|The Gross Clinic|
|Thomas Eakins, 1875|
|oil on canvas|
|, 8' × 6'6" in|
|Thomas Jefferson University|
The Gross Clinic is an 1875 painting by Thomas Eakins. Thomas Cowperthwait Eakins ( July 25, 1844 – June 25, 1916) was a realist painter, Photographer, sculptor It is oil on canvas and measures 8' by 6'6". Oil painting is the process of painting with Pigments that are bound with a medium of Drying oil — especially in early modern Europe Linseed oil Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty plain-woven fabric used for making Sails Tents Marquees Backpacks and other functions Dr. Samuel D. Gross, a seventy-year-old professor dressed in a black frock coat, lectures a group of Jefferson Medical College students. Samuel D Gross ( 8 July 1805 &ndash 6 May 1884) was an American academic trauma surgeon Thomas Jefferson University is a private health sciences university located in Center City, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States. Included among the group is a self-portrait of Eakins, who is seated to the right of the tunnel railing, sketching or writing. Seen over Dr. Gross' right shoulder is the clinic clerk, Dr. Franklin West, taking notes on the operation. Eakins's signature is painted into the painting, on the front of the surgical table.
Admired for its uncompromising realism, "The Gross Clinic" has an important place documenting the history of medicine—both because it honors the emergence of surgery as a healing profession (previously, surgery was associated primarily with amputation), and because it shows us what the surgical theater looked like in the nineteenth century. Realism is a visual art style that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē, via chirurgiae meaning "hand work" is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental The painting is based on a surgery witnessed by Eakins, in which Gross treated a young man for osteomyelitis of the femur. Osteomyelitis is an Infection of Bone or Bone marrow, usually caused by Pyogenic Bacteria or Mycobacteria. The femur is the thigh bone In Humans, it is the longest, most voluminous and strongest Bone. Gross is pictured here performing a conservative operation as opposed to an amputation (which is how the patient would normally have been treated in previous decades). Here, surgeons crowd around the anesthetized patient in their frock coats. This is just prior to the adoption of a hygienic surgical environment (see asepsis). Asepsis is the practice to reduce or eliminate contaminants (such as Bacteria, Viruses Fungi, and Parasites) from entering the operative field "The Gross Clinic" is thus often contrasted with Eakins's later painting "The Agnew Clinic", which depicts a cleaner, brighter, surgical theater. In comparing the two, we see the advancement in our understanding of the prevention of infection.
Interestingly, the sex of the patient is not established by anything concrete in the painting itself. This fact makes "The Gross Clinic" somewhat unique, as it presents the spectator with a body that is naked and exposed, and yet is not entirely legible as male or female. Another intriguing element of this painting is the lone woman in the painting, seen in the middle ground of the painting, cringing in distress. She can be read as a female relative of the patient, acting as a chaperone. Her dramatic figure functions as a strong contrast to the calm, professional demeanor of the men who surround the patient. This bloody and very blunt depiction of surgery was shocking at the time it was first exhibited, and remains so for many viewers of the painting today.
The painting was submitted for the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, but was rejected. The Centennial International Exhibition of 1876 the first official World's Fair in the United States, was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə When it was eventually displayed, a critic for the New York Tribune wrote that it was "one of the most powerful, horrible, yet fascinating pictures that has been painted anywhere in this century. The New York Tribune was an American newspaper first established by Horace Greeley in 1841 which was long considered one of the leading Newspapers in the . . but the more one praises it, the more one must condemn its admission to a gallery where men and women of weak nerves must be compelled to look at it, for not to look at it is impossible. " Controversy about the painting has centered on its violence, and on the melodramatic presence of the woman. Contemporary scholars have suggested that the painting may be read in terms of castration anxiety and fantasies of mastery over the body (e. g. Michael Fried), and that it documents Eakins's ambivalence about representing sex difference (e. Michael Fried (born 1939 New York City) is an influential Modernist art critic and art historian g. Jennifer Doyle). The painting has also been understood to be drawing an analogy between painting and surgery and as identifying the work of the artist with the emergence of surgery as a respected profession.
In 2002 an art critic for The New York Times called it "hands down, the finest 19th-century American painting. " In 2006, in response to the impending sale of this painting, The New York Times published a "close reading" which sketches some of the different critical perspectives on this work of art. 
After its purchase for $200 at the time of the Centennial Exhibition, the painting was housed in the College Building of Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia until it was moved in the mid-1980s to Jefferson Alumni Hall. Thomas Jefferson University is a private health sciences university located in Center City, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States. Thomas Jefferson University is a private health sciences university located in Center City, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States. On November 11, 2006, the Thomas Jefferson University Board voted to sell the painting for $68 million to the National Gallery of Art in Washington and the new Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, now under construction in Bentonville, Arkansas. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. This article is about the National Gallery of the United States for other National Galleries see National Gallery. The Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art is a future museum in Bentonville Arkansas, U Bentonville is a city in Benton County, Arkansas, United States. The sale would represent a record price for an artwork made in the United States prior to World War II. 
The proposed sale was seen as a secretive act that many from Philadelphia believed betrayed the city's cultural legacy.  In late November 2006, efforts began to keep the painting in Philadelphia, including a fund with a December 26 deadline to raise money to purchase it and a plan to invoke a clause regarding "historic objects" in the city's historic preservation code. In a matter of weeks the fund raised $30 million, and on December 21, 2006, Wachovia Bank agreed to loan the difference until the rest of the money has been raised, keeping the painting in town at the Philadelphia Museum of Art and the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Wachovia Corporation ( based in Charlotte North Carolina, is a diversified Financial services holding company provided via its operating subsidiaries a broad The Philadelphia Museum of Art, located at the west end of the Benjamin Franklin Parkway in Philadelphia 's Fairmount Park, was established in 1876 The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts was founded in 1805 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by painter and scientist Charles Willson Peale, sculptor