|Part of a series on|
The Communist Manifesto
|Sociology and anthropology|
Karl Marx · Friedrich Engels
|All categorised articles|
Manifesto of the Communist Party (German: Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei), often referred to as The Communist Manifesto, was first published on February 21, 1848, and is one of the world's most influential political manuscripts. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon was written by Karl Marx between December 1851 and March 1852 and originally published in 1852 in Die Revolution On the Jewish Question is a work by Karl Marx, written in 1843, and first published in Paris in 1844 under the German title The Grundrisse der Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie ( German, Outlines of the Critique of Political Economy) is a lengthy Manuscript by the The German Ideology (1845 was a book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels around April or early May 1845. Economic & Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 (also referred to as The Paris Manuscripts) are a series of notes written between April and August 1844 The " Theses on Feuerbach " are eleven short philosophical notes written by Karl Marx in 1845. Marx's theory of alienation ( Entfremdung in German) as expressed in the writings of young Karl Marx, refers to the separation of things that naturally Class consciousness, literally is consciousness of one's Social class. In Marxist theory Commodity Fetishism is a state of social relations said to arise in capitalist market based societies in which social relationships Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Cultural hegemony is a Concept coined by Marxist Philosopher Antonio Gramsci. The rate of exploitation is a concept in Marxian Political economy. Marx's theory of human nature occupies an important place in his critique of Capitalism, his conception of Communism, and his ' materialist conception of history An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics The proletariat (from Latin la ''proles'' "offspring" is a term used to identify a lower Social class; a member of such a class is proletarian Reification ( German: Verdinglichung, literally "thing-ification" (from Latin "Res" meaning "thing" or Versachlichung, literally Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Relations of production (German Produktionsverhältnisse) is a concept frequently used by Karl Marx in his theory of Historical materialism and in Note Marxian economics is not restricted to Marxist economics as it includes the economic thought of those inspired by Marx's works who do not identify with Labour power (in German Arbeitskraft, or labour force is a crucial concept used by Karl Marx in his critique of capitalist Political economy The law of value is a concept in Karl Marx 's critique of Political economy. Means Of Production is a compilation of Aim 's early 12" and EP releases recorded between 1995 and 1998 In the writings of Karl Marx and the Marxist theory of Historical materialism, a mode of production (in German Produktionsweise, meaning 'the Productive forces, "productive powers" or "forces of production" German ''Produktivkräfte'' is a central concept in Marxism and Historical materialism Surplus labour is a concept used by Karl Marx in his critique of Political economy. Surplus value is a concept created by Karl Marx in his critique of Political economy, where its ultimate source is unpaid Surplus labor In 20th century discussions of Karl Marx 's Economics the transformation problem is the problem of finding a general rule to transform the "values" of commodities Wage labour is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer in which the worker sells their labour under a Contract ( Employment Anarchism and Marxism are related political philosophies which emerged in the nineteenth century In Marxian economic discourse the capitalist mode of production refers to the socio-economic base of capitalist society which began to grow rapidly in Western Europe from the Class struggle is the active expression of Class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective The " dictatorship of the proletariat " or workers' state is a term employed by Marxists that refers to what they see as a temporary state between the Primitive Accumulation of capital is a concept introduced by Karl Marx in part 8 of the first volume of Das Kapital (in German ursprüngliche Akkumulation A proletarian revolution is a social and/or political Revolution in which the Working class attempts to overthrow the Bourgeoisie. International Socialism redirects here For the journal of the same name see International Socialism (journal Proletarian internationalism is a This is about the concept of world revolution in Marxist theory See also Marxian economics, Marxism Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are terms which cover work in Philosophy Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society economics and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx ( 1818 - 1883 Dialectical materialism, according to many followers of Karl Marx 's thinking is the philosophical basis of Marxism. Analytical Marxism refers to a style of thinking about Marxism that was prominent amongst English-speaking philosophers and social scientists during the 1980s Autonomism refers to a set of Left-wing political and social movements and theories close to the socialist movement. Marxist feminism is a sub-type of Feminist theory which focuses on the dismantling of Capitalism as a way to liberate women Marxist humanism is a branch of Marxism that primarily focuses on Marx's earlier writings, especially the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts Marxist geography is a Critical geography which utilises the theories and philosophy of Marxism to examine the spatial relations of Human geography Structural Marxism was an approach to Marxist philosophy based on Structuralism, primarily associated with the work of the French philosopher Louis Althusser Western Marxism is a term used to describe a wide variety of Marxist theoreticians based in Western and Central Europe (and more recently North Libertarian Marxism is a school of Marxism that describes itself as taking a less Authoritarian view of Marxist theory than conventional currents such as Stalinism Young Marx is one half of the concept in Marxology that Karl Marx ’s intellectual development can be broken into two broad categories the other being ‘ Mature Friedrich Engels (28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895 was a German social scientist and philosopher, who Karl Kautsky ( October 16 1854 - October 17 1938) was a leading theoretician of Social democracy. Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (Георгий Валентинович Плеханов ( December 11, 1856 &ndash May 30, 1918; Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg 5 March 1870 or 1871 15 January 1919 was a Polish-born Jewish German Marxist theorist, socialist Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij György Lukács (pronounced in IPA dyɶrdyə ˈlukɑtʃ) ( April 13, 1885 – June 4, 1971) was a Hungarian Guy Ernest Debord ( December 28, 1931 - November 30, 1994) was a Marxist theorist French writer Filmmaker, hypergraphist Antonio Gramsci ('ɡramʃi ( January 23, 1891 &ndash April 27, 1937) was an Italian Philosopher, Writer, Karl Korsch ( August 15, 1886 - October 21, 1961) was a German Marxist theorist Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14 Following the Cuban revolution,Guevara reviewed The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist Critical theory, Social research, and Philosophy. Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 &ndash 15 April 1980 commonly known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (ʒɑ̃ pol saʁtʁə was a French Louis Pierre Althusser (Pronunciation altuˡseʁ ( October 16, 1918 – October 22, 1990) was a Marxist philosopher. Various aspects of Marxist theory have been criticized These criticisms concern both the theory itself and its later interpretations and implementations The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Events 362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. 1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Commissioned by the Communist League and written by communist theorists Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, it laid out the League's purposes and program. The Communist League was the first Marxist international organisation Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Friedrich Engels (28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895 was a German social scientist and philosopher, who The Manifesto suggested a course of action for a proletarian (working class) revolution to overthrow the bourgeois social order and to eventually bring about a classless and stateless society, and the abolition of private property. The proletariat (from Latin la ''proles'' "offspring" is a term used to identify a lower Social class; a member of such a class is proletarian Working class is a term used in academic Sociology and in ordinary conversation to describe depending on context and speaker those employed in specific fields or types Social order is a concept used in sociology history and other social sciences This article is translated from and may fit related articles there better.
Although the names of both Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx appear on the title page alongside the "persistent assumption of joint-authorship", Engels, in the preface introduction to the 1883 German edition of the Manifesto, said that the Manifesto was "essentially Marx's work" and that "the basic thought. . . belongs solely and exclusively to Marx. " McLellan, along with many other scholars, believes that "the actual drafting of The Communist Manifesto was done exclusively by Marx. "
It is claimed in the text itself to have been sketched by a group of Communists from various countries that gathered together in London. 
The Communist Manifesto's initial publication, in 1848 (in London), was in German. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The first English translation was produced by Helen MacFarlane in 1850. The Manifesto went through a number of editions from 1872 to 1890; notable new prefaces were written by Marx and Engels for the 1872 German edition, the 1882 Russian edition, the 1883 German edition, and the 1888 English edition. This edition, translated by Samuel Moore with the assistance of Engels, has been the most commonly used English text since.
However, some recent English editions, such as Phil Gasper's annotated "road map" (Haymarket Books, 2006), have used a slightly modified text in response to criticisms of the Moore translation made by Hal Draper in his 1994 history of the Manifesto, The Adventures of the "Communist Manifesto" (Center for Socialist History, 1994). This article is about the US publisher which should not be confused with Haymarket Cafe Books a worker-owned co-operative bookstore and anarchist infoshop located in Calgary Alberta Hal Draper (1914-1990 was a Third Camp American Socialist activist Marxist and Author, perhaps best known for his role in the Berkeley California
The Manifesto is divided into an introduction, three substantive sections, and a conclusion.
The introduction begins with the notable comparison of communism to a "spectre," claiming that across Europe communism is feared, but not understood, and thus communists ought to make their views known with a manifesto:
The first section, "Bourgeois and Proletarians", puts forward Marx's historical materialism, claiming that
The section goes on to argue that the class struggle under capitalism is between those who own the means of production, the ruling class or bourgeoisie, and those who labor for a wage, the working class or proletariat. The term ruling class refers to the Social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that society's political policy The proletariat (from Latin la ''proles'' "offspring" is a term used to identify a lower Social class; a member of such a class is proletarian Though the bourgeoisie has played a progressive role in destroying feudalism, according to Marx and Engels, it has also brought about the conditions for its own impending downfall by creating a contradiction within capitalism between the forces of production and the relations of production:
The second section, "Proletarians and Communists," starts by outlining the relationship of conscious communists to the rest of the working class:
It goes on to defend communism from various objections, such as the claim that communists advocate "free love," and the claim that people will not perform labor in a communist society because they have no incentive to work. The term free love has been used since at least the nineteenth century to describe a Social movement that rejects Marriage, which is seen as a form
The section ends by outlining a set of short-term demands. These included, among others, the abolition of both land ownership and of the right to inheritance, a progressive income tax, universal education, centralization of the means of communication and transport under state management, and the expansion of the means of production owned by the state. Landed property or landed estates is a Real estate term that usually refers to a property that generates income for the owner without the owner having to "Heir" and "Heiress" redirect here For the men and women fragrances endorsed by Paris Hilton see Heiress (fragrance. Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the Government, whether national regional or local provided by an institution Communication is the process of conveying information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is understood the same way Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another Means Of Production is a compilation of Aim 's early 12" and EP releases recorded between 1995 and 1998 The implementation of these policies, would, the authors believed, be a precursor to the stateless and classless society. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. This article is translated from and may fit related articles there better.
One particularly controversial passage deals with this transitional period:
It is this concept of the transition from socialism to communism which many critics of the Manifesto, particularly during and after the Soviet era, have highlighted. Anarchists, liberals, and conservatives have all asked how an organization such as the revolutionary state could ever (as Engels put it elsewhere) "wither away. "
In a related dispute, later Marxists make a separation between "socialism," a society ruled by workers, and "communism," a classless society. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Engels wrote little and Marx wrote less on the specifics of the transition to communism, so the authenticity of this distinction remains a matter of dispute.
According to the Communist Manifesto, all these were prior conditions for a transition from capitalism to communism (but Marx and Engels later expressed a desire to modernize this passage).
The third section, "Socialist and Communist Literature," distinguishes communism from other socialist doctrines prevalent at the time the Manifesto was written. While the harshness of Marx's and Engels' attacks varies, and their debt to "utopian socialists" such as Fourier, Proudhon, and Owen is acknowledged, all rival views are eventually dismissed for advocating reformism and failing to recognize the key role of the working class. Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought François Marie Charles Fourier ( April 7, 1772 - October 10, 1837) was a French Utopian Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (ˈpruːd ɒn in British English, dɔ̃ in French) ( 15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was Robert Owen (14 May 1771 – 17 Nov 1858 born in Newtown, Montgomeryshire, Wales was a social reformer and one of the founders of Socialism Socialist Reformism is the belief that gradual democratic changes in a Society can ultimately change a society's fundamental economic relations and political structures Partly because of Marx's critique, most of the specific ideologies described in this section became politically negligible by the end of the nineteenth century.
The concluding section, "Position of the Communists in Relation to the Various Existing Opposition Parties," briefly discusses the communist position on struggles in specific countries in the mid-nineteenth century. It then ends with a call to action: