuanian Jewish Hebrew Poet, Writer, and partisan leader Dov Lopatyn was the head of the Judenrat in Łachwa, Poland (now Lakhva Belarus) in 1941-1942 Moša Pijade - Čiča Janko ( Serbian Cyrillic: Мoшa Пиjaдe - Чича Јанко (born Belgrade, January 4, 1890, died Paris Haviva Reik ( Chaviva Reich, Havivah Reich) (1914–1944 was one of thirty-two (or thirty-three Palestinian Jewish parachutists sent by the Jewish The Special Interrogation Group (SIG (some sources interpret this Acronym as Special Identification Group or Special Intelligence Group) was a British Hannah Szenes (or Chana Senesh) (חנה סנש ( July 17, 1921 &ndash November 7, 1944) was a Hungarian Jew Rudolf 'Rudi' Vrba, born Walter Rosenberg (September 11 1924 &ndash March 27 2006 was a professor of pharmacology at the University of British Columbia. Alfréd Wetzler ( May 10, 1918 &ndash1988 who later wrote under the alias Jozef Lánik, was a Slovak Jew, and one of a very small Shalom Yoran (born June 29, 1925) is a survivor of The Holocaust and a former Jewish partisan.
- For how stories were preserved in the Warsaw Ghetto: Emanuel Ringelblum, Oyneg Shabbos (group). Emanuel Ringelblum ( November 21, 1900 – March 7, 1944) was a Polish-Jewish historian politician and social worker known Oyneg Shabbos ( Yiddish pronunciation in Hebrew: Oneg Shabbat, עונג שבת) was the code name of a group led by Jewish historian
Yehuda Bauer and other historians argue that resistance consisted not only of physical opposition, but of any activity that gave the Jews dignity and humanity in humiliating and inhumane conditions. Yehuda Bauer (born 1926 is a historian and scholar of the Holocaust. 
In every ghetto, in every deportation train, in every labor camp, even in the death camps, the will to resist was strong, and took many forms. Fighting with the few weapons that would be found, individual acts of defiance and protest, the courage of obtaining food and water under the threat of death, the superiority of refusing to allow the Germans their final wish to gloat over panic and despair.
Even passivity was a form of resistance. To die with dignity was a form of resistance. To resist the demoralizing, brutalizing force of evil, to refuse to be reduced to the level of animals, to live through the torment, to outlive the tormentors, these too were acts of resistance. Merely to give a witness of these events in testimony was, in the end, a contribution to victory. Simply to survive was a victory of the human spirit. "
There are many examples of Jewish resistance, most notably the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of January 1943, when thousands of poorly armed Jewish fighters held the SS at bay for four weeks, and killed several hundred Germans before being crushed by overwhelmingly superior forces. The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (German "Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto", Polish "Powstanie w getcie warszawskim") was the Jewish This was followed by the uprising in the Treblinka extermination camp in May 1943, when about 200 inmates escaped from the camp after overpowering the guards. Two weeks later, there was an uprising in the Bialystok ghetto. Białystok Lublin Voivodeship Białystok (also known by alternative names) is the largest City in northeastern Poland. In September, there was a short-lived uprising in the Vilnius ghetto. In October, 600 Jewish and Russian prisoners attempted an escape at the Sobibór death camp. About 60 survived and joined the Soviet partisans. On October 7, 1944, the Jewish Sonderkommandos at Auschwitz staged an uprising. Events 3761 BC - The epoch (origin of the modern Hebrew calendar ( Proleptic Julian calendar) Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Sonderkommandos were work units of Nazi Death camp prisoners forced to aid the killing process during The Holocaust. Female prisoners had smuggled in explosives from a weapons factory, and Crematorium IV was partly destroyed by an explosion. The prisoners then attempted a mass escape, but all 250 were killed soon after.
An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 Jewish partisans (see the list at the top of this section) actively fought the Nazis and their collaborators in Eastern Europe. Jewish partisans were fighters in Irregular military groups participating in the Jewish resistance movement against Nazi Germany and its collaborators  The Jewish Brigade, a unit of 5,000 volunteers from the British Mandate of Palestine fought in the British Army. For other Jewish regiments see Jewish legion (disambiguation. The Palestine Mandate, was a set of protocols or articles that formed a multilateral legal and administrative agreement German-speaking volunteers from the Special Interrogation Group performed commando and sabotage operations against the Nazis behind front lines in the Western Desert Campaign. The Special Interrogation Group (SIG (some sources interpret this Acronym as Special Identification Group or Special Intelligence Group) was a British The Western Desert Campaign, also known as the Desert War was the initial stage of the North African Campaign of The Second World War.
In Poland and the occupied Soviet lands, thousands of Jews fled into the swamps and forests and joined the partisans, although the partisan movements did not always welcome them. In Lithuania and Belarus, an area with a heavy concentration of Jews, and also an area which suited partisan operations, Jewish partisan groups saved thousands of Jews from extermination. No such opportunities existed for the Jewish populations of cities such as Amsterdam or Budapest. Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political, Joining the partisans was an option only for the young and the fit who were willing to leave their families. Many Jewish families preferred to die together rather than be separated.
For the great majority of Jews resistance could take only the passive forms of delay, evasion, negotiation, bargaining and, where possible, bribery of German officials. The Nazis encouraged this by forcing the Jewish communities to police themselves, through bodies such as the Reich Association of Jews (Reichsvereinigung der Juden) in Germany and the Jewish Councils (Judenrate) in the urban ghettos in occupied Poland. Judenräte (singular Judenrat; German for "Jewish council" were administrative bodies that the Germans required Jews to form in the They held out the promise of concessions in exchange for each surrender, enmeshing the Jewish leadership so deeply in well-intentioned compromise that a decision to stand and fight was never possible. Holocaust survivor Alexander Kimel wrote: "The youth in the Ghettos dreamed about fighting. I believe that although there were many factors that inhibited our responses, the most important factors were isolation and historical conditioning to accepting martyrdom. "
The historical conditioning of the Jewish communities of Europe to accept persecution and avert disaster through compromise and negotiation was the most important factor in the failure to resist until the very end The Warsaw Ghetto uprising took place only when the Jewish population had been reduced from 500,000 to 100,000, and it was obvious that no further compromise was possible. Paul Johnson writes: "The Jews had been persecuted for a millennium and a half and had learned from long experience that resistance cost lives rather than saved them. Paul Johnson (born Paul Bede Johnson on 2 November 1928 in Manchester, England) is a British Roman Catholic Their history, their theology, their folklore, their social structure, even their vocabulary trained them to negotiate, to pay, to plead, to protest, not to fight. "
The Jewish communities were also systematically deceived about German intentions, and were cut off from most sources of news from the outside world. The Germans told the Jews that they were being deported to work camps — euphemistically calling it "resettlement in the East" — and maintained this illusion through elaborate deceptions all the way to the gas chamber doors to avoid uprisings. As photographs testify, Jews disembarked at the railway stations at Auschwitz and other extermination camps carrying sacks and suitcases, clearly having no idea of the fate that awaited them. Rumours of the reality of the extermination camps filtered back only slowly to the ghettos, and were usually not believed, just as they were not believed when couriers such as Jan Karski, the Polish resistance fighter, conveyed them to the western Allies. Jan Karski ( 24 June, 1914 &ndash 13 July, 2000) was a Polish World War II resistance fighter and 
Heydrich was assassinated in Prague in June 1942. Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic. He was succeeded as head of the RSHA by Ernst Kaltenbrunner. Ernst Kaltenbrunner (4 October 1903 &ndash 16 October 1946 was a senior Nazi official during World War II. Kaltenbrunner and Eichmann, under Himmler's close supervision, oversaw the climax of the Final Solution. During 1943 and 1944, the extermination camps worked at a furious rate to kill the hundreds of thousands of people shipped to them by rail from almost every country within the German sphere of influence. By the spring of 1944, up to 8,000 people were being gassed every day at Auschwitz. "Auschwitz" redirects here For the town see Oświęcim Auschwitz-Birkenau () was the largest of Nazi Germany 
Despite the high productivity of the war industries based in the Jewish ghettos in the General Government, during 1943 they were liquidated, and their populations shipped to the camps for extermination. The largest of these operations, the deportation of 100,000 people from the Warsaw Ghetto in early 1943, provoked the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, which was suppressed with great brutality. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish Ghettos located in the territory of General Government during World War II, established by The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (German "Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto", Polish "Powstanie w getcie warszawskim") was the Jewish At the same time, rail shipments arrived regularly from western and southern Europe. Few Jews were shipped from the occupied Soviet territories to the camps: the killing of Jews in this zone was left in the hands of the SS, aided by locally-recruited auxiliaries. In any case, by the end of 1943 the Germans had been driven from most Soviet territory.
Shipments of Jews to the camps had priority on the German railways, and continued even in the face of the increasingly dire military situation after the Battle of Stalingrad at the end of 1942 and the escalating Allied air attacks on German industry and transport. The Battle of Stalingrad is a commonly used name in English sources for several large operations by Germany and its allies and Soviet forces conducted with the Army leaders and economic managers complained at this diversion of resources and at the killing of irreplaceable skilled Jewish workers. By 1944, moreover, it was evident to most Germans not blinded by Nazi fanaticism that Germany was losing the war. Many senior officials began to fear the retribution that might await Germany and them personally for the crimes being committed in their name. But the power of Himmler and the SS within the German Reich was too great to resist, and Himmler could always evoke Hitler's authority for his demands.
In October 1943, Himmler gave a speech to senior Nazi Party officials gathered in Posen (Poznan in western Poland). Poznań Lublin Voivodeship This article is about the city in Poland Poznań Lublin Voivodeship This article is about the city in Poland Here he came closer than ever before to stating explicitly that he was intent on exterminating the Jews of Europe:
I may here in this closest of circles allude to a question which you, my party comrades, have all taken for granted, but which has become for me the most difficult question of my life, the Jewish question … I ask of you that what I say in this circle you really only hear and never speak of … We come to the question: how is it with the women and children? I have resolved even here on a completely clear solution. I do not consider myself justified in eradicating the men—so to speak killing them or ordering them to be killed—and allowing the avengers in the shape of the children to grow up … The difficult decision had to be taken, to cause this people to disappear from the earth.
The audience for this speech included Admiral Karl Dönitz and Armaments Minister Albert Speer, both of whom successfully claimed at the Nuremberg trials that they had had no knowledge of the Final Solution. Karl Dönitz (ˈdøːnɪts) (16 September 1891 &ndash 24 December 1980 was a German naval Commander who served Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer, commonly known as Albert Speer ( 19 March 1905 - 1 September 1981 was an Architect, author and for part of World The Nuremberg Trials were a series of trials most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political military and economic leadership of Nazi Germany after The text of this speech was not known at the time of their trials.
The scale of extermination slackened somewhat at the beginning of 1944 once the ghettos in occupied Poland were emptied, but in March 1944, Hitler ordered the military occupation of Hungary, and Eichmann was dispatched to Budapest to supervise the deportation of Hungary's 800,000 Jews. Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political, More than half of them were shipped to Auschwitz in the course of the year. The commandant, Rudolf Höß, said at his trial that he killed 400,000 Hungarian Jews in three months. This operation met strong opposition within the Nazi hierarchy, and there were some suggestions that Hitler should offer the Allies a deal under which the Hungarian Jews would be spared in exchange for a favorable peace settlement. There were unofficial negotiations in Istanbul between Himmler's agents, British agents, and representatives of Jewish organizations, and at one point an attempt by Eichmann to exchange one million Jews for 10,000 trucks—the so-called "blood for goods" proposal—but there was no real possibility of such a deal being struck (see Joel Brand and Rudolf Kastner). Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey Joel Brand (April 25 1906 &ndash July 13 1964 was a Hungarian Jew who played a prominent role in trying to save the Hungarian Jewish community Rudolf Rezső Israel Kastner (or Kasztner (1906 – March 12, 1957) was the de facto head of a small Jewish organization in Budapest
Escapes from the camps were few, but not unknown. The few Auschwitz escapes that succeeded were made possible by the Polish underground inside the camp and local people outside.  In 1940, the Auschwitz commandant reported that "the local population is fanatically Polish and … prepared to take any action against the hated SS camp personnel. Every prisoner who managed to escape can count on help the moment he reaches the wall of a first Polish farmstead. "
In February 1942, an escaped inmate from the Chelmno extermination camp, Jacob Grojanowski, reached the Warsaw Ghetto, where he gave detailed information about the Chelmno camp to the Oneg Shabbat group. Chełmno extermination camp ( German name Kulmhof) was an Extermination camp of Nazi Germany that was situated 70 kilometres (43  The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish Ghettos located in the territory of General Government during World War II, established by Oyneg Shabbos ( Yiddish pronunciation in Hebrew: Oneg Shabbat, עונג שבת) was the code name of a group led by Jewish historian His report, which became known as the Grojanowski Report, was smuggled out of the ghetto through the channels of the Polish underground to the Delegatura, and reached London by June 1942. Grojanowski Report was written by Szlamek Bajler under the pseudonym of Jacob Grojanowski who escaped from the Chelmno Extermination camp and described in details It is unclear what was done with the report at that point.  In the meantime, by the 1st of Febuary, the United States Office of War Information had decided not to release information about the extermination of the Jews because it was felt that it would mislead the public into thinking the war was simply a Jewish problem. The United States Office of War Information (OWI was a US government agency created during World War II to consolidate government information services 
In 1943 the news about gassing Jews was at least broadcasted from London to The Netherlands. It was also published in illegal newspapers of Dutch resistance (for example in Het Parool of September 27th 1943). Het Parool is an Amsterdam -based daily newspaper It was founded as a resistance paper during World War II (the name means "The Password However, the news was so unbelievable that many assumed it was merely war propaganda. The publications were halted because they were counter-productive for the Dutch resistance. Nevertheless, many Jews were warned that they would be murdered, but as escape was impossible for most of them, they preferred to believe that the warnings were false. 
In April 1943, Witold Pilecki, a member of the Polish underground, escaped from Auschwitz with information that became the basis of a two-part report in August 1943 that was sent to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in London. Witold Pilecki (May 13 1901 &ndash May 25 1948 ˈvitɔld piˈletski Codenames Roman Jezierski Tomasz Serafiński Druh Witold) was a Soldier The report included details about the gas chambers, about "selection," and about the sterilization experiments. It stated that there were three crematoria in Birkenau able to burn 10,000 people daily, and that 30,000 people had been gassed in one day. The author wrote: "History knows no parallel of such destruction of human life. " Raul Hilberg writes that the report was filed away with a note that there was no indication as to the reliability of the source. Raul Hilberg ( June 2, 1926 - August 4, 2007) was an Austrian -born American political scientist and Historian 
Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler, Jewish inmates, escaped from Auschwitz in April 1944, eventually reaching Slovakia. Rudolf 'Rudi' Vrba, born Walter Rosenberg (September 11 1924 &ndash March 27 2006 was a professor of pharmacology at the University of British Columbia. Alfréd Wetzler ( May 10, 1918 &ndash1988 who later wrote under the alias Jozef Lánik, was a Slovak Jew, and one of a very small Slovakia (long form Slovak Republic; Slovak:, long form, is a Landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million The 32-page document they dictated to Jewish officials about the mass murder at Auschwitz became known as the Vrba-Wetzler report. The Vrba-Wetzler report, also known as the Vrba-Wetzler statement, the Auschwitz Protocols, and the Auschwitz notebook, is a 32-page document about the Vrba had a photographic memory and had worked on the Judenrampe, where Jews disembarked from the trains to be "selected" either for the gas chamber or slave labor. The level of detail with which he described the transports allowed Slovakian officials to compare his account with their own deportation records, and the corroboration convinced the Allies to take the report seriously. 
Two other Auschwitz inmates, Arnost Rosin and Czesław Mordowicz escaped on May 27, 1944, arriving in Slovakia on June 6, the day of the Normandy landing (D-Day). Events 927 - Simeon the Great, Tsar of Bulgaria, dies 1120 - Richard III of Capua is anointed Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. D-Day may also refer to Decimal Day in the United Kingdom. D-Day is a term often used in Military parlance to denote Hearing about Normandy, they believed the war was over and got drunk to celebrate, using dollars they'd smuggled out of the camp. They were arrested for violating currency laws, and spent eight days in prison, before the Judenrat paid their fines. Judenräte (singular Judenrat; German for "Jewish council" were administrative bodies that the Germans required Jews to form in the The additional information they offered the Judenrat was added to Vrba and Wetzler's report and became known as the Auschwitz Protocols. They reported that, between May 15 and May 27, 1944, 100,000 Hungarian Jews had arrived at Birkenau, and had been killed at an unprecedented rate, with human fat being used to accelerate the burning. Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the Events 927 - Simeon the Great, Tsar of Bulgaria, dies 1120 - Richard III of Capua is anointed Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
The BBC and The New York Times published material from the Vrba-Wetzler report on June 15 and June 20, 1944. Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The subsequent pressure from world leaders persuaded Miklos Horthy to bring the mass deportations of Jews from Hungary to Auschwitz to a halt on July 9, saving up to 200,000 Jews from the extermination camps. Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya ( Vitéz nagybányai Horthy Miklós vitez nɒɟbaɲɒi horti mikloʃ German Nikolaus von Horthy und Nagybánya 
By mid 1944, the Final Solution had largely run its course. The death marches refer to the forcible movement between Autumn 1944 and late April 1945 by Nazi Germany of thousands of prisoners mostly Jews from German Concentration Those Jewish communities within easy reach of the Nazi regime had been largely exterminated, in proportions ranging from more than 90 percent in Poland to about 25 percent in France. In May, Himmler claimed in a speech that "The Jewish question in Germany and the occupied countries has been solved. " During 1944, in any case, the task became steadily more difficult. German armies were evicted from the Soviet Union, the Balkans and Italy, and Germany's allies defected or were defeated. In June, the western Allies landed in France. Allied air attacks and the operations of partisans made rail transport increasingly difficult, and the objections of the military to the diversion of rail transport for carrying Jews to Poland more urgent and harder to ignore.
At this time, as the Soviet armed forces approached, the camps in eastern Poland were closed down, any surviving inmates being shipped west to camps closer to Germany, first to Auschwitz and later to Gross Rosen in Silesia. KL Gross-Rosen (Groß-Rosen was a German Concentration camp, located in Gross-Rosen, Lower Silesia (now Rogoźnica, Poland Etymology One theory claims that the name Silesia is derived from the Silingi, who were most likely a Vandalic (East Germanic people Auschwitz itself was closed as the Soviets advanced through Poland. The last 13 prisoners, all women, were killed in Auschwitz II on November 25, 1944; records show they were "unmittelbar getötet" ("killed"), leaving open whether they were gassed or otherwise disposed of. Events 1034 - Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots dies Donnchad, the Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
Despite the desperate military situation, great efforts were made to conceal evidence of what had happened in the camps. The gas chambers were dismantled, the crematoria dynamited, mass graves dug up and the corpses cremated, and Polish farmers were induced to plant crops on the sites to give the impression that they had never existed. In October 1944, Himmler, who is believed to have been negotiating a secret deal with the Allies behind Hitler's back, ordered an end to the Final Solution. But the hatred of the Jews in the ranks of the SS was so strong that Himmler's order was generally ignored. Local commanders continued to kill Jews, and to shuttle them from camp to camp by forced "death marches" until the last weeks of the war. 
Already sick after months or years of violence and starvation, prisoners were forced to march for tens of miles in the snow to train stations; then transported for days at a time without food or shelter in freight trains with open carriages; and forced to march again at the other end to the new camp. Those who lagged behind or fell were shot. Around 100,000 Jews died during these marches. 
The largest and best-known of the death marches took place in January 1945, when the Soviet army advanced on Poland. Nine days before the Soviets arrived at Auschwitz, the SS marched 60,000 prisoners out of the camp toward Wodzislaw, 56 km (35 miles) away, where they were put on freight trains to other camps. Around 15,000 died on the way. Elie Wiesel and his father, Shlomo, were among the marchers:
An icy wind blew in violent gusts. Elie Wiesel (born Eliezer Wiesel on September 30 1928 in Sighetu Marmaţiei, Romania) is a Jewish writer professor political activist But we marched without faltering.
Pitch darkness. Every now and then, an explosion in the night. They had orders to fire on any who could not keep up. Their fingers on the triggers, they did not deprive themselves of this pleasure. If one of us had stopped for a second, a sharp shot finished off another filthy son of a bitch.
Near me, men were collapsing in the dirty snow. Shots. 
The first major camp, Majdanek, was discovered by the advancing Soviets on July 23, 1944. For the bombing campaign on Berlin by the RAF from November 1943 to March 1944 see Battle of Berlin (air. The generally accepted cause of the death of Adolf Hitler on Monday 30 April 1945 is Suicide by gunshot and Cyanide poisoning The Prague Strategic Offensive (Пражская стратегическая наступательная операция "Prague Strategic Offensive" was the last major Victory in Europe Day ( V-E Day or VE Day) was May 7 and May 8, 1945, the dates when the World War II Allies Majdanek was a Nazi Concentration camp on the outskirts of Lublin, Poland. Auschwitz was liberated, also by the Soviets, on January 27, 1945; Buchenwald by the Americans on April 11; Bergen-Belsen by the British on April 15; Dachau by the Americans on April 29; Ravensbrück by the Soviets on the same day; Mauthausen by the Americans on May 5; and Theresienstadt by the Soviets on May 8. "Auschwitz" redirects here For the town see Oświęcim Auschwitz-Birkenau () was the largest of Nazi Germany Buchenwald concentration camp (German Konzentrationslager or 'KZ' Buchenwald) was a Nazi concentration camp established on the Ettersberg (Etter Mountain near Dachau was a Nazi German Concentration camp, and the first one opened in Germany located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions Factory near the Mauthausen is a small Market town in Upper Austria, Austria. It is located at about 20 kilometers east of the city of Linz, and has a population For the Nazi concentration camp see Theresienstadt concentration camp.  Treblinka, Sobibor, and Belzec were never liberated, but were destroyed by the Nazis in 1943. Treblinka II was a German Extermination camp in occupied Poland during World War II. Belzec (Bełżec approximate Polish pronunciation bew-zhets) was the first of the Nazi German Extermination camps created for implementing Colonel William W. Quinn of the U. S. 7th Army said of Dachau: "There our troops found sights, sounds, and stenches horrible beyond belief, cruelties so enormous as to be incomprehensible to the normal mind. "
|“||We heard a loud voice repeating the same words in English and in German: "Hello, hello. You are free. We are British soldiers and have come to liberate you. " These words still resound in my ears.||”|
In most of the camps discovered by the Soviets, almost all the prisoners had already been removed, leaving only a few thousand alive—7,000 inmates were found in Auschwitz, including 180 children who had been experimented on by doctors.  Some 60,000 prisoners were discovered at Bergen-Belsen by the British 11th Armoured Division, 13,000 corpses lay unburied, and another 10,000 died from typhus or malnutrition over the following weeks. Typhus is any of several similar diseases caused by Louse -borne bacteria  The British forced the remaining SS guards to gather up the corpses and place them in mass graves. 
The BBC's Richard Dimbleby famously described the scenes that greeted him and the British Army at Belsen:
Here over an acre of ground lay dead and dying people. Richard Dimbleby CBE ( May 25, 1913 &ndash December 22, 1965) was an English Journalist and broadcaster You could not see which was which . . . The living lay with their heads against the corpses and around them moved the awful, ghostly procession of emaciated, aimless people, with nothing to do and with no hope of life, unable to move out of your way, unable to look at the terrible sights around them . . . Babies had been born here, tiny wizened things that could not live . . . A mother, driven mad, screamed at a British sentry to give her milk for her child, and thrust the tiny mite into his arms . . . He opened the bundle and found the baby had been dead for days.
This day at Belsen was the most horrible of my life.