Ratcha Anachak Thai
Kingdom of Thailand
|Anthem: Phleng Chat|
Royal anthem: Phleng Sansoen Phra Barami
(and largest city)
|Government||Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy|
|-||Prime Minister||Samak Sundaravej|
|-||Rattanakosin Kingdom||6 April 1782|
|-||Constitutional Monarchy||24 June 1932|
|-||Total||513,115 km² (49th)|
198,115 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||0. The flag of Thailand shows five horizontal stripes in the colours Red, White, Blue, white and red with the middle blue stripe being twice as wide The National Emblem (National Symbol of Thailand features the Garuda, a figure from both Buddhist and Hindu mythology A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's The National anthem of Thailand was adopted on 10 December 1939. A royal anthem is a patriotic song much like a National anthem but specifically praising or praying for a Monarch or royal dynasty Phleng Sansoen Phra Barami ( Thai เพลงสรรเสริญพระบารมี is the royal anthem of Thailand. Thailand 's population is relatively homogeneous however this is changing due to immigration Bangkok, known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon (krūŋtʰêːp máhǎːnákʰɔn) or Krung Thep ( for short is the Capital, largest An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Thai (th ภาษาไทย, transcription: phasa thai, transliteration:; pʰāːsǎːtʰāj is the national and A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place The Thai (or Tai) are the main ethnic group of Thailand and are part of the larger Tai ethnolinguistic peoples found in Thailand and adjacent countries For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is Kingdom of Sukhothai (1238-1368 Phraruang Dynasty (1238-1368 Pho Khun Si Intharathit พ่อขุนศรีอินทราทิตย์ Bhumibol Adulyadej (ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช pʰuːmipʰon adunjadeːt Royal Institute: Phumiphon Adunyadet;) (born Monday 5 December 1927 The first Prime Minister of Thailand was Phraya Manopakorn Nititada, who took office after the 1932 Siamese coup d'état ended the absolute monarchy Samak Sundaravej (สมัคร สุนทรเวช RTGS Samak Sunthorawet 李沙马 (born 13 June 1935) was the Prime Minister of The history of Thailand begins with the migration of the Thais from their ancestral home in southern China into mainland southeast Asia around the 10th century The Sukhothai kingdom was an early kingdom in the area around the city Sukhothai, in north central Thailand. The kingdom of Ayutthaya (อาณาจักรอยุธยา was a Thai kingdom that existed from 1351 to 1767 From 1768 to 1932 the area of modern Thailand was dominated by Siam, an absolute monarchy with capitals briefly at Thonburi and later at From 1768 to 1932 the area of modern Thailand was dominated by Siam, an absolute monarchy with capitals briefly at Thonburi and later at Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus Year 1782 ( MDCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The history of Thailand from 1932 to 1973 was dominated by Military dictatorships which were in power for much of the period Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place Year 1932 ( MCMXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here Surface areas between 100000 km² and 1000000 km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 4|
|-||December 2007 estimate||63,038,247 (20th)|
|-||Density||122/km² (85th Independence)|
|GDP (PPP)||2007 estimate|
|-||Total||$519. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 9 billion (21st)|
|-||Per capita||$8,000 (69th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2006 estimate|
|-||Total||$206. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita 338 billion (34th)|
|-||Per capita||$3,400 (92nd)|
|Gini (2002)||42 (medium)|
|HDI (2005)||▼ 0. PLEASE NO RANDOM FIGURES THERE ARE NO FIGURES BASED ON NATIONAL STATISTICS IN THIS ARTICLE Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product Per capita at Nominal values, the The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 781 (medium) (78th)|
|Currency||Baht (฿) (|
|1||^ Thai name: Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or Krung Thep The full name is "Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahinthara Yuthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom Udomratchaniwet Mahasathan Amon Piman Awatan Sathit Sakkathattiya Witsanukam Prasit"|
|2||^ According to the Department of Provincial Administration's official register, not taking into account unregistered citizens and immigrants. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E|
The Kingdom of Thailand (IPA: /ˈtaɪlænd/, Thai: ราชอาณาจักรไทย, IPA: [râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj]) is a country in Southeast Asia. Thai (th ภาษาไทย, transcription: phasa thai, transliteration:; pʰāːsǎːtʰāj is the national and To its east lie Laos and Cambodia; to its south, the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia; and to its west, the Andaman Sea and Burma. Laos (ˈlɑːoʊs or /ˈlaʊs/ officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a Landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma The Kingdom of Cambodia ( formerly known as Kampuchea (, transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in South East The Gulf of Thailand (or Gulf of Siam) is a gulf that borders but is not part of the South China Sea ( Pacific Ocean) For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The Andaman Sea (မုတ္တမ moʊʔtəma̰ is a body of water to the southeast of the Bay of Bengal, south of Myanmar, west of Thailand and east Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. Its capital and largest city is Bangkok. Bangkok, known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon (krūŋtʰêːp máhǎːnákʰɔn) or Krung Thep ( for short is the Capital, largest
The country's official name was Siam (Thai: สยาม; IPA: [saˈjaːm], RTGS: Sayam origin unknown) until 23 June 1939, when it was changed to Thailand; it was renamed Siam between 1945 and 11 May 1949, after which the name Thailand was once again adopted. Thai (th ภาษาไทย, transcription: phasa thai, transliteration:; pʰāːsǎːtʰāj is the national and The Royal Thai General System of Transcription ( RTGS) is the official system for rendering Thai language words in the Latin alphabet. Events 1180 - First Battle of Uji, starting the Genpei War in Japan 1305 - The Flemish Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 330 - Byzantium is renamed ''Nova Roma'' during a dedication ceremony but is more popularly referred to as Constantinople Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The word Thai (ไทย) is not, as commonly believed to be, derived from the word Tai (ไท) meaning "free" in the Thai language; it is, however, the name of an ethnic group from the central plains (the Thai people). Thai (th ภาษาไทย, transcription: phasa thai, transliteration:; pʰāːsǎːtʰāj is the national and The Thai (or Tai) are the main ethnic group of Thailand and are part of the larger Tai ethnolinguistic peoples found in Thailand and adjacent countries A famous Thai scholar argued that Tai (ไท) simply means "people" or "human being" since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Tai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" (คน) for people . With that in mind the locals seemed to have also accepted the alternative meaning and will verbally state that it means "Land of the free".
Ratcha Anachak Thai means "Kingdom of Thailand" or "Kingdom of Thai". Etymologically, its components are: -Ratcha- (from Sanskrit raja, meaning "king, royal, realm", from Sanskrit) ; -ana- (from Pāli āṇā, "authority, command, power", itself from Sanskrit ājñā, same meaning) -chak (from Sanskrit chakra, meaning "wheel", a symbol of power and rule). For other uses see Raja (disambiguation and Rajah (disambiguation. Pali ( ISO 15919 / ALA-LC: Pāḷi is a Middle Indo-Aryan language or Prakrit of India. Chakra ( Pali: chakka Tibetan: khorlo Malay: cakera is a Sanskrit term meaning Circle or Wheel
The region known today as Thailand has been inhabited by humans since the paleolithic period (about 10,000 years ago). The history of Thailand begins with the migration of the Thais from their ancestral home in southern China into mainland southeast Asia around the 10th century The peopling of Thailand refers to the process by which the Ethnic groups that comprise the Population of present-day Thailand came to inhabit the region The term Paleolithic (or Palaeolithic) (from Greek παλαιός palaios, " Old " and λίθος Lithos, "stone" Prior to the fall of the Khmer Empire in the 13th century, various states thrived there, such as the various Tai, Mon, Khmer and Malay kingdoms, as seen through the numerous archaeological sites and artifacts that are scattered throughout the Siamese landscape. The Khmer Empire was the largest empire of South East Asia based in what is now Cambodia. "Thai peoples" redirects here For the subgroup of the Tai see Thai people The Tai or Tai-Kadai ethnicity refers collectively to the Ethnic The Mon ( Mon language: မန် or မည် မွန်လူမျိုး mùn lùmjóʊ Thai: มอญ are an Ethnic group from The Khmer people are the predominant Ethnic group in Cambodia, accounting for approximately 90% of the 14 Malays (Melayu are an Ethnic group of Austronesian peoples predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula, the east coast of Sumatra, the coast Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos Prior to the 12th century however, the first Thai or Siamese state is traditionally considered to be the Buddhist kingdom of Sukhothai, which was founded in 1238. The Thai (or Tai) are the main ethnic group of Thailand and are part of the larger Tai ethnolinguistic peoples found in Thailand and adjacent countries Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices The Sukhothai kingdom was an early kingdom in the area around the city Sukhothai, in north central Thailand.
Following the decline and fall of the Khmer empire in the 13th - 14th century, various Buddhist Tai Kingdoms of Sukhothai, Lanna and Lan chang were on the ascendancy. However, a century later, Sukhothai's power was overshadowed by the new kingdom of Ayutthaya, established in the mid-14th century. The kingdom of Ayutthaya (อาณาจักรอยุธยา was a Thai kingdom that existed from 1351 to 1767
After Ayutthaya fell in 1767 to the Burmese, Thonburi was the capital of Thailand for a brief period under King Taksin the Great. Thon Buri (ธนบุรี was capital of Thailand for a short time during the reign of King Taksin, after the previous capital Ayutthaya was sacked Taksin the Great (สมเด็จพระเจ้าตากสินมหาราช;; Teochew: Dênchao was born in April 17, 1734 The current (Rattanakosin) era of Thai history began in 1782 following the establishment of Bangkok as capital of the Chakri dynasty under King Rama I the Great. Bangkok, known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon (krūŋtʰêːp máhǎːnákʰɔn) or Krung Thep ( for short is the Capital, largest The Chakri dynasty has ruled Thailand since the founding of the Ratthanakosin era in 1782 following the end of Taksin of Thonburi 's reign when the Posthumously Poramin Mahachakri Boromanat, Phra Buddha Yotfa Chulaloke (1736 - 1809 conventionally as Rama I.
Siam retains an immemorial tradition of trade with its neighboring states and the cultures of the Indian ocean and the South China sea. The South China Sea is a Marginal sea south of China. It is a part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from Singapore to the European trade and influence arrived to Thailand in the 16th century, beginning with the Portuguese. The Portuguese people (os Portugueses literally the Portuguese) are the Ethnic group or Nation native to the country of Portugal, in the west Despite European pressure, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian nation never to have been colonised. Two main reasons for this were that Thailand had a long succession of very able rulers in the 1800s and that it was able to exploit the rivalry and tension between the French and the British. First French interventions See also France-Vietnam relations France-Vietnam relations started as early as the 17th century with the mission of the Jesuit The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. As a result, the country remained as a buffer state between parts of Southeast Asia that were colonized by the two colonial powers. A buffer state is a Country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which by its sheer existence is thought to prevent conflict between them See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism Despite this, Western influence led to many reforms in the 19th century and major concessions, most notably being the loss of large territory on the east side of the Mekong to the French and the step by step absorption by Britain of the Shan (Thai Yai) States (now in Burma) and the Malay Peninsula. The Mekong is one of the world’s major Rivers It is the 11th-longest river in the world and 7th longest in Asia First French interventions See also France-Vietnam relations France-Vietnam relations started as early as the 17th century with the mission of the Jesuit The Shan (ရှမ်းလူမျိုး ʃán lùmjóʊ) are a Tai Ethnic group of Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. The Malay Peninsula or Thai-Malay Peninsula (Semenanjung Tanah Melayu (คาบสมุทรมลายู is a major Peninsula located in Southeast The loss initially included Penang and Tumasik and eventually culminated in the loss of three predominantly ethnic-Malay southern provinces, which later became Malaysia's three northern states, under the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 or Bangkok Treaty of 1909 was a Treaty between the United Kingdom and Thailand signed on March 10[[
In 1932, a bloodless revolution resulted in a new constitutional monarchy. A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is During World War II, following an invasion and brief resistance, Thailand became an ally of Japan while at the same time maintaining an active anti-Japanese resistance movement known as the Seri Thai. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Free Thai Movement (ขบวนการเสรีไทย Khabuankarn Seri Thai was an underground resistance movement against Japan during World War II After the war, Thailand emerged as an ally of the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the As with many of the developing nations during the Cold War, Thailand then went through decades of political transgression characterised by coups d'état as one military regime replaced another, but eventually progressed towards a stable prosperity and democracy in the 1980s. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system
In 1997, Thailand was hit with the Asian financial crisis and the Thai baht for a short time peaked at 56 baht to the US dollar compared to about 25 baht to the dollar before 1997. The Asian Financial Crisis was a period of Financial crisis that gripped much of Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown ( Since then, the baht has regained most of its strength and as of 23 May 2007, is valued at 32 baht to the US dollar. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been
The official calendar in Thailand is based on Eastern version of the Buddhist Era, which is 543 years ahead of the Gregorian (western) calendar. The Thai solar calendar, Suriyakati (สุริยคติ has been the official and prevalent Calendar in Thailand since it was adopted by King The Buddhist calendar is used on mainland Southeast Asia in the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar (formerly Burma The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today For example, the year AD 2008 is called 2551 BE in Thailand.
Since the political reform of the absolute monarchy in 1932, Thailand has had 17 constitutions and charters. The politics of Thailand currently take place in a framework of a Constitutional monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister is the Head of government The Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand is the supreme Law of the Kingdom of Thailand The Siamese coup d'état on June 24 1932 marked the bloodless transition from Absolute monarchy to Constitutional monarchy in Thailand Absolute monarchy is a monarchical Form of government where the king and queen have absolute power over everything The Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand is the supreme Law of the Kingdom of Thailand  Throughout this time, the form of government has ranged from military dictatorship to electoral democracy, but all governments have acknowledged a hereditary monarch as the head of state. Kingdom of Sukhothai (1238-1368 Phraruang Dynasty (1238-1368 Pho Khun Si Intharathit พ่อขุนศรีอินทราทิตย์ 
The 1997 Constitution was the first constitution to be drafted by popularly-elected Constitutional Drafting Assembly, and was popularly called the "People's Constitution". For legal and historical context see the Constitutions of Thailand article The 1997 Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (promulgated 11 October 
The 1997 Constitution created a bicameral legislature consisting of a 500-seat House of Representatives (สภาผู้แทนราษฎร, sapha phutan ratsadon) and a 200-seat Senate (วุฒิสภา, wuthisapha). In Government, bicameralism (bi + Latin la ''camera'' chamber is the practice of having two legislative or Parliamentary chambers Thus a bicameral A senate is a Deliberative body, often the Upper house or chamber of a Legislature or Parliament. For the first time in Thai history, both houses were directly elected. An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office Many human rights are explicitly acknowledged, and measures were established to increase the stability of elected governments. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled The House was elected by the first-past-the-post system, where only one candidate with a simple majority could be elected in one constituency. The Senate was elected based on the province system, where one province can return more than one Senator depending on its population size. Members of the House of Representatives served four-year terms, while Senators served six-year terms.
The court system (ศาล, saan) included a constitutional court with jurisdiction over the constitutionality of parliamentary acts, royal decrees, and political matters. The Constitutional Court of Thailand (ศาลรัฐธรรมนูญ is an independent Thai Court established under the 1997 Constitution with
The January 2001 general election, the first election under the 1997 Constitution, was called the most open, corruption-free election in Thai history. General elections were held in Thailand on January 6, 2001. At stake were500 seats in the House of Representatives ( Sapha Poothaen Rassadorn  The subsequent government was the first in Thai history to complete a 4-year term. The 2005 election had the highest voter turnout in Thai history and was noted for a marked reduction in vote-buying compared to previous elections. General elections were held in Thailand on 6 February, 2005. With a turnout of 60 
In early 2006, significant pressure from corruption allegations led Thaksin Shinawatra to call for a snap election. (ทักษิณ ชินวัตร IPA tɕʰinnawát Chinese: 丘[[wikt 達|達]] 新, Qiū Dáxīn nicknamed by the media as แม้ว The opposition boycotted the elections and Thaksin was re-elected. Pressure continued to build, leading to a military coup on 19 September 2006. Events 335 - Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar by his uncle Constantine I. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
Without meeting much resistance, a military junta overthrew the elected government of Thaksin Shinawatra on 2006 September 19 . The 2006 Thailand coup d'état took place on Tuesday 19 September, 2006, when the Royal Thai Army staged a Coup d'état against the elected government A military junta is a government ruled by a committee of military leaders The 2006 Thailand coup d'état took place on Tuesday 19 September, 2006, when the Royal Thai Army staged a Coup d'état against the elected government (ทักษิณ ชินวัตร IPA tɕʰinnawát Chinese: 丘[[wikt 達|達]] 新, Qiū Dáxīn nicknamed by the media as แม้ว Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 335 - Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar by his uncle Constantine I. The junta abrogated the constitution, dissolved Parliament and the Constitutional Court, detained and later removed several members of the government, declared martial law, and appointed one of the King's Privy Counselors, General Surayud Chulanont, as the Prime Minister. General (ret Surayud Chulanont (สุรยุทธ์ จุลานนท์ RTGS: Surayut Chulanon Nickname Big Add) was the Prime Minister of Thailand The junta later wrote a highly abbreviated interim constitution and appointed a panel to draft a permanent constitution. For a comparison with previous Thai constitutions see the Constitution of Thailand article The 2006 Interim Charter of Thailand A permanent constitution for the Kingdom of Thailand was drafted by a committee established by the military junta that abrogated the previous 1997 Constitution. The junta also appointed a 250-member legislature, called by some critics a "chamber of generals" and others claimed that it lacks representatives from the poor majority.  In this interim constitution draft, the head of the junta was allowed to remove the Prime Minister at any time. The legislature was not allowed to hold a vote of confidence against the Cabinet and the public was not allowed to file comments on bills.  This interim constitution was later surpassed by the permanent constitution on 24 August 2007. A permanent constitution for the Kingdom of Thailand was drafted by a committee established by the military junta that abrogated the previous 1997 Constitution. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar 's General Gaius Scribonius Curio is defeated in the Second Battle of the Bagradas River Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
Martial law was partially revoked in January 2007.
The ban on political activities was lifted in July 2007, following the 30 May dissolution of the Thai Rak Thai party. Party dissolution charges are a series of events and scandals that eventually led to the dissolution of the Thai Rak Thai Party, Thailand's biggest political party and Thai Rak Thai (ไทยรักไทย lit Thais Love Themselves; TRT) is a banned Political party in Thailand The new constitution has been approved by a referendum on 19 August, which led to a return to democratic elections on 23 December 2007. A permanent constitution for the Kingdom of Thailand was drafted by a committee established by the military junta that abrogated the previous 1997 Constitution. The 2007 Thai general elections were held on 23 December. This was the first legislative election after the Council for National Security, a Military junta
Thailand remains an active member of the regional Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, commonly referred to as ASEAN, ˈɑːsiːɑːn AH-see-ahn in English (the Official language
Thailand enjoys a high level of literacy and education is provided by a well organized school system of kindergarten, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary schools, numerous vocational colleges, and universities. Education in Thailand is provided mainly by the Thai government through the Ministry of Education The private sector of education is well developed and significantly contributes to the overall provision of education which the government would not be able to meet through its own establishments. Education is compulsory up to and including Grade 9, and the government provides free education through to Grade 12.
Thailand has never been colonized, and therefore its educational system does not draw off of European models to a great extent. Education in a modern sense is relatively recent and, according to some sources, still needs to overcome some major cultural hurdles in order to ensure further development and improvement to its standards, which in some respects have fallen to the lowest levels in southeast Asia.
The establishment of reliable and coherent curricula for its primary and secondary schools is subject to such rapid changes that schools and their teachers are not always sure what they are supposed to be teaching, and authors and publishers of textbooks are unable to write and print new editions quickly enough to keep up with the volatile situation. The issue concerning university entrance has therefore also been in constant upheaval for a number of years. Nevertheless, education has seen its greatest progress in the years since 2001, most of the present generation of pupils and students is computer literate, and knowledge of English is on the increase at least in quantity if not in quality.
See the main article for a complete treatment of Education in Thailand. Education in Thailand is provided mainly by the Thai government through the Ministry of Education
Thailand is divided into 75 provinces (จังหวัด, changwat), which are gathered into 5 groups of provinces by location. Thailand is divided into 75 provinces (จังหวัด Changwat) and the metropolitan Municipality Bangkok (กรุงเทพมหานคร Thailand is divided into 75 Provinces (จังหวัด changwat, singular and plural which are geographically grouped into 6 regions There are also 2 special governed districts: the capital Bangkok (Krung Thep Maha Nakhon) and Pattaya, of which Bangkok is at provincial level and thus often counted as a 76th province. Districts are a type of Administrative division, in some countries managed by a Local government. Bangkok, known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon (krūŋtʰêːp máhǎːnákʰɔn) or Krung Thep ( for short is the Capital, largest Pattaya (พัทยา,) is a city in Thailand, located on the east coast of the Gulf of Thailand ( about 165 km southeast of Bangkok located
Each province is divided into districts and the districts are further divided into sub-districts (tambons). An amphoe (sometimes also amphur, อำเภอ am-pʰəː is the second level administrative subdivision of Thailand. As of 2006 there are 877 districts (อำเภอ, amphoe) and the 50 districts of Bangkok (เขต, khet). Bangkok is subdivided into 50 Districts ( khet เขต also sometimes called Amphoe as in the other provinces which are further Some parts of the provinces bordering Bangkok are also referred to as Greater Bangkok (ปริมณฑล, pari monthon). The Bangkok Metropolitan Area (กรุงเทพมหานครและปริมณฑล is the urban conglomeration of Bangkok, Thailand, which includes These provinces include Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Samut Prakan, Nakhon Pathom and Samut Sakhon. Nonthaburi (นนทบุรี is one of the central provinces ( changwat) of Thailand. Pathum Thani (ปทุมธานี is one of the central provinces ( changwat) of Thailand. Nakhon Pathom (นครปฐม is one of the central provinces ( changwat) of Thailand. Samut Sakhon (สมุทรสาคร is one of the central provinces ( changwat) of Thailand. The name of each province's capital city (เมือง, mueang) is the same as that of the province: for example, the capital of Chiang Mai province (changwat Chiang Mai) is Mueang Chiang Mai or Chiang Mai. The 75 provinces are as follows:
NOTE: In italics , that province represents the Greater Bangkok sub-region; in italics , that province represents the West sub-region. Surat Thani (often in short Surat, สุราษฎร์ธานี is the largest of the southern provinces ( changwat) of Thailand, on Udon Thani (อุดรธานี is one of the north-eastern provinces ( changwat) of Thailand. Yasothon (ยโสธร is one of the provinces ( changwat) of Thailand, located in the North-East of Thailand Southern Thailand is a distinct region of Thailand, connected with the Central region by the narrow Kra Isthmus. Chumphon (ชุมพร is one of the southern provinces ( changwat) of Thailand, at the shore of the Gulf of Thailand. Krabi (กระบี่ is one of the southern provinces ( changwat) of Thailand, at the shore of the Andaman Sea. Nakhon Si Thammarat (often in short Nakhon, นครศรีธรรมราช is one of the southern provinces ( changwat) of Thailand, Narathiwat (นราธิวาส is one of the southern provinces ( changwat) of Thailand. Pattani ( Thai ปัตตานี is one of the southern provinces ( changwat) of Thailand. Phang Nga (พังงา is one of the southern provinces ( changwat) of Thailand, on the shore to the Andaman Sea. Phatthalung (พัทลุง is one of the southern provinces ( changwat) of Thailand. Phuket (ภูเก็ต pʰuːkɛt formerly known as Tha-Laang or Talang, or Junk Ceylon in Western sources a distortion of the Malay Tanjung Ranong ( Thai ระนอง is one of the southern provinces ( changwat) of Thailand, at the shore to the Andaman Sea. Satun (สตูล is one of the southern provinces ( changwat) of Thailand. Songkhla (สงขลา is the one of the southern provinces ( changwat) of Thailand. Surat Thani (often in short Surat, สุราษฎร์ธานี is the largest of the southern provinces ( changwat) of Thailand, on Trang (also Muang Thap Thiang ตรัง is the one of the southern provinces ( changwat) of Thailand, at the western shore of the Malay Peninsula Yala (ยะลา is the southernmost province ( changwat) of Thailand.
At 514,000 km² (198,000 sq mi), Thailand is the world's 50th largest country in land mass, whilst it is the world's 28th largest country in terms of population. Thailand ' s 514000 square kilometers lie in the middle of mainland Southeast Asia. The two principal river systems of Thailand are the Chao Phraya and the Mekong This is a list of Islands of Thailand. Thailand has hundreds of islands ( Phang Nga bay has 67 the Mu Ko Chang Marine National Park has The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. It is comparable in population to countries such as Iran and Peru, and is similar in land size to France and California in the US; it is just over twice the size of the entire United Kingdom, and 1. 4 times the size of Germany.
Thailand is home to several distinct geographic regions, partly corresponding to the provincial groups. The north of the country is mountainous, with the highest point being Doi Inthanon at 2,565 metres above sea level (8,415 ft). Doi Inthanon (ดอยอินทนนท์ is the highest Mountain in Thailand. The northeast, Isan, (see special section on this region) consists of the Khorat Plateau, bordered to the east by the Mekong river. Isan ( Isan /อีสาน also written as Isaan Isarn Issan or Esarn is the northeast region of Thailand. The Khorat Plateau also Korat Plateau is a plateau in the northeastern region of Thailand, also called Isan. The Mekong is one of the world’s major Rivers It is the 11th-longest river in the world and 7th longest in Asia The centre of the country is dominated by the predominantly flat Chao Phraya river valley, which runs into the Gulf of Thailand. The Chao Phraya (แม่น้ำเจ้าพระยา is a major River in Thailand, with its low alluvial river plain marking the mainland of the country The Gulf of Thailand (or Gulf of Siam) is a gulf that borders but is not part of the South China Sea ( Pacific Ocean) The south consists of the narrow Kra Isthmus that widens into the Malay Peninsula. The Kra Isthmus is the narrow landbridge which connects the Malay Peninsula with the mainland of Asia. The Malay Peninsula or Thai-Malay Peninsula (Semenanjung Tanah Melayu (คาบสมุทรมลายู is a major Peninsula located in Southeast
The local climate is tropical and characterized by monsoons. Climate encompasses the temperatures humidity rainfall atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorogical factors in a given region over long periods of A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind which lasts for several months There is a rainy, warm, and cloudy southwest monsoon from mid-May to September, as well as a dry, cool northeast monsoon from November to mid-March. The southern isthmus is always hot and humid. Major cities beside the capital Bangkok include Nakhon Ratchasima, Khon Kaen, Udon Thani, Ubon Ratchathani, Nakhon Sawan, Chiang Mai, Phitsanulok, Surat Thani, Phuket and Hat Yai. Bangkok, known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon (krūŋtʰêːp máhǎːnákʰɔn) or Krung Thep ( for short is the Capital, largest Nakhon Ratchasima (นครราชสีมา naˡkʰon ˡraːtʃasiːˈmaː is a city ( thesaban nakhon) in the north-east ( Located at the heart of the Northeastern Thailand ( Isan) Khon Kaen is one of the major cities under the National Economic and Social Plan of the country along with Udon Thani (อุดรธานี is a city in Isan, north-east Thailand. Ubon Ratchathani is both a City and a Province in Thailand. For the province see Ubon Ratchathani province. Nakhon Sawan (นครสวรรค์ is one of the provinces ( changwat) of Thailand. Chiang Mai (in Thai; locally (Kham Muang Jiang Mai also sometimes written as "Chiengmai" is the largest and most culturally significant Phitsanulok is an important and historic city in lower northern Thailand and is the capital of Phitsanulok Province, which stretches all the Surat Thani (สุราษฎร์ธานี is a city in Amphoe Mueang Surat Thani, Surat Thani Province, southern Thailand. Phuket (ภูเก็ต pʰuːkɛt formerly known as Tha-Laang or Talang, or Junk Ceylon in Western sources a distortion of the Malay Tanjung Hat Yai (หาดใหญ่ also Haad Yai / Had Yai) is a city in southern Thailand near the boundary to Malaysia.
Thailand is a newly industrialized country. The economy of Thailand is an Emerging economy which is heavily Export -dependent with exports accounting for more than two thirds of The category of newly industrialized country ( NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by Political scientists After enjoying the world's highest growth rate from 1985 to 1996 - averaging almost 9% annually - increased pressure on Thailand's currency, the baht, in 1997, the year in which the economy contracted by 1. 9% led to a crisis that uncovered financial sector weaknesses and forced the government to float the currency. Pegged at 25 to the US dollar from 1978 to 1997, the baht reached its lowest point of 56 to the US dollar in January 1998 and the economy contracted by 10. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 8% that same year. The collapse prompted a wider Asian financial crisis. The Asian Financial Crisis was a period of Financial crisis that gripped much of Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown (
Thailand entered a recovery stage in 1998, expanding 4. 2% and 4. 4% in 2000, largely due to strong exports - which increased about 20% in 2000. Growth (2. 2%) was dampened by a softening of the global economy in 2001, but picked up in the subsequent years due to strong growth in the People's Republic of China, a relatively weak baht encouraging exports and increasing domestic spending as a result of several mega projects and incentives of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, known as Thaksinomics. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The first Prime Minister of Thailand was Phraya Manopakorn Nititada, who took office after the 1932 Siamese coup d'état ended the absolute monarchy (ทักษิณ ชินวัตร IPA tɕʰinnawát Chinese: 丘[[wikt 達|達]] 新, Qiū Dáxīn nicknamed by the media as แม้ว Thaksinomics (a Portmanteau of " Thaksin " and "economics" is a term used to refer to the economic set of policies of Thaksin Shinawatra Growth in 2002/03 and 2004 was 5-7% annually. Growth in 2007 is 4. 7% due to the higher growth rate of 5. 7% in the fourth quarter of the year.  Due both to the weakening of the US dollar and an increasingly strong Thai currency, by March 2008, the dollar was hovering around the 30 baht mark.
Thailand exports over $105 billion worth of products annually.  Major exports include rice, textiles and footwear, fishery products, rubber, jewelry, automobiles, computers and electrical appliances. Thailand is the world’s no. 1 exporter of rice, exporting 6. 5 million tons of milled rice annually. Rice is the most important crop in the country. Thailand has the highest percent of arable land, 27. 25%, of any nation in the Greater Mekong Subregion.  About 55% of the available land area is used for rice production. 
Substantial industries include electric appliances, components, computer parts and automobiles, while tourism contributes about 5% of the Thai economy's GDP.
Thailand uses the metric system but traditional units of measurement and imperial measure (feet, inches) are still much in use, particularly for agriculture and building materials. Years are numbered as B. E. (Buddhist Era) in education, the civil service, government, and on contracts and newspaper datelines; in banking, however, and increasingly in industry and commerce, standard Western year (Christian or Common Era) counting prevails. The Thai solar calendar, Suriyakati (สุริยคติ has been the official and prevalent Calendar in Thailand since it was adopted by King 
Thailand's population can be generally categorized into the Central Thai, the Northeastern Thai or Isan (see special section on this region), the Northern Thai, and the Southern Thai. Isan (Isan ภาษาอีสาน RTGS: phasa isan IPA: pʰaːsaː iːsaːn is the principal language of the Isan (northeastern region of The Central Thai have long dominated the nation politically, economically, and culturally, even though they make up only about one-third of Thailand's population and are slightly outnumbered by the Northeastern Thai. Due to the education system and the forging of a national identity, many people are now able to speak Central Thai as well as their own local dialects.
The largest group of non-Thai people are the Chinese who have historically played a disproportionately significant role in the economy. The Thai Chinese are an Overseas Chinese community who live in Thailand. Many have assimilated into mainstream Thai society, and do not live in Bangkok's Chinatown on Yaowarat Road. Bangkok 's Chinatown is located on Yaowarat Road (เยาวราช in Samphanthawong district Other dominant ethnic groups include Malays in the south, Mon, Khmer and various hill tribes. After the end of the Vietnam War, many Vietnamese refugees settled in Thailand, mainly in the northeastern region.
The Thai language is Thailand's national language, written in its own alphabet, but many ethnic and regional dialects exist as well as areas where people speak predominantly Isan or Mon-Khmer languages. Thai (th ภาษาไทย, transcription: phasa thai, transliteration:; pʰāːsǎːtʰāj is the national and The Thai Alphabet (อักษรไทย àksŏn thai) is used to write the Thai language and other minority languages in Thailand Isan (Isan ภาษาอีสาน RTGS: phasa isan IPA: pʰaːsaː iːsaːn is the principal language of the Isan (northeastern region of The Mon-Khmer languages are the autochthonous Language family of Southeast Asia. Although English is widely taught in schools, its use is not widespread throughout the country. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
According to the last census (2000) 95% of Thais are Buddhists of the Theravada tradition. According to the last census (2000 95% of Thais are Buddhists of the Theravada tradition Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation Muslims are the second largest religious group in Thailand at 4. Islam is most popular in southern Thailand, near the border with Malaysia, where the vast majority of the country's Muslims predominantly Malay 6%. Thailand's southernmost provinces - Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat and part of Songkhla Chumphon have dominant Muslim populations, consisting of both ethnic Thai and Malay. Chumphon is a town ( thesaban mueang) in southern Thailand, capital of the Chumphon Province and the Mueang Chumphon district. Most often Muslims live in separate communities from non-Muslims. The southern tip of Thailand is mostly ethnic Malays. Malays (Melayu are an Ethnic group of Austronesian peoples predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula, the east coast of Sumatra, the coast Christians, mainly Catholics, represent 0. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings 75% of the population. A tiny but influential community of Sikhs in Thailand and some Hindus also live in the country's cities, and are heavily engaged in retail commerce. Thai Sikhs are Sikhs of the Guru who have upheld the Nishaan Sahib the Sikh flag in Thailand. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical There is also a small Jewish community in Thailand, dating back to the 17th century. Jewish community life in Thailand dates back to the 17th century first with the arrival of a few Baghdadi Jewish families although the current community consists Since 2001, Muslim activists, generally described by the Thai government as terrorists or separatists, have rallied against the central government because of alleged corruption and ethnic bias on the part of officials.
The culture of Thailand incorporates a great deal of influence from India, China, Cambodia, and the rest of Southeast Asia. Thailand's main theology Theravada Buddhism is central to modern Thai identity and belief. History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation In practice, Thai Buddhism has evolved over time to include many regional beliefs originating from animism as well as ancestor worship. Buddhism in Thailand is largely of the Theravada school Nearly 95% of Thailand 's population is Buddhist of the Theravada school though Buddhism In areas in the southernmost parts of Thailand, Islam is prevalent. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Several different ethnic groups, many of which are marginalized, populate Thailand. Some of these groups overlap into Burma, Laos, Cambodia, and Malaysia and have maintained a distinctly traditional way of life despite strong Thai cultural influence. Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. Laos (ˈlɑːoʊs or /ˈlaʊs/ officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a Landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma The Kingdom of Cambodia ( formerly known as Kampuchea (, transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in South East For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Overseas Chinese also form a significant part of Thai society, particularly in and around Bangkok. Their successful integration into Thai society has allowed for this group to hold positions of economic and political power, the most noteworthy of these being the Thai Prime Minister, Thaksin Shinawatra, who held power from 2001 until 19 September 2006 when he was ousted by a military coup d'état. (ทักษิณ ชินวัตร IPA tɕʰinnawát Chinese: 丘[[wikt 達|達]] 新, Qiū Dáxīn nicknamed by the media as แม้ว
Like most Asian cultures, respect towards ancestors is an essential part of Thai spiritual practice. Thais have a strong sense of hospitality and generosity, but also a strong sense of social hierarchy. Seniority is an important concept in Thai culture. Elders have by tradition ruled in family decisions or ceremonies.
The traditional Thai greeting, the wai, is generally offered first by the youngest of the two people meeting, with their hands pressed together, fingertips pointing upwards as the head is bowed to touch their face to the hands, usually coinciding with the spoken word "Sawat-dii khrap" for male speakers, and "Sawat-dii ka" for females. The Thai greeting referred to as the wai (ไหว้ or in Lao as kub consists of a slight bow with the palms pressed together in a prayer-like fashion The elder then is to respond afterwards in the same way. Social status and position, such as in government, will also have an influence on who performs the wai first. The Thai greeting referred to as the wai (ไหว้ or in Lao as kub consists of a slight bow with the palms pressed together in a prayer-like fashion For example, although one may be considerably older than a provincial governor, when meeting it is usually the visitor who pays respect first. When children leave to go to school, they are taught to wai to their parents to represent their respect for them. They do the same when they come back. The wai is a sign of respect and reverence for another, similar to the namaste greeting of India. Namasté, Namaskar or Namaskaram (Sanskrit नमस्ते from internal Sandhi between namaḥ and te
Muay Thai, or Thai boxing, is the national sport in Thailand and its natives martial art call "Muay". Muay Thai ( IPA: /muɑɪtʰɑɪ/ muāitʰāi มวยไทย lit Martial arts are systems of codified practices and traditions of training for Combat. In the past "Muay" was taught to Royal soldiers for combat on battlefield if unarmed. After they retired from the army, these soldiers often became Buddhist monks and stayed at the temples. Most of the Thai people's lives are closely tied to Buddhism and temples; they often send their sons to be educated with the monks. ”Muay” is also one of the subjects taught in the temples. .
Muay Thai achieved popularity all over the world in the 1990s. Although similar martial arts styles exist in other southeast Asian countries, few enjoy the recognition that Muay Thai has received with its full-contact rules allowing strikes including elbows, throws and knees. Football (soccer), however, has possibly overtaken Muay Thai's position as most widely viewed and liked sport in contemporary Thai society and it is not uncommon to see Thais cheering their favourite English Premier League teams on television and walking around in replica kits. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Another widely enjoyed pastime, and once a competitive sport, is kite flying. A kite is a flying tethered object that depends upon the tension of a tethering system
Taboos in Thailand include touching someone's head or pointing with the feet, as the head is considered the most sacred and the foot the dirtiest part of the body. Stepping over someone, or over food, is considered insulting. However, Thai culture as in many other Asian cultures, is succumbing to the influence of globalization with some of the traditional taboos slowly fading away with time.
Books and other documents are the most revered of secular objects. One should not slide a book across a table or place it on the floor.
Thai cuisine blends five fundamental tastes: sweet, spicy, sour, bitter and salty. Some common ingredients used in Thai cuisine include garlic, chillies, lime juice, lemon grass, and fish sauce. The staple food in Thailand is rice, particularly jasmine variety rice (also known as Hom Mali rice) which is included in almost every meal. Jasmine rice ( ข้าวหอมมะลิ; kao hom mali) sometimes known as Thai fragrant rice, is a long-grain variety of Rice that has Thailand is the world's largest exporter of rice, and Thais domestically consume over 100 kg of milled rice per person per year.  Over 5000 varieties of rice from Thailand are preserved in the rice gene bank of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), based in the Philippines. The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI is an autonomous Non-profit, Agricultural Research and training organization with offices in more The King of Thailand is the official patron of IRRI. 
Thai society has been influenced in recent years by its widely-available multi-language press and media. There are numerous English, Thai and Chinese newspapers in circulation; most Thai popular magazines use English headlines as a chic glamor factor. See also List of chics. Chic is an element of fashion and the counterpart of posh. Most large businesses in Bangkok operate in English as well as other languages. English is also spoken among many Thais, sometimes as a way of demonstrating their educated, high-society status, but other times because of the lingua franca nature of English. A lingua franca (from Italian, literally meaning Frankish language, see etymology under Sabir and Italian below is any Language widely Thailand is the largest newspaper market in South East Asia with an estimated circulation of at least 13 million copies daily in 2003. Even upcountry, out of Bangkok, media flourishes. For example, according to Thailand's Public Relations Department Media Directory 2003-2004, the nineteen provinces of northeast Thailand themselves hosted 116 newspapers in addition to radio, TV and cable.
|Heritage Foundation||Indices of Economic Freedom||50 out of 157|
|Reporters Without Borders||Worldwide Press Freedom Index||134 out of 169|
|Transparency International||Corruption Perceptions Index||84 out of 179|
|United Nations Development Programme||Human Development Index||78 out of 177|
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